Afghanistan–India relations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Indo-Afghan relations
Map indicating locations of Afghanistan and India


Diplomatic mission
Afghan embassy in New Delhi, India.

Afghanistan–India relations are the diplomatic relations between India and Afghanistan. They had been historical neighbors when India was under colonial rule and have since shared cultural ties through Bollywood and cricket.[3]

The Republic of India was the only South Asian country to recognize the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in the 1980s, though relations were diminished during the 1990s Afghan civil war and the Taliban government.[4] India aided the overthrow of the Taliban and became the largest regional provider of humanitarian and reconstruction aid to the former Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.[5][6] Indians have been working in various construction projects, as part of India's rebuilding efforts in Afghanistan.

Shaida Mohammad Abdali, Afghanistan's former ambassador to India, in April 2017 pointed out that India "is the biggest regional donor to Afghanistan and fifth largest donor globally with over $3 billion in assistance. India has built over 200 public and private schools, sponsors over 1,000 scholarships, and hosts over 16,000 Afghan students."[7] Relations between Afghanistan and India received a major boost in 2011 with the signing of a strategic partnership agreement,[8][9] Afghanistan's first since the Soviet-Afghan War.[10] The student visas were revoked in large numbers after the Taliban takeover of Afghanistan.[11]

A major shift in India's position on Afghan Taliban was reported by a top Qatar official in June 2021, revealing that an Indian delegation quietly visited Doha to meet the Taliban's leadership.[12] This is a major shift that was several weeks in the making in the first half of 2021, and likely involved Qatari mediation between India and the Taliban.[13] India does not recognize the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.[14]

In June 2022, India sent a "technical team" to its embassy building in Kabul.[2][15] But Afghanistan closed the embassy by lack of support.[16]


An Edict of Ashoka from Kandahar, now in the Kabul museum.

Relations between the people of Afghanistan and India trace to the Indus Valley civilization.[17] In the Vedic Age, Gandhara, which forms part of modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan, was considered one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas of Vedic India. Following Alexander the Great's brief occupation, the successor state of the Seleucid Empire controlled the region known today as Afghanistan. In 305 BCE, they ceded some regions to the Indian Maurya Empire as part of an alliance treaty.

Alexander took these away from the Aryans and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus (Chandragupta), upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange 500 elephants.[18]

— Strabo, 64 BCE – 24 CE

The Mauryans controlled parts of modern-day Afghanistan, and during this period Hinduism and Buddhism prevailed. Their decline began 60 years after Ashoka the Great's rule ended, leading to the Hellenistic reconquest of the region by the Greco-Bactrians. Much of it soon broke away from the Greco-Bactrians and became part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Indo-Greeks had been defeated and expelled by the Indo-Scythians in the late 2nd century BCE.[19] Till the Muslim conquests, eastern regions of Afghanistan including the Kabul Valley and Zabulistan were considered culturally part of Indian subcontinent,[20][21] and the town of Kabul was noted by Iranian traveller and geographer Istakhri in 921 to be inhabited by the people of Hind.[22] Between the 10th century and the mid 18th century, northern India was invaded by a number of invaders based in what today is Afghanistan. Among them were the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khaljis, Mughals and Durranis. During these eras, especially during the Mughal period (1526–1858), many Afghans began immigrating to India due to political unrest in their regions.[23]

Border crossing between the British Empire and Afghanistan in 1934

With the partition of British India to create Pakistan the demand for, Pashtunistan, a Pashtun nation-state carved out of Pakistan by successive Pashtun-led Afghan governments was received with support from the Indian government through the backing of militant tribesman, though the movement subsequently lost support.[24][25] Elisabeth Leake, an associate professor of International History at the University of Leeds writes: "Evidently, senior Indian officials supported the demand for Pashtunistan and Afghan aid to militant tribesmen. Considering the historic ties between Congress leaders and the Khudai Khidmatgars, India's support for tribal autonomy was hardly surprising; in many ways, tribal leaders were echoing the demands Ghaffar Khan had made in preceding years."[26]

Indians are working on various construction projects, as part of India's rebuilding efforts in Afghanistan, although the Indian intelligence agency RAW is accused by countries such as Pakistan of working to malign Pakistan and train & support insurgents.[27][28][29] These workers are estimated to be anywhere between 3,000 and 4,000. Indian nationals stationed in Afghanistan have often faced continuous security threats in the country, with kidnappings and many attacks (such as the February 2010 Kabul attack) deliberately carried out on them.

