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In 1785, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis indica. Lamarck based his description of the newly named species on plant specimens collected in India. Richard Evans Schultes described C. indica as relatively short, conical, and densely branched, whereas C. sativa was described as tall and laxly branched. Loran C. Anderson described C. indica plants as having short, broad leaflets whereas those of C. sativa were characterized as relatively long and narrow. Cannabis indica plants conforming to Schultes's and Anderson's descriptions may have originated from the Hindu Kush mountain range. Because of the often harsh and variable (extremely cold winters, and warm summers) climate of those parts, C. indica is well-suited for cultivation in temperate climates..
There are several discrepancies on the Cannabaceae family lineage in the current taxonomy. Some credible reports came out of the 1920's. Two studies in particular found Cannabis to be distinct from Magnoliopsida Hamamelididae Urticales which it had been formerly grouped in with due to its similarities to the Mulberry, Elm, and Nettle. Other authors placed it in the Mulberry family(Moraceae). The study suggested a new family "Cannabaceae" (Hemp Family). The Latter stuck, landing it in Hamamelididae Urticales which is a sibling of Moraceae, Ulmaceae (Elm) and Urticaceae(Nettle).
Many known races have been documented since the 1500's to date, about 19 different species from across the world, a couple with variations. Some of these races became the traditional wild outdoor influenced land-race strains.
It is difficult to procure seeds from land race strains. Seed collectors are highly encouraged to document, and have tested to find these lost strains. Care is needed to protect any Sativa that exists, and work with it to refine it, since indica as the tendency to predominate in hybrid crosses.
The work on taxonomy pressed on according to Popular Science who mentioned that a group of plant and molecular biologists sequenced the DNA and ruled out some misconceptions of the whole tree of many closely related families and orders, to regroup them all. Through sequencing, the DNA was able to differentiate the Cannabaceae family as actually part of the Rosales Order, and not Urticales as they had previously thought.
Where it started as Magnoliopsida Hamamelididae Urticales, the species eventually became the following:
"Plantae Tracheobionta Spermatophyta Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Rosidae Rosales Cannabis"
There are many subspecies. Most species used today are Cannabis sativa, and Cannabis indica.
Broad-leafed Cannabis indica plants in India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan are traditionally cultivated for the production of hashish. Pharmacologically, C. indica landraces tend to have a higher cannabidiol (CBD) content than C. sativa strains Some commercially available indica strains have been selected for high levels of CBD, with some users reporting more of a "stoned" feeling and less of a "high" from C. indica when compared to C. sativa. The Cannabis indica high is often referred to as a "body buzz" and has beneficial properties such as pain relief in addition to being an effective treatment for insomnia and an anxiolytic, as opposed to sativa's more common reports of a "spacey" and mental inebriation, and even, albeit rarely, comprising hallucinations. Differences in the terpenoid content of the essential oil may account for some of these differences in effect. Common indica strains for recreational or medicinal use include Kush and Northern Lights.
A recent genetic analysis included both the narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug "biotypes" under C. indica, as well as southern and eastern Asian hemp (fiber/seed) landraces and wild Himalayan populations.
Difference between C. indica and C. sativa
There are several key differences between Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa. These include height and stature, internodal length, leaf size and structure, buds size and density, flowering time, odour, smoke and effects. Indica plants tend to grow shorter and bushier than the sativa plants. Indica strains tend to have wide, short leaves with short wide blades, whereas sativa strains have long leaves with thin long blades. The buds of indica strains tend to be wide, dense and bulk, while sativa strains are likely to be long, sausage shaped flowers.
A note about the relative CBD to THC ratios mentioned here. These are merely comparative values, we must not interpret that the CBD is higher than THC in a typical strain of indica developed over the last 50 years. The reverse is generally true with a ratio of 20:1 (THC:CBD) being average in most cannabis strains.
In the recent era of cannabis breeding high CBD strains are being developed from Indica origins that will test out as 1:1 or even as high as a 22:1 ratio. The medical interests in Cannabis are taking this further and we will see more strains developed with a reverse CBD:THC ratio. Low anxiety and hallucinogenic properties make these "CBD strains" very desirable for chronic treatment programs.
Cannabis strains with relatively high CBD:THC ratios are less likely to induce anxiety than vice versa. This may be due to CBD's antagonistic effects at the cannabinoid receptors, compared to THC's partial agonist effect. CBD is also a 5-HT1A receptor (serotonin) agonist, which may also contribute to an anxiolytic-content effect. The effects of sativa are well known for its cerebral high. Users can expect a more vivid and uplifting high, while indica is well known for its sedative effects which some prefer for night time use. Indica possesses a more calming, soothing, and numbing experience in which can be used to relax or relieve pain. This is mainly becouse of the higher CBD:THC ratio. Both types are used as medical cannabis.
During the 1970s, Cannabis indica strains from Afghanistan and Hindu Kush were brought to the United States, where the first hybrids with Cannabis sativa plants from equatorial areas were developed, widely spreading marijuana cultivation throughout the States.
The name indica originally referred to the geographical area in which the plant was grown. Whether C. sativa and C. indica are separate species is still a matter of debate. However, investigation into chemotaxonomic differences support a two-species hypothesis.
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- Dr. Loran C. Anderson - FSU Biological Science Faculty Emeritus
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