1899

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1899 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1899
MDCCCXCIX
Ab urbe condita2652
Armenian calendar1348
ԹՎ ՌՅԽԸ
Assyrian calendar6649
Baháʼí calendar55–56
Balinese saka calendar1820–1821
Bengali calendar1306
Berber calendar2849
British Regnal year62 Vict. 1 – 63 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2443
Burmese calendar1261
Byzantine calendar7407–7408
Chinese calendar戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
4595 or 4535
    — to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
4596 or 4536
Coptic calendar1615–1616
Discordian calendar3065
Ethiopian calendar1891–1892
Hebrew calendar5659–5660
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1955–1956
 - Shaka Samvat1820–1821
 - Kali Yuga4999–5000
Holocene calendar11899
Igbo calendar899–900
Iranian calendar1277–1278
Islamic calendar1316–1317
Japanese calendarMeiji 32
(明治32年)
Javanese calendar1828–1829
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4232
Minguo calendar13 before ROC
民前13年
Nanakshahi calendar431
Thai solar calendar2441–2442
Tibetan calendar阳土狗年
(male Earth-Dog)
2025 or 1644 or 872
    — to —
阴土猪年
(female Earth-Pig)
2026 or 1645 or 873

1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1899th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 899th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1899, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Events[edit]

January 1899[edit]

  • January 1
  • January 2
  • January 3 – Hungarian Prime Minister Dezső Bánffy fights an inconclusive duel with his bitter enemy in parliament, Horánszky Nándor.
  • January 4
    • U.S. President William McKinley's declaration of December 21, 1898, proclaiming a policy of benevolent assimilation of the Philippines as a United States territory, is announced in Manila by the U.S. commander, General Elwell Otis, and angers independence activists who had fought against Spanish rule.
    • The American Society of Landscape Architects, still in existence 123 years later, is founded.
  • January 5 – A fierce battle is fought between American troops and Filipino defenders at the town of Pililla on the island of Luzon. The Filipinos retreat to the mountains at Tanay.
  • January 6Lord Curzon becomes Viceroy of India.
  • January 7The Lucky Star, and an English comic opera composed by Ivan Caryll and produced by the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company premieres at the Savoy Theatre in London for the first of 143 performances.
  • January 8 – The Association football club SK Rapid Wien is founded in Vienna.
  • January 9
    • After a successful revolt against the Ottoman Empire by the inhabitants of the island of Crete, the area, which joins Greece, gets its first constitution, with provisions for a provincial legislature with 138 Christian deputies and 50 Muslim deputies.
    • George F. Hoar, a U.S. Senator for Massachusetts, speaks out in the Senate against American expansion into the Philippines. The text of Hoar's is sent by cable to Hong Kong at a cost of $4,000, and is later cited by Ambassador John Barrett on January 13, 1900, as an incitement to Filipino attacks on U.S. troops.[1]
  • January 10 – The Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity is founded, at Illinois Wesleyan University in Bloomington, Illinois.
  • January 11 – The Steel Plate Transferrers' Association, the first labor union for workers skilled in siderography (the engraving and mass reproduction of steel plates for newspaper printing) is established After changing its name to the International Association of Siderographers, it has 80 members at its peak. It dissolves in 1991, with only eight members left. Stewart, Estelle May (1936). Handbook of American trade-unions: 1936 edition. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. United States Government Printing Office.
  • January 12 – A massive rescue by the Lynmouth Lifeboat Station, using 100 men and requiring the transport of the lifeboat Louisa over land and then out to sea, succeeds in saving all 18 men aboard.[2] The event is later made famous in the children's book The Overland Launch.
  • January 13 – The Canadian Northern Railway is established, on January 13, 1899 [3]
  • January 14
    • The White Star Line ship RMS Oceanic, at the time the largest British ocean liner up to that time, is launched from the Irish port of Belfast in front of over 50,000 people. It will begin its maiden voyage on September 6.
    • The British four-masted sailing ship Andelana capsizes during a storm in Commencement Bay off the coast of the U.S. Washington, with the loss of all 17 of her crew.[4]
  • January 15 – The name of Puerto Rico is changed by the new U.S. military government to "Porto Rico".[5] It will not be changed back until May 17, 1932.
  • January 16 – Eduardo Calceta is appointed as Chief of the Army (Jefe General) of the rebel Phillipine Republic army by Emilio Aguinaldo.[6]
  • January 17 – The United States takes possession of Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean.
  • January 18 – The General Assembly of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania begins the task of filling the U.S. Senate seat of Matthew Quay, who had recently resigned after being indicted on criminal charges. After 79 ballots and three months, no candidate has a majority, and the General Assembly refuses to approve the governor's appointment of a successor, and the seat remains vacant for more than two years. The Pennsylvania experience later leads to the 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution to provide for U.S. Senators to be directly elected by popular vote, rather than by the state legislatures.
  • January 19
    • The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is formed (it is disbanded in 1956).
    • Future film producer Samuel Goldwyn, born in Poland and later a resident of Germany and England, arrives in the United States at the age of sixteen as Szmuel Gelbfisz.
  • January 20 – The Schurman Commission is created by U.S. President William McKinley to study the issue of the American approach to he sovereignty of the Philippines, ceded to the U.S. on December 10 by Spain. The five-man group, chaired by Cornell University President Jacob Schurman, later concludes that the Philippines will need to become financially independent before a republic can be created.
  • January 21