In January 1950, a five-year Treaty of Friendship was signed between the two countries in New Delhi. Other than affirming "everlasting peace and friendship between the two Governments", the treaty provided for the establishment of diplomatic and consular posts in each other's territories.[30][31]

India recognized the new Republic of Afghanistan on July 19, 1973. Indian foreign minister Swaran Singh visited Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan in October that year, and Khan visited India in March 1975. On July 7, 1974, the two countries signed a trade protocol.[23]

Soviet invasion and Taliban regime[edit]

India was the only South Asian nation to recognise the Soviet-backed communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan[9] and the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan, and provided humanitarian aid to president Mohammad Najibullah's Government in Afghanistan.[4] The Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 after being defeated by the Afghan mujahideen, which were heavily supported by Pakistan. It has been said that "the failure of the Indian government to publicly condemn the invasion, its support of the Soviet puppet regime of Kabul, and its hostile vision of the resistance have created major stumbling blocks in Afghan-Indian relations."[32] India continued to support Najibullah's government. After its fall in the ensuing civil war, India together with the international community supported the coalition government that took control, but relations and contacts ended with the outbreak of another civil war, which brought to power the Taliban, an Islamist militia supported by Pakistan.[33] The Taliban's regime, called the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, remained recognized only by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan monuments by the Taliban led to outrage and angry protests by India.[34][35] Similarly the Taliban's move in 2001 to require Afghan Hindus to wear identification patches, reminiscent of Nazi policies, was heavily criticised by India.[36] In 1999, the hijacked Indian Airlines Flight 814 landed and stayed in Kandahar in Afghanistan and the Taliban were suspected of supporting them.[4]

India became one of the key supporters of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance.[37]

Since 2001[edit]

During the U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, India offered intelligence and other forms of support for the Coalition forces. After the overthrow of the Taliban, India established diplomatic relations with the newly established democratic government, provided aid, and participated in the reconstruction efforts.[6] India has provided $650–750 million in humanitarian and economic aid, making it the largest regional provider of aid for Afghanistan.[5][6] India's support and collaboration extends to the rebuilding of air links, power plants and investing in health and education sectors as well as helping to train Afghan civil servants, diplomats, and police. India also seeks the development of supply lines for electricity, oil, and natural gas. Also to give Afghan students scholarships.[6]

The Indian Army's Border Roads Organisation constructed a major road in 2009 in the remote Afghan province of Nimroz, connecting Delaram to Zaranj. This has proved a viable alternative route for the duty-free movement of goods through the Chabahar port in Iran to Afghanistan.[5][6][38][39] Key to India's strategy in Afghanistan is to build up transportation links that bypass Pakistan, helping reduce the Afghan economy's dependence on Pakistan.[40]

In 2005, India proposed Afghanistan's membership in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). Both nations also developed strategic and military cooperation against Islamic militants.[5] Owing to the killing of an Indian national by Taliban militants in November 2005, India deployed 200 soldiers of the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) to provide security for Indian nationals and the projects supported by India.[6] Afghanistan strengthened its ties with India in wake of persisting tensions and problems with Pakistan, which was suspected of continuing to shelter and support the Taliban.[5][6] India pursues a policy of close collaboration with countries such as Afghanistan, Bhutan, and Iran in order to bolster its standing as a regional power and contain its rival Pakistan, which stands accused of aiding and abetting Islamic militants in Kashmir and other states of India.[6]

Three memorandums of understanding (MOUs) for strengthening cooperation in the fields of rural development, education, and standardisation between the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Afghan National Standardisation Authority were signed between Afghanistan and India during Hamid Karzai's visit to India in April 2006.[41] An agreement providing $50 million to promote bilateral businesses between Afghanistan and India was signed during the visit of the Afghan Foreign Minister Rangin Dadfar Spanta between 29 June – 1 July 2006.[41] During the same year, India raised its aid package to Afghanistan by $150 million, to $750 million.[41] In 2007, Afghanistan finally became the eighth member of SAARC.

