A cannabis concentrate (also called marijuana concentrate, extract, shatter, wax, butane hash oil or butane honey oil (BHO), live resin, budder, and taffy) is a highly potent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrated mass that is most similar in appearance to either honey or butter, which is why it is referred to or known as "honey oil" or "budder". Marijuana concentrates contain extraordinarily high THC levels that could once range from 40 to 80%, up to four times stronger in THC content than high grade or top shelf marijuana, which normally measures around 20% THC levels. By 2017, distilled concentrate was reportedly available at 99.58% THC content.
Volatile solvents such as butane, propane and hexane are often used to prepare extracts, leading to fire and explosion hazard in uncontrolled environments. Supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide alleviates concerns of fire and explosion and results in a high quality product.
Legally produced concentrates for retail sale in legalized states are often packaged in small lip-balm sized containers.
- DEA 2014.
- "Why marijuana concentrates are cause for confusion". The Cannabist. June 18, 2015.
- Summit Research (December 22, 2017), Cannabis Distillation: The Last Mile in Extraction, Leafly
- Small 2016.
- Angela Bacca (January 12, 2015), "Is Cannabis Extraction the Future of a Multi-Billion Dollar Industry?", San Francisco Chronicle
- Backes & Weil 2017, p. 143.
- What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates (Also Known as THC Extractions) (PDF) (brochure), United States Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Agency, December 2014
- Small, Ernest (November 2016), Cannabis: A Complete Guide, CRC Press, ISBN 978-1498761635
- Backes, M.; Weil, A. (2017). Cannabis Pharmacy: The Practical Guide to Medical Marijuana -- Revised and Updated. Hachette Books. ISBN 978-0-316-55572-2.
- Media related to Cannabis concentrate at Wikimedia Commons
This article incorporates public domain material from the Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Agency document "What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates (Also Known as THC Extractions)".