February 1899[edit]

March 1899[edit]

March 6: Aspirin.

April 1899[edit]

May 1899[edit]

June 1899[edit]

July 1899[edit]

  • July 1 – The International Council of Nurses is founded in London, at a meeting of the Matron's Council of Great Britain and Ireland.[59]
  • July 2Pope Leo XIII venerates four missionaries who were executed in Asia as martyrs of the Roman Catholic Church. Jean-Charles Cornay will be canonized as a saint in 1988, while Paul Liu Hanzuo, Peter Lieou and Louis Gabriel Taurin Dufresse will be canonized 100 years after their veneration by Pope John Paul II on October 1, 2000.
  • July 3 – Swiss-born American boxer Frank Erne wins the world lightweight championship by defeating champion George "Kid" Lavigne in a decision after 20 rounds in Buffalo, New York.
  • July 4 – The most famous skeleton of a dinosaur ever found intact, a Diplodicus, is discovered at the Sheep Creek Quarry in the western United States near Medicine Bow, Wyoming. The expedition team, financed by Andrew Carnegie for the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh and led by William Harlow Reed, bestows the name "Dippy" on the Diplodicus carnegii, which becomes well known after Carnegie has plaster cast replicas made for donation to museums all over the world. The diplodicus dinosaurs are estimated to have roamed in North America more than 152,000,000 years ago.[60]
  • July 5
    • In Chicago, the first juvenile court in the United States, the Cook County Circuit Court Juvenile Justice Division, hears its first cases with R. S. Tuthill as its judge.[61]
    • The 1895 Trade and Navigation agreement between the Japanese and Russian empires goes into effect, with each country was given "a full freedom of ship and cargo entrance to all places, ports, and rivers on the other country's territory."[62]
  • July 6 – An assassin attempts to kill Milan Obrenović, who had been King of Serbia before abdicating in 1889, and had more recently been appointed by his son, King Alexander, as Commander-in-chief of the Serbian Army. General Obrenović is uninjured, but begins a campaign to seek out and arrest the radicals in Serbia.
  • July 7The Great Lakes Towing Company (GLT), now part of The Great Lakes Group, is incorporated by John D. Rockefeller and William G. Mather to acquire more than 150 tugboats to control shipping in four of the North American Great Lakes (Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Erie and Lake Superior) and quickly builds a monopoly on Great Lakes traffic.
  • July 8 – In the U.S., the Lorelei Fountain, sculpted by Ernst Herter from white marble, is unveiled in the Bronx in New York City across from the Bronx County Courthouse.
  • July 9 – The Latin American Plenary Council, called by Pope Leo XIII on December 25 for the Roman Catholic bishops of lands in Central America and South America to address the question of "how to guard the interests of the Latin race", closes in Rome after six weeks. The bishops agree that Catholics should not "to celebrate with heretics" (specifically, non-Catholics) in religious ceremonies or to attend heretic church services, on pain of excommunication; that every republic in Latin America should have "a truly Catholic University" for education in the "sciences, literature and the good arts"; that missionary work to the Indian populations is "the grave duty of the ecclesiastical as well as civil authority to carry civilization to the tribes that remain faithless"; and that priests should be encouraged to study at the Pius Latin American Seminary in Rome.[63]
  • July 10
  • July 11 – In Turin in Italy, Giovanni Agnelli and eight investors form the Italian automobile manufacturer F.I.A.T. (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino, the Italian Automobile Manufacturers of Turin), producers of the Fiat motor vehicles.
  • July 12 – The British freight ship City of York sinks after striking reefs at Rottnest Island, off the coast of Western Australia, due to a misunderstanding of signal flare fired from the island's lighthouse. The ship, which was nearing the end of a 90-day voyage from the U.S. (San Francisco) to Fremantle, Western Australia, evacuates its 26 crew in two lifeboats, but one of the boats overturns and 11 men, including Captain Phillip Jones, drown.