In July 2008 the Indian embassy in Kabul was attacked by a suicide car bomb – the deadliest attack in Kabul since the fall of the Taliban in 2001.[42][43] The bombing killed 58 people[44] and wounded 141.[45] Senior Indian Army officer Brigadier Ravi Datt Mehta was entering the embassy gates in a car along with V. Venkateswara Rao when the attack took place. Both were killed in the blast.[45] In the aftermath of the 2008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul, the Afghan Foreign Ministry quoted India as a "brother country" and the relationship between the two as one which "no enemy can hamper".[9]

During the 15th SAARC summit in Colombo, further pledges were made by India for ongoing and forthcoming projects. In August 2008, Afghan President Karzai visited New Delhi further strengthening bilateral relations.[46]

On 18 October 2009, the Indian embassy in Kabul was attacked again by a car bomb, a little more than a year after the previous attack. The attack killed at least 17 people.[47] Another attack took place at the Arya guest house where Indian doctors were staying, resulting in the death of 18 people. India's pledge to rebuild Afghanistan reached a total of $2 billion in May 2011 after Manmohan Singh arrived in Kabul for a two-day visit.[48] In the same year India donated 250,000 tons of wheat to Afghanistan as part of the humanitarian assistance program.[citation needed]

According to a 2010 Gallup poll, which interviewed 1,000 adults, 50% Afghans approved of the job performance of India's leadership and 44% disapproved with 6% refusing to answer. It was the highest approval rating of India by any other country in Asia. According to the survey, Afghan adults are more likely to approve of India's leadership than Chinese or U.S. leadership.[49]

The September 2011 assassination of former Afghan president Burhanuddin Rabbani was condemned by India, which stated that "Tragically, the forces of terror and hatred have silenced yet another powerful voice of reason and peace in Afghanistan. We unreservedly condemn this act of great brutality," and reiterated peace efforts.[50][51] India promised to stand by the people of Afghanistan as they prepare to assume the responsibility for their governance and security after the withdrawal of international forces in 2014.[52] In October 2011, Afghanistan signed its first strategic pact with India.[40][53] The military assistance would include training of Afghan security personnel.[54] During his visit to India, Karzai told the media that "This strategic partnership is not directed against any country. This strategic partnership is to support Afghanistan." He also stated that "Pakistan is our twin brother, India is a great friend. The agreement we signed with our friend will not affect our brother." He also added that "However, our engagement with Islamabad has unfortunately not yet yielded the result that we want."[55] Both sides launched a Partnership Council, as the apex body to implement the Strategic Partnership Pact in May 2012.[56]

Afghanistan, India and Iran signing the Chabahar Agreement

On 22 May 2014, the Indian consulate in Herat was attacked by 3 militants equipped with AK-47s, RPGs, hand grenades, and suicide vests. "Our premises have been repeatedly attacked by those who do not support India's development work in Afghanistan. The attack will not dilute India's development assistance and its contribution to rehabilitation and reconstruction of Afghanistan," India's ambassador to Kabul Amar Sinha said at the time.[57]

On 24 December 2015, India donated three Mi-25 attack helicopters (with an option to send one more in future) to Afghanistan as part of the bilateral strategic partnership to counter the Taliban.[58] The next day, 25 December, Indian PM Narendra Modi visited Kabul to open the newly constructed Afghan parliament opposite the ruins of the Darul Aman Palace, which has been built by India for $90 million. Modi said "It will stand as an enduring symbol of the ties of emotions and values, of affection and aspirations that bind us in a special relationship". President Ghani tweeted "Though, India and Afghanistan need no introduction, we are bound by a thousand ties… We have stood by each other in the best and worst of times".[59]

On 4 June 2016, Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Afghanistan's President Ashraf Ghani formally inaugurated the $290-million Salma Dam with a capacity of 42 MW power generation. Water from the dam will also serve irrigation purposes. The dam is expected to help Afghanistan capitalize on opportunities that will open up once the India-backed Chabahar project, linking the port in Iran to Central Asia's road and railway networks, is completed.[60][61]

On 15 August 2019, on Indian Independence Day, Prime Minister Modi extended greetings to Afghanistan who was due to also celebrate Afghan Independence Day, the 100th year, four days later.[62]

While Taliban announced the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in 2021, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is still internationally recognized.

