2S1 "Gvozdika" during the Independence Day parade in Kiev, Ukraine
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||see Operators|
|Wars||see Combat history|
|Designer||Kharkov Tractor Plant|
|No. built||more than 10,000|
|Weight||16 tonnes (35,273 lbs)|
|Length||7.26 m (23 ft 10 in)|
|Width||2.85 m (9 ft 4 in)|
|Height||2.73 m (8 ft 11 in)|
|Shell||separate loading, cased charge|
|Breech||Horizontal sliding wedge, semi-automatic|
|Elevation||-3 to +70 degrees|
|Rate of fire||Maximum: 5 rpm
Sustained: 1-2 rpm
|Muzzle velocity||680 m/s (2,200 ft/s)|
|Maximum firing range||Conventional: 15.3 km (9.5 mi)
Extended: 21.9 km (13.6 mi)
|Armor||20 mm (.78 in)|
|2A18 122 mm (4.8 in) howitzer|
220 kW (300 hp)
|500 km (310 mi)|
|Speed||Road: 60 km/h (37 mph)
Off-road: 30 km/h (18 mph)
Swim: 4.5 km/h (2.8 mph)
The 2S1 Gvozdika (Russian: 2С1 «Гвоздика», "Carnation") is a Soviet self-propelled howitzer based on the MT-LB APC chassis, mounting a 122 mm 2A18 howitzer. "2S1" is its GRAU designation. An alternative Russian designation is SAU-122 but in the Russian Army it is commonly known as Gvozdika. The 2S1 is fully amphibious with very little preparation, and once afloat is propelled by its tracks. A variety of track widths are available to allow the 2S1 to operate in snow or swamp conditions. It is NBC protected and has infra-red night-vision capability.
The 2S1 has seven road wheels on each side; the running gear can be fitted with different widths of track to match terrain. The interior is separated into a driver's compartment on the left, an engine compartment on the right and a fighting compartment to the rear. Within the fighting compartment the commander sits on the left, the loader on the right and the gunner to the front. The all-welded turret is located above the fighting compartment. The 2S1 utilizes a 122 mm howitzer based on the towed D-30 howitzer. The gun is equipped with a power rammer, a double-baffle muzzle brake and a fume extractor. It is capable of firing HE (high explosive), leaflet, HE/RAP, armor-piercing HE, flechette and chemical rounds.
The first prototype was ready in 1969. The 2S1 entered service with the Soviet Army in the early 1970s and was first seen in public at a Polish Army parade in 1974. The vehicle was deployed in large numbers (72 per tank division, 36 per motorized rifle division). It was designated the M1974 by the U.S. Army and manufactured in Bulgarian, Polish and Russian state factories.
Former Soviet Union/Russia
- 2S34 Hosta – Modernisation of the 2S1 with the 122 mm 2A31 gun replaced by the 120 mm 2A80. Further improvements include a new fire control system, a battlefield observation system and the ability to fire the Kitolov-2M guided ammunition. One unit, the 21st Mechanized Brigade in Totskoye is currently being equipped with the system.
- 2S15 "Norov" – A prototype tank destroyer equipped with a radar-based fire control system and a 100 mm gun.
- 2S1M Goździk – Version with special amphibious kit that increases the vehicle's amphibious capabilities.
- 2S1T Goździk – Version with a TOPAZ digital fire control system from WB electronics. The system consists of a FONET-IP digital intercom system, new digital radio, military GPS receiver, military computer and dedicated software. The same system is used on other Polish Armed Forces artillery systems like the AHS Krab, Dana-T and WR-40 Langusta.
- Model 89 – Romanian variant that uses a modified version of the hull of the MLI-84.
- Raad-1 ('thunder') – Iranian variant that is based on the hull of the Boragh APC.
- Algeria – 145
- Armenia – 20
- Azerbaijan – 81 2S1 and unknown number of UR-77
- Bosnia and Herzegovina – 5
- Belarus – 246
- Bulgaria – 506
- Cuba – 150
- Croatia – 9 (to be used alongside 15 Panzerhaubitze 2000 from German Army stock.)
- Eritrea – 20
- Finland – 72 (known as 122 PsH 74)
- Georgia 48
- India – 110 (to be replaced)
- Kazakhstan – 10
- Poland – c. 324 (to be replaced by SMK Rak)
- Russia – 622
- South Ossetia
- Serbia – 72
- Slovakia – 49
- Syria – 400
- Turkmenistan – unknown number in service as of 2016
- Ukraine – 638
- Uruguay – 6
- Czech Republic – Phased out in early 2000s (decade)
- Czechoslovakia – Passed on to successor states
- East Germany – Phased out in 1990 after German reunification
- Hungary - Phased out in 2004. Original there were 144 pieces of Gvozdikas.
- Romania – 48 reserve status since 2005
- Slovenia – 8 reserve status
- Soviet Union – Passed on to successor states
- Yugoslavia – Passed on to successor states.
- Afghanistan – Soviet war in Afghanistan
- Chechnya (Russia) – Second Chechen War (1999 to 2000)
- Iraq – First Gulf War, Second Gulf War
- Yugoslavia – Yugoslav Wars, Kosovo War
- Georgia – 2008 South Ossetia war
- Libya – 2011 Libyan civil war
- Syria – Syrian civil war
- Ukraine – War in Donbass
- List of artillery
- List of AFVs
- 122 mm howitzer 2A18 (D-30)
- 2S19 Msta
- 2S3 Akatsiya
- 2S35 Koalitsiya-SV
- Marat Kenzhetaev (1998). "Self Propelled Artillery and Mortars". www.armscontrol.ru. MIPT Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- "2S1 M-1974 122-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer". GlobalSecurity.org. 2008-11-09.
- Belarus Army Equipment
- Eugene Yanko, Copyright 1997 – firstname.lastname@example.org. "2s1 Gvozdika Self-Propelled Howitzer | Russian Arms, Military Technology, Analysis of Russia's Military Forces". Warfare.ru. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
- Hərbi TV (31 October 2016). "Turkmenistan Military Parade 2016". YouTube (in Turkmen). Ashgabat. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- Ground Forces Equipment – Ukraine
- Trewhitt, Philip (1999). Armored Fighting Vehicles. New York, NY: Amber Books. p. 124. ISBN 0-7607-1260-3.
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