  • July 13 – A tornado kills 13 people in the U.S. village of Herman, Nebraska.
  • July 14 – The first Republic of Acre is declared by former Spanish journalist Luis Gálvez Rodríguez de Arias in the Amazon jungle in South America, and lasts for nine months.
  • July 15
    • Japan's first comprhensive copyright law takes effect and, on the same day, Japan agrees to join the Berne Convention on respect of copyright laws of other nations.
    • General Emilio Aguinaldo, who has commanded the Filipino resistance against the Spanish government, informs the U.S. Army General Thomas M. Anderson that he intends to assume authority for the Philippine Islands in areas conquered by the Filipinos from the Spaniards.[64]
  • July 16 – The first soccer football game in El Salvador between two organized teams takes place at the Campo Marte field in Santa Ana, where a local team hosts a team of players from San Salvador. The Santa Ana team wins, 2 to 0.[65]
  • July 17
  • July 18 – The patent for the first sofa bed (a foldable bed frame that can be stored under the cushions of a couch) is taken out by African-American inventor Leonard C. Bailey. He receives U.S. Patent No. 629,286 on June 2, 1900.
  • July 19 – U.S. Secretary of War Russell A. Alger submits his resignation at the request of U.S. President McKinley, following public outrage over the United States Army beef scandal, in which the War Department purchased tainted beef for soldiers during the Spanish-American War.
  • July 20 – A white lynch mob in Tallulah, Louisiana carries out the killing of five white Italian shopkeepers from Sicily who had opened stores in the town to sell produce and meat, after accusations that the Sicilians were driving the American stores out of business. None of the suspects in the lynching are prosecuted.[67]
  • July 21 – The Newsboys' strike takes place, when the Newsies of New York go on strike (until August 2).
  • July 22 – The torture and lynching of Frank Embree takes place in the town of Fayette, Missouri, after Embree, a black 19-year-old man, is accused by a mob of raping a white 14-year-old girl. Shortly after Embree has received 100 lashes from a whip, a photographer takes Embree's photo, followed by another one after Embree's hanging.[68]
  • July 23 – The city of Washington DC retires its short-lived cable car system, the day after Columbia Railway Company converts exclusively to electric powered cars
  • July 24 – In the first trade treaty signed by the U.S. after the passage of the Dingley Act, which authorizes the U.S. President to negotiate reductions of tariffs up to 20% if the other side does the same, France and the United States sign an agreement for a 20% reduction of France's existing tariffs on 635 of 654 specific items, in return for the U.S. reduction between 5% and 20% of duty fees on 126 items.[69]
  • July 25 – France's Minister of War levies out punishments against officers who participated in the Dreyfus affair, removing General Georges-Gabriel de Pellieux from his duties as Military Governor of Paris, and removing General Oscar de Négrier from the War Council.[70]
  • July 26 – The President of the Dominican Republic, dictator Ulises Heureaux, is assassinated during a visit to the city of Moca. Vice President Wenceslao Figuereo succeeds to the office.
  • July 27 – Gold is discovered in Nome, Alaska, leading to the Nome Gold Rush.[71]
  • July 28 – The All Cubans, a team of professional baseball players from Cuba, begins a barnstorming tour of games against white and black teams, starting with a 12-4 win over a local team at Weehawken, New Jersey
  • July 29 – The first international Peace Conference ends, with the signing of the First Hague Convention.
  • July 30 – The Harriman Alaska Expedition ends successfully.
  • July 31Duke of York Island, outside Antarctica, is discovered by explorer Carsten Borchgrevink and the British Southern Cross Expedition.[72]