Alleged Subversions Against Pakistan[edit]

Pakistan, historically an Indian rival sandwiched geographically between India and Afghanistan, claims India's foreign intelligence agency R&AW is working in cover inside Afghanistan to malign Pakistan,[28][29] a claim rejected by India.[63]

In December 2022, with regards to Indian-Afghan intelligence cooperation and activities against Pakistan, Afghanistan's former NDS intelligence chief Rahmatullah Nabil acknowledged the claim, saying: "We helped India against Pakistan, but India canceled our visas after the fall of Kabul.[64][65]

Re-established Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan[edit]

Dozens of refugees from Afghanistan arrived in India following the takeover of a majority of the country by August 2021.[66] India hosts about 16,000 refugees according to United Nations figures from 2020.[67] There are approximately another 18,000 undocumented Afghan refugees.[68] Following the return of the Taliban, a new category of visas to fast-track applications for Afghan citizens seeking entry into India was initiated.[69] The evacuation has been codenamed Operation Devi Shakti (transl. Goddess Shakti).[70]

By 10 August 2021 India had closed all its consulates and shifted personnel to Kabul.[71] Following partial evacuation of these personnel from Afghanistan, the Kabul embassy remained functioning with reduced capacity.[72] The Kabul Embassy was evacuated on 17 August 2021,[73] and was re-established on 23 June 2022.[74]

Amidst a worsening humanitarian situation, India started sending aid to Afghanistan in December 2021. India will handover the aid, part of a larger regional and global effort, to the World Health Organisation present in the region.[75][76] Land routes from India to Afghanistan are via Pakistan, and accordingly India and Pakistan have discussed necessary modalities.[77] India's wheat diplomacy to Afghanistan continues its decade-old practice to support the larger regional and global effort to reduce food insecurity in the country.[78][79][80]

India reopened its embassy in Kabul in 2022 following the earthquake in the country to help in aid delivery.


India seeks to expand its economic presence in Afghanistan as the international coalition fighting the Taliban withdraws combat forces through 2014. A focus area was transport connectivity and economic collaboration with countries in Central and South Asia. India had already invested $10.8 billion in Afghanistan as of 2012. More such projects were likely to come up after NATO's withdrawal. This included setting up iron ore mines, a 6 MTPA steel plant (by SAIL—Steel Authority of India Limited), an 800 MW power plant, hydro-electric power projects, transmission lines, and roads. India helped Afghans in the reconstruction of Salma Dam in the Herat province. Besides producing 42 MW of power, this Indo-Afghan friendship dam provides irrigation for 75,000 hectares of farmland in the Chisti Sharif district.

India and Iran were set to ink a transit agreement on transporting goods to landlocked Afghanistan. The Indian government was investing more than US$100 million in the expansion of the Chabahar port in southeastern Iran which would serve as a hub for the transportation of transit goods.[81] As a goodwill gesture, India had also constructed a new Parliament complex for the Afghan government at a cost of 710 crore (equivalent to 11 billion or US$130 million in 2023). This building was inaugurated on 25 December 2015.[59][82] Since Pakistan had refused land access, India and Afghanistan had established two air corridors to facilitate bilateral trade.[83]

Financial and Material Aid[edit]

Till August 2021 when the Taliban took power in Afghanistan, India had invested nearly $3 billion in aid and reconstruction activities in Afghanistan.[84] These have included infrastructural works like the construction of Afghanistan's Parliament, Salma Dam, schools and hospitals, power stations, stadiums, as well as material and financial support like shipments of wheat and pulses, medicines etc.[85]

Even after the Taliban's takeover, in January 2022, India has sent 500,000 Covid vaccine doses to Afghanistan as part of humanitarian aid for the people of Afghanistan.[86] In February 2022, India sent 50 trucks carrying 2500 MT of wheat as humanitarian aid to Afghanistan.[87] In June 2022, India sent 27 tonnes of emergency relief assistance for the people of Afghanistan in the aftermath of the 5.9-magnitude earthquake.[88] In February 2023, India announced development aid of Rs 200 crores to Afghanistan.[89] In March 2023, India announced it would send 20,000 tonnes of wheat to Afghanistan through Iran's Chabahar Port.[90]

As of 2023, there were around 14,000 Afghan students studying in India with scholarship support from different institutions like the Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR).[91]

Infrastructure projects in Afghanistan[edit]

New Parliament building[edit]

The new Afghan Parliament building

The foundation stone for the new Afghan Parliament was laid in August 2005 by the last king of Afghanistan, Zahir Shah, in the presence of Hamid Karzai and Manmohan Singh.[92] India's Central Public Works Department (CPWD) was the consultant for the project and the contract was awarded to an Indian infrastructure company in 2008.[93] The new Parliament building is corralled in a 100-acre plot in the famous Darulaman section of Kabul.[94] It sits next to historical landmarks such as Amanullah Khan's Palace and the Queen's Palace.