August 1899[edit]

September 1899[edit]

October 1899[edit]

November 1899[edit]

December 1899[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

First flight of the Zeppelin LZ 1 airship

Births[edit]

Births
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

April[edit]

May[edit]

June[edit]

July[edit]

August[edit]

September[edit]

October[edit]

November[edit]

December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

Deaths[edit]

Deaths
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January–February[edit]

March–April[edit]

May–June[edit]

July–August[edit]

September–October[edit]

November–December[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mr. Hoar's Part in the Filipino War". The New York Times. January 15, 1900. p. 1.
  2. ^ Nicholas Leach, Devon's Lifeboat Heritage. Chacewater: (Twelveheads Press, 2009) pp. 49–50.
  3. ^ "Canadian Pacific Railway", by Donald M. Bain, in Encyclopedia of North American Railroads. ed. by William D. Middleton, et al. (Indiana University Press, 2007) p. 197
  4. ^ "Vessel Goes Down at Night During a Squall and Is Not Missed until Morning", San Francisco Call, January 15, 1899
  5. ^ William Dinwiddie, Puerto Rico, its Conditions and Possibilities (Harper & Brothers, 1899) p. 261
  6. ^ "Bohol participation in the Philippine Revolution". Webline Bohol, Philippines. Provincial Government of Bohol. 1999. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  7. ^ George Henry White", in Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007, ed. by Robert A. Brady (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008) p. 260
  8. ^ Anton A. Huurdeman, The Worldwide History of Telecommunications (Wiley, 2003) p. 215
  9. ^ Joseph Kinsey Howard, Montana: High, Wide, and Handsome (University of Nebraska Press, 2003) p. 67
  10. ^ George Gawrych, The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874-1913 (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2006) p. 125
  11. ^ Arthur W. J. G. Ord-Hume, Perpetual Motion (Adventures Unlimited Press, 2015) p.146
  12. ^ Marie-France Barrier, Ranavalona, dernière reine de Madagascar (Balland, 1996) pp. 273-274
  13. ^ Kenneth N. Johnson, Kansas University Basketball Legends (Arcadia Publishing, 2013)
  14. ^ "The White Man's Burden", commentary by Mary Hamer, The Kipling Society
  15. ^ Brian McAllister Linn, The Philippine War, 1899–1902 (University Press of Kansas, 2000) p. 52
  16. ^ Sergei Pushkarev, Self-government and Freedom In Russia (Taylor & Francis, 2019)
  17. ^ "War Department Investigating Commission", by Joseph Smith, in The War of 1898, and U.S. Interventions, 1898–1934: An Encyclopedia, ed. by Benjamin R. Beede (Taylor & Francis, 1994) pp. 582-584
  18. ^ "Accuses Kansas Colonel; Lieut. Hall, by Affidavits of Others, Charges W.S. Metcalf with Shooting an Unarmed Prisoner", New York Times, November 21, 1899
  19. ^ "Climate History: The Great Arctic Outbreak of February 1899", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  20. ^ Ian Collard, The British Cruise Ship An Illustrated History 1844-1939 (Amberley Publishing, 2013)
  21. ^ "Loubet, Émile François", Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition, Volume 17 (1911), p. 26
  22. ^ Brian S. McBeth, Gunboats, Corruption, and Claims: Foreign Intervention in Venezuela, 1899-1908 (Greenwood Press, 2001) pp. 13-14
  23. ^ "Laurier, Sir Wilfrid", by Réal Bélanger, in Dictionary of Canadian Biography
  24. ^ Sunderlandships.com
  25. ^ "Motoring Firsts". National Motor Museum Trust. Archived from the original on August 21, 2010. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
  26. ^ "Marketing History as Social Responsibility", by Christopher Gerteis, in Japan Since 1945: From Postwar to Post-Bubble (Bloomsbury, 2013) p. 235
  27. ^ Anthony B. Cochran, Out of the Storm: A Legacy (Outskirts Press, 2018) p. 252
  28. ^ Andia, Gianfranco; Duroc, Yvan; Tedjini, Smail (January 19, 2018). Non-Linearities in Passive RFID Systems: Third Harmonic Concept and Applications. ISBN 9781119490739.