The construction work on the $220 million building was initially slated to be complete by 2012, in 36 months. The deadline, however, was pushed back due to challenging work conditions, shortage of skilled workforce and precarious security environment. More than 500 laborers had worked on the building, most of them Indian nationals. The main attraction of the building is a bronze dome of 32 meter diameter and 17.15 meter height is considered to be the largest dome in Asia. The big dome covers the assembly hall and the small dome is over the entrance lobby. In front of the building, there is a water body with nine cascading fountains. Inside the building, a 20-feet fountain, made of green marble imported from Indian city of Udaipur, has been installed.[95]

On December 25, 2015, during a state visit of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the new Parliament building was inaugurated along with President Ashraf Ghani.[96][97]

Afghan-India Friendship Dam[edit]

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Afghan President Ashraf Ghani inaugurating the Salma Dam.

Salma Dam, officially the Afghan-India Friendship Dam, is a hydroelectric and irrigation dam project located on the Hari River in Chishti Sharif District of Herat Province in western Afghanistan. The Afghan cabinet renamed the Salma Dam to the Afghan-India Friendship Dam in a move to strengthen relations between the two countries. The hydroelectric plant produces 42 MW of power in addition to providing irrigation for 75,000 hectares of farmland (stabilising the existing irrigation of 35,000 hectares and development of irrigation facilities to an additional 40,000 hectares of land).[98] The dam was opened on 4 June 2016 by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi along with Afghan President Ashraf Ghani.[99]


Since 2011, around 700 Afghans train in India every year in institutions such as the National Defence Academy, Indian Military Academy, Officers Training Academy, Infantry School in Mhow and the Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School in Mizoram.[100]

Embassy and consulates[edit]

Afghanistan–India relations is located in Afghanistan
Farkhor Indian Airbase
Farkhor Indian Airbase
Indian embassy and consulates in Afghanistan in red

India in Afghanistan[edit]

India operates an Embassy in Kabul.

The Indian embassy and consulates in Afghanistan had been targeted by terrorists repeatedly.[101][102][103][104][105][106]

India had evacuated its Embassy in Afghanistan four times.[107]

Afghanistan in India[edit]

Afghanistan operated an Embassy in New Delhi and consulates in Mumbai and Hyderabad.[108]