  29. ^ Harry Barnard, Independent Man: The Life of Senator James Couzens (Wayne State University Press, 2002) p. 53
  30. ^ a b "Commercial and Corporate Law in Japan", by Harald Baum and Eiji Takahashi, in History of Law in Japan Since 1868 (Brill, 2005) p. 355
  31. ^ Anne Petrie, The Story of Kent (History Press, 2017)
  32. ^ "Jungner, Ernst Waldemar", in Innovators in Battery Technology: Profiles of 95 Influential Electrochemists, by Kevin Desmond (McFarland Publishing 2016) p. 116
  33. ^ "Encinal County Abolished", The Laws of Texas, 1897-1902, Volume 11 (Gammel Book Company, 1902) pp.10–11.
  34. ^ "Gotham Tragedy, Gotham Memory", by Christopher Gray, City-Journal (New York City), Winter 2003
  35. ^ "Windsor Hotel Lies in Ashes", The New York Times, March 18, 1899, p. 1
  36. ^ "World's oldest cinema to reopen in France's La Ciotat", France 24, September 10, 2013
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The American Monthly Review of Reviews (June 1899), pp. 539-542
  38. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  39. ^ Bruce A. Elleman, International Competition in China, 1899-1991 (Taylor & Francis, 2015) p. 10
  40. ^ a b c d The American Monthly Review of Reviews (June 1899), pp. 664-669
  41. ^ "Nurmijärwen murhamies renki Karl Emil Malmelin wangittu". Digikansalliskirjasto (in Finnish). Uusi Suometar. May 25, 1899. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  42. ^ Keskisarja, Teemu (2015). Kirves: Toivo Harald Koljosen rikos ja rangaistus (in Finnish). Siltala. ISBN 978-952-234-324-6.
  43. ^ Alberto Santos-Dumont, My Airships: The Story of My Life (Riverside Press, 1904) p.117
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The American Monthly Review of Reviews (July 1899), pp. 25-29
  45. ^ Edward Robb Ellis, The Epic of New York City: A Narrative History (Avalon Press, 1966) p. 461
  46. ^ "Multifinned Sea Monster", in Mysterious Creatures: A Guide to Cryptozoology, ed. by George M. Eberhart (ABC-CLIO, 2002) p. 360
  47. ^ "Loreto: ¿Estado Federal o República?", by Fernando Meléndez Zumaeta, La Región (Lima), April 20, 2015
  48. ^ Norman Friedman, Naval Firepower: Battleship Guns and Gunnery in the Dreadnought Era (Pen & Sword Books Ltd., 2013) p. 18
  49. ^ Donovan Rawcliffe, Occult and Supernatural Phenomena (Dover Publications, 1988) p. 245
  50. ^ Carruth, Gordon, ed. (1962). The Encyclopedia of American Facts and Dates (3rd ed.). Thomas Y. Crowell. pp. 384–387.
  51. ^ Eric L. Mills, Biological Oceanography: An Early History, 1870-1960 (University of Toronto Press, 2012) p.83
  52. ^ Volkert, Klaus, ed. (2015). David Hilbert: Grundlagen der Geometrie. Springer. p. ix; Grattan-Guinness, Ivor (2005). Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 1640-1940 Elsevier. p. 713.
  53. ^ a b c d e The American Monthly Review of Reviews (August 1899)
  54. ^ "Lee, Fitz", in African American War Heroes, ed. by James B. Martin (ABC-CLIO, 2014) p. 105
  55. ^ Ismail Hakkı Kadı and A.C.S. Peacock, Ottoman-Southeast Asian Relations (Brill, 2019) p. 385
  56. ^ Bertrand M. Roehner and Tony Syme, Pattern and Repertoire in History (Harvard University Press, 2009) p. 311
  57. ^ Inventors: Paperclip.
  58. ^ "Understanding sacrifice and sanctity in Benin indigenous relgion, Nigeria: a case study", by Flora Edouwaye S. Kaplan, in Beyond Primitivism: Indigenous Religious Traditions and Modernity, ed. by Jacob K. Olupona (Routledge, 2004) p. 198
  59. ^ Lewenson, Sandra B. (2013). Taking Charge: Nursing, Suffrage, and Feminism in America, 1873-1920. Routledge. p. 95.
  60. ^ "A specimen-level phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of Diplodocidae (Dinosauria, Sauropoda)", by Emanuel Tschopp, et al., PeerJ , 2015
  61. ^ "Cook County Juvenile Court", by Christopher M. Bellas, in Encyclopedia of Community Corrections (SAGE Publications, 2012) p. 84
  62. ^ "Military Activity in the EEZ: Exclusive or Excluded Right", by Captain Alexander S. Skaridov, in Freedom of Seas, Passage Rights and the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention (Martinus Nijhoff, 2009) p. 251
  63. ^ A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 1450-1990: A Documentary Sourcebook (Eerdmans Publishing, 2007) pp. 366-367
  64. ^ Dean C. Worcester, The Philippines Past and Present (Macmillan Company 1914, reprinted by Outlook Verlag 2018) p. 86
  65. ^ Gomez, Omar. "Historia" [History] (in Spanish). El Balon Cusctatleco. Retrieved May 16, 2011.
  66. ^ Henning, Joseph M. (2000). Outposts of Civilization: Race, Religion, and the Formative Years of American-Japanese Relations. New York University Press. p. 134.
  67. ^ " 'Corda e Sapone' (Rope and Soap): how the Italians were lynched in the USA", by Ken Scambray, L'Italo-Americano (December 13, 2012)
  68. ^ Courtney Baker, Humane Insight: Looking at Images of African American Suffering and Death p. 55
  69. ^ David A. Lake, Power, Protection, and Free Trade: International Sources of U.S. Commercial Strategy, 1887–1939 (Cornell University Press, 2018) p. 130
  70. ^ "French Officers Punished— Gens. Pellieux and de Negrier and Capt. Villaneuve in Disgrace", The New York Times, July 26, 1899, p. 1
  71. ^ Berton, Pierre (1972). Klondike: The Last Great Gold Rush, 1896-1899. Anchor Canada.
  72. ^ C. E. Borchgrevink, First on the Antarctic Continent: Being an Account of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1898-1900 (London: George Newnes, Ltd., 1901)
  73. ^ "Professional Information". The Major Taylor Society. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
  74. ^ Jørs, Erik; Thomsen, Jane Froelund (2017). "Mining occupational safety and health: hazards and good practices in formal and informal mining". Mining Occupational Safety and Health. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. doi:10.1136/oemed-2018-icohabstracts.695.
  75. ^ Auclair, Philippe (January 6, 2015). "Only in Marseille: where ultras rule and temptation is never far away | Philippe Auclair". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  76. ^ "R.M.S. Oceanic (II)". Jeff Newman. Archived from the original on September 19, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2010.
  77. ^ "Congratulations to the Glasgow School of Art as they celebrate 100th anniversary of the Mackintosh Building". Museums Galleries Scotland. December 15, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  78. ^ "Big Rock Fell". Green Bay, Wisconsin: Green Bay Semi-Weekly Gazette. December 27, 1899. p. 1. Retrieved July 15, 2017 – via newspapers.com.
  79. ^ Fischer, Steven R., Island at the End of the World, p. 153
  80. ^ "Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa". World Digital Library. 1908. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
  81. ^ "Our Story | The History of The Timken Company since 1899". Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  82. ^ "Dr. Virginia M. Alexander". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved October 18, 2017.
  83. ^ "BBC Two - Russia's Lost Princesses - Beyond the portraits". BBC. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  84. ^ "Hart Crane | American poet". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  85. ^ "Rufino Arellanes Tamayo" (in Spanish). El Colegio Nacional. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  86. ^ David Bolchover (2017). The Greatest Comeback: From Genocide To Football Glory; The Story of Béla Guttman
  87. ^ Ingham, Robert (2005). "Braddock [née Bamber], Elizabeth Margaret". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online edition. Retrieved October 22, 2015. (subscription required)
  88. ^ "Gertrude Berg | American actress, producer, and screenwriter". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
  89. ^ Appletons' Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events of the Year ... D. Appleton & Company. 1900. p. 619.