Farid Mamundzay, the Ambassador of Afghanistan in India appointed by the erstwhile Ashraf Ghani government, however announced on September 30, 2023, closure of the Afghan Embassy in New Delhi. Hours later, Taliban – Afghanistan's new rulers, asked India to permit its Diplomats to operate in the country. In May 2023, the Taliban had appointed Mohammad Qadir Shah, it's chargé d'affaires in India. Qadir Shah was however physically stopped from even entering the Afghan Embassy in New Delhi by Farid Mamundzay and other embassy staffers.[109]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Ashraf Ghani's men gone, Taliban asks India to allow its Diplomats in Afghan EmbassyAshraf Ghani's men gone, Taliban asks India to allow its Diplomats in Afghan Embassy". ummid. 1 October 2023. Retrieved 6 November 2023. The Taliban had appointed a charge d'affaires earlier this year to handle relations with India but he was physically prevented from even entering the Afghan Embassy
  2. ^ a b "India reopens embassy in Kabul, sends 'technical team' with relief material for Afghanistan". 24 June 2022.
  3. ^ "Bollywood, cricket two real stars of Afghanistan's relationship with India: Envoy". The Times of India. 22 November 2019. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Crossette, Barbara (7 March 1989). "India to Provide Aid to Government in Afghanistan". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  5. ^ a b c d e Tarzi, Amin (16 April 2006). "Kabul's India ties worry Pakistan". Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Bajoria, Jayshree (5 December 2007). "India's Northern Exposure". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  7. ^ Talukdar, Sreemoy (23 August 2017). "Donald Trump's Afghanistan policy presents India a chance to increase sphere of influence in South Asia". Firstpost. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  8. ^ "Afghanistan and India sign 'strategic partnership'". BBC News. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  9. ^ a b c Shrivastava, Sanskar (30 March 2013). "India, Russia and China in Race to Expand Influence Over Afghanistan; Preventing Re-Talibanization After 2014". The World Reporter. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  10. ^ Haidar, Suhasini (29 August 2015). "India rebuffs Afghanistan on strategic meet". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 16 August 2021. India was the first country Afghanistan chose to sign a strategic partnership agreement...
  11. ^ Khan, Asad Ullah (22 November 2022). "India's Efforts in Search of New Role in Afghanistan". Modern Diplomacy. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  12. ^ Mohan, Geeta (22 June 2021). "Indian officials had a 'quiet' rendezvous with Taliban, says Qatari special envoy". India Today. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
  13. ^ "Qatar Govt Official Says Indian Delegation Visited Qatar to Meet Taliban". The Wire India. 22 June 2021. Retrieved 24 June 2021.
  14. ^ "How India is helping Afghanistan despite Taliban's non-recognition". Hindustan Times. 20 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  15. ^ India reopens Embassy in Kabul
  16. ^ "Afghanistan closes embassy in India citing lack of diplomatic support". Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  17. ^ Nancy Dupree (1973): An Historical Guide To Afghanistan, Chapter 3 Sites in Perspective.
  18. ^ Nancy Hatch Dupree / Aḥmad ʻAlī Kuhzād (1972). "An Historical Guide to Kabul – The Name". American International School of Kabul. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  19. ^ Rajadhyaksha, Abhijit (2 August 2009). "The Mauryas: Chandragupta". Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  20. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1973). The Ghaznavids: Their Empire in Afghanistan and Eastern Iran, 994 : 1040. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-01-499132-4.
  21. ^ Wink, André (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7Th-11th Centuries. BRILL. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-391-04173-8.
  22. ^ "A.—The Hindu Kings of Kábul (p.3)". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. 1867–1877. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  23. ^ a b Adamec, Ludwig W. (2012). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7815-0.
  24. ^ "The Making of the Durand Line, Irredentism and the Rise of the Taliban". Retrieved 4 March 2023.
  25. ^ Saikal, Amin. "Afghanistan and Pakistan: The Question of Pashtun Nationalism?". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 30 (1). After the creation of Pakistan, successive Pashtun-led Afghan government backed Ghaffar Khan's demand for a Pashtunistan carved out of the territory of Pakistan, but without any success.
  26. ^ Elisabeth Leake (2017). The Defiant Border: The Afghan-Pakistan Borderlands in the Era of Decolonization, 1936–65. Cambridge University Press. pp. 140–. ISBN 978-1-107-12602-2. Evidently, senior Indian officials supported the demand for Pashtunistan and Afghan aid to militant tribesmen. Considering the historic ties between Congress leaders and the Khudai Khidmatgars, India's support for tribal autonomy was hardly surprising; in many ways, tribal leaders were echoing the demands Ghaffar Khan had made in preceding years. The incarceration of Ghaffar Khan, a close friend of India's Congress leaders, likely undermined Pakistan's position from the Indian perspective as well.
  27. ^ Baabar, Mariana (24 April 2006). "RAW Is Training 600 Balochis in Afghanistan". Outlook India. Archived from the original on 29 October 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  28. ^ a b Azam, Omer (25 September 2010). "RAW Creating Trouble for NATO in Afghanistan". Pakistan Times. Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  29. ^ a b "RAW helping militants in Afghanistan: Musharraf". 31 December 2004. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  30. ^ "Treaty of Friendship". Ministry of External Affairs, India. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  31. ^ "Indi-Afghan Friendship Treaty Signed". The Indian Express. 5 January 1950. p. 6. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  32. ^ Valenta and Cibulka (editors), Gorbachev's New Thinking and Third World Conflicts, p. 146
  33. ^ "Afghanistan's Troubled Border". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  34. ^ "Q. 4466 - India's move on the demolition of Buddha statues in Afghanistan". Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. 26 April 2001. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  35. ^ "Islamic scholars condemn destruction of Buddha statues". Zee News. 4 March 2001. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  36. ^ Shah, Amir (24 May 2001). "Taliban Slams Hindu Denouncements". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  37. ^ "India joins anti-Taliban coalition". Jane's Security News. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008.
  38. ^ Bennett, Adam (15 April 2005). Reconstructing Afghanistan. International Monetary Fund. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-58906-324-2. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  39. ^ Ibp Usa (15 February 2008). Global Logistics Assessments Reports Handbook: Strategic Transportation and Customs Information for Selected Countries. Int'l Business Publications. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7397-6603-3. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  40. ^ a b "[Indian Influence in Afghanistan:] 2011 and Beyond Archived 25 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine," Global Bearings, 2 November 2011.
  41. ^ a b c India 2008, Pg 494
  42. ^ Lakshman, Kanchan (3 February 2022). "Assassins From The Epicentre". Outlook India. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  43. ^ Taylor, Richard Norton (7 July 2008). "Afghanistan: At least 41 killed by suicide bomber at Indian embassy in Kabul". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  44. ^ "AP Interview: Indian Embassy bomber hoped to destroy Kabul embassy, ambassador says". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 10 July 2008.
  45. ^ a b "IFS officer, Brig among Indians killed in blast". IBN. 7 July 2008. Archived from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
  46. ^ Relationship with Neighbors
  47. ^ "Afghan bomb strikes India embassy". BBC News. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  48. ^ Pajhwok Afghan News – Singh given ceremonial reception, 12 May 2011.
  49. ^ Cynthia English (5 November 2010). U.S. Leadership More Popular in Asia Than China's, India's, Gallup.
  50. ^ "Krishna condemns Rabbani killing". The New Indian Express. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  51. ^ "India Condemns Rabbani Assassination". Outlook India. PTI. 20 September 2011. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  52. ^ Mohan, Archis (5 October 2011). "Deal for larger role in Kabul". The Telegraph. Kolkata, India. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  53. ^ Katy Daigle – Associated Press (4 October 2011). "Afghanistan signs 1st strategic pact _ with India". Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  54. ^ "US hails India's key role in Afghanistan." PTI, 8 October 2011.
  55. ^ Pakistan a twin brother, talks to go on: Karzai Archived 7 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Pajhwok Afghan News. Sujoy Dhar. 5 October 2011.
  56. ^ Roy, Shubhajit (20 April 2012). "New Delhi,Kabul to start work on Partnership Council in May". The Indian Express. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  57. ^ "Indian consulate in Afghanistan attacked by gunmen". India Gazette. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  58. ^ Sridharan, Vasudevan (24 December 2015). "India delivers attack helicopters to Afghanistan to counter Taliban offensive". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  59. ^ a b "Modi inaugurates new Afghan Parliament built by India in Kabul". Hindustan Times. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  60. ^ "Narendra Modi, Ashraf Ghani inaugurate landmark Rs 1,700 crore Afghan-India Friendship Dam". The Economic Times. PTI. 4 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  61. ^ Vohra, Anchal (17 May 2016). "Narendra Modi to visit Afghanistan in June to inaugurate Salma Dam". News18. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  62. ^ "President Ashraf Ghani's Congratulatory Message on the Occasion of India's 73rd Independence Day". English. 15 August 2019. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  63. ^ "No evidence that India aiding Pak Baloch rebels". The Indian Express. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  64. ^ "How Pakistan can tackle TTP and ISKP". The Express Tribune. 5 December 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2023.
  65. ^ "Former Afghan spy chief exposes Indian involvement in Pakistan". 2 December 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  66. ^ Laskar, Rezaul H (23 August 2021). "Indians, Afghan refugees brought safely from Kabul". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 22 August 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  67. ^ Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (25 August 2021). "'We can never go back': Taliban surge spreads fear in Delhi's 'Little Kabul'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 August 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  68. ^ Frayer, Lauren (19 August 2021). "Afghan Refugees In India Fret Over The News Back Home, And Their Own Legal Status". Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  69. ^ "India announces new category of visa for Afghans". Mintlounge. 17 August 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  70. ^ "India's evacuation mission from Afghanistan named 'Operation Devi Shakti'". The Hindu. PTI. 24 August 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  71. ^ "India shuts last consulate in Afghanistan and evacuates citizens". Reuters. 10 August 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  72. ^ IANS (16 August 2021). "ITBP personnel guarding Indian embassy to stay in Kabul: Officials". Business Standard India. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  73. ^ Khanna, Sumit (17 August 2021). "Indian evacuates 170 people from Afghanistan including ambassador". Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  74. ^ Haidar, Suhasini (24 June 2022). "India reopens Embassy in Kabul". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 26 July 2022.
  75. ^ "India sends life-saving medicines to Afghanistan in aid". Hindustan Times. 11 December 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  76. ^ "World community reached basic consensus over extending humanitarian aid to Afghanistan: Jaishankar". The Times of India. PTI. 17 December 2021. Archived from the original on 17 December 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  77. ^ "India in touch with Pakistan on modalities for shipping wheat as aid to Afghanistan". Hindustan Times. 16 December 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  78. ^ Sinha, Rhea (25 February 2022). "Indian wheat diplomacy in Afghanistan". ORF. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  79. ^ "India sends wheat to Afghanistan after dealing with Pakistan". ABC News. The Associated Press. 23 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  80. ^ "India sends 2,500 tonnes of wheat to Afghanistan via Pakistan land route". Business Standard India. Press Trust of India. 22 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  81. ^ "India Plans Shipping Afghan Goods via Iran". The Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 24 March 2013.
  82. ^ Dahiya, Sandeep (22 June 2014). "Afghan Parliament Being Built by India to Be Ready by 2015". Outlook India. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  83. ^ "Kabul to Mumbai: Second India-Afghan air corridor opens". Tribune India. 27 December 2017. Archived from the original on 2 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  84. ^ "India played a constructive role in Afghanistan: Pentagon". The Hindu. 10 August 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  85. ^ Iwanek, Krzysztof (8 January 2019). "36 Things India Has Done for Afghanistan". The Diplomat. Retrieved 6 February 2023.
  86. ^ Laskar, Rezaul H (1 January 2022). "India donates 500,000 Covid vaccine doses to Afghanistan". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  87. ^ "India sends first consignment of aid for Afghanistan". The Hindu. 22 February 2022. Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  88. ^ "India sends aid to Afghanistan, Taliban welcome return of Indian diplomats". Hindustan Times. 24 June 2022. Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  89. ^ Sibbal, Siddhant (2 February 2023). "Budget 2023: India Announces Rs 200 Cr aid for Afghanistan; Taliban Responds". Zee News. Retrieved 5 February 2023.
  90. ^ Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (8 March 2023). "India announces 20,000 MTs of wheat assistance to Afghanistan via Chabahar Port". Economic Times. Retrieved 8 March 2023.
  91. ^ Mehta, Yagnesh Bharat (7 March 2023). "Afghanistan woman's reply to Taliban". Times of India. Retrieved 7 March 2023.
  92. ^ Siddharth Varadarajan, ed. (30 August 2005). "Democracy not the preserve of the West: Karzai". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 23 November 2005. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  93. ^ "Photo Features : Afghan Parliament- Symbol of Indo-Afghan democratic partnership". Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  94. ^ "$220 million new Afghan parliament to be inaugurated in 5 months". Khaama Press. 12 July 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  95. ^ Afghanistan New Parliament building gifted by INDIA Afghanistan's closest ally. Tolo TV. 23 December 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  96. ^ "Modi inaugurates new Afghan Parliament built by India in Kabul". Hindustan Times. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  97. ^ PM Modi inaugurates the new Parliament building of Afghanistan (YouTube). India. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  98. ^ Afghan India Friendship Dam (Salma Dam) Water and Power Consultancy Services (India) Limited (WAPCOS Limited). Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  99. ^ "Salma Dam inaugurated by PM Modi; one of India's most expensive infrastructure projects in Afghanistan". The Financial Express. 4 June 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  100. ^ "Training in India, Fate of 150 Afghan Soldiers in Limbo After Country's Military Collapse". News18. 17 August 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  101. ^ Haleem, Abdul; Lin Jing (7 July 2008). "Militants mounting pressure to destabilize Afghan gov't". Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  102. ^ "Afghan blast targets Indian embassy". Al Jazeera. 8 October 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  103. ^ Ahmad, Jalil (23 May 2014). "Militants attack Indian consulate in western Afghanistan". Reuters. Herat, Afghanistan. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  104. ^ "4 gunmen who attack Indian Consulate in Herat, Afghanistan killed; Narendra Modi thanks Hamid Karzai for efforts in thwarting attack". DNA India. Herat, Afghanistan. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  105. ^ "Kabul blast: 80 killed, at least 350 injured after huge explosion in diplomatic area". The Indian Express. Kabul, Afghanistan. 31 May 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  106. ^ Tuteja, Ashok (1 June 2017). "Post Kabul attack, India may beef up security at Afghan missions". Kabul, Afghanistan. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  107. ^ Haidar, Suhasini (22 August 2021). "News analysis | Fourth evacuation from Kabul since 1992, but in different international climate". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  108. ^ "Afghanistan consulate opened". The Hindu. 9 January 2020. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  109. ^ "Ashraf Ghani's men gone, Taliban asks India to allow its Diplomats in Afghan Embassy". 1 October 2023. Retrieved 1 October 2023.

Further reading[edit]