Deewaar

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Deewaar
Deewar poster.jpg
Release poster
Directed by Yash Chopra
Produced by Gulshan Rai
Written by Salim-Javed
Screenplay by Salim-Javed
Story by Salim-Javed
Starring Amitabh Bachchan
Shashi Kapoor
Nirupa Roy
Parveen Babi
Neetu Singh
Satyendra Kapoor
Iftekhar
Madan Puri
Music by Rahul Dev Burman
Cinematography Kay Gee
Edited by T.R. Mangeshkar
Pran Mehra
Distributed by Trimurti Films Pvt. Ltd
Release date
  • 24 January 1975 (1975-01-24)
Running time
176 minutes
Country India
Language Hindi-Urdu[1]
Box office 75 million[2] ($9 million)[a]

Deewaar (The Wall) is a 1975 Indian crime drama film, written by Salim-Javed (Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar), directed by Yash Chopra, and starring Amitabh Bachchan, Shashi Kapoor, Nirupa Roy, Parveen Babi and Neetu Singh. Reflecting the tumultuous socio-political climate of 1970s India, Deewaar tells the story of a pair of impoverished brothers who, after their family is betrayed by the misplaced idealism of their father, struggle to survive in the slums of Bombay, and eventually find themselves on opposing sides of the law.[3][4][5] The "deewaar" ("wall") in question refers to the wall that has sprung up between the two brothers, drawn apart by fate and circumstances in a time of socio-political turmoil. Bachchan's character Vijay was loosely inspired by the real-life Bombay underworld gangster Haji Mastan,[6][7] while the film's plot was a contemporary urban reinterpretation of Dilip Kumar's Gunga Jumna (1961)[8][9] and Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957).[9]

Deewaar is often considered a ground-breaking cinematic masterpiece. The film had a significant impact on Indian cinema, as well as wider Indian society, with the film's anti-establishment themes and Amitabh Bachchan's criminal anti-hero vigilante character resonating with audiences,[10] cementing Bachchan's popular image as the "angry young man" of Bollywood cinema.[11][12] It also established Parveen Babi as the "new Bollywood woman"[13] whose character Anita is "a liberated working girl, smoking, drinking and making love to her partner, defying every Hindi film heroine rule."[14][15] The film also cemented the success of the writing duo Salim-Javed, who went on to write many more blockbuster films; the value of film writers skyrocketed thanks to Salim-Javed, who were paid as highly as some actors at the time.[16] Deewaar's influence also extends to world cinema, influencing films from Hong Kong[17] and British cinema.[6]

Deewaar received the Filmfare Best Movie Award of 1975, in addition to six other Filmfare Awards. It was also a "super hit" at the box office, ranking as the fourth highest-grossing Bollywood film of 1975.[18] Indiatimes ranks Deewaar amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[19]

The film had several remakes. It was remade in Telugu as Magaadu (1976), in Tamil as Thee (1981), and in Malayalam as Nathi Muthal Nathi Vare (1983). The Shaw Brothers Studio produced a Hong Kong remake, The Brothers (1979),[17] which in turn inspired John Woo's international breakthrough A Better Tomorrow (1986).[20] There was also a Bollywood remake, Aatish: Feel the Fire (1994).[21] Deewaar also inspired Danny Boyle's Academy Award winning film Slumdog Millionaire (2008).[6]

Plot[edit]

The film opens with a depiction of the strong leadership of trade unionist Anand Verma (Satyen Kappu), who works hard to enhance the lives of struggling laborers. He lives in a modest home with his wife, Sumitra Devi (Nirupa Roy), and their two young sons, Vijay (Amitabh Bachchan), and Ravi (Shashi Kapoor). Anand, however, is blackmailed by a corrupt businessman who threatens to kill his family if Anand does not cease his protest activities. Forced into compliance, Anand is thus attacked by the very same laborers who then jeer him for his betrayal, unaware that he was blackmailed. His family is also persecuted by the angry workers. Out of shame, Anand leaves town, leaving Sumitra to care for their sons alone in poverty. Several of the angry workers kidnap Vijay and tattoo his arm with the Hindi words "मेरा बाप चोर है" (translated into "My Father Is A Thief"). Not knowing what else to do, Sumitra brings her children to Bombay and struggles as a day laborer to care for her now homeless sons.

Vijay, the older brother, grows up with an acute awareness of his father's failure and is victimized for his father's supposed misdeeds. In the process of fighting for his rights, Vijay, who starts out as a boot polisher, was a dockyard worker in his youth, now becomes a smuggler for the underworld. Vijay beats up several thugs working for their ruthless leader Samant (Madan Puri), which then influences one of Samant's rivals to bring Vijay to his inner circle, leaving Vijay to become a new leading figure of the underworld. He also sacrifices his own education so his brother Ravi can study.

Ravi is an excellent student. He is dating Veera (Neetu Singh), the daughter of a senior police officer. On the Commissioner's suggestion, Ravi applies for employment with the police, and is sent for training. Several months later, he is accepted by the police, and has a rank of Sub-Inspector. When Ravi returns home, he finds that Vijay has become a businessman overnight, has accumulated wealth, and a palatial home. One of his first assignments is to apprehend and arrest some of Bombay's hardcore criminals and smugglers which includes his brother, Vijay – much to his shock, as he had never associated his own brother with criminal activities. Ravi must now decide between apprehending Vijay and quitting the police force. When Ravi finds out that Vijay has acquired wealth by crime, he decides to move out along with his mother. Shouldering past the loss of his mother and sibling, Vijay enters a sexual relationship with Anita (Parveen Babi), a woman whom he meets at a bar. When Anita falls pregnant, Vijay decides to abandon his life in the underworld, marry her, and confess his sins. He also hopes to seek forgiveness from his mother and brother. However, when Anita is brutally murdered by Samant, Vijay loses all sense and brutally murders Samant in revenge for Anita's death, leading him to be branded a criminal forever. Their mother, who had sided with Ravi despite the fact that Vijay was her favourite, is tormented by Vijay's decisions and rejects him. When the two brothers meet for a final clash, Ravi, pleading Vijay to stop running, shoots Vijay in his arm and Vijay dies (after crashing his car into a wall while trying to escape) in his mother's arms in a temple, which he has visited for the first time in his life, seeking forgiveness. Ravi is felicitated for pursuing justice.

Cast[edit]

Crew[edit]

Production[edit]

Story and screenplay[edit]

The film's screenplay, story and dialogues were written by Salim-Javed (Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar). The main inspiration for the film's plot was the 1961 Dilip Kumar film Gunga Jumna (1961), which had a similar premise of two brothers on opposing sides of the law, with the elder criminal brother as the main character.[22][23] Deewaar is thus considered to be a spiritual successor to Gunga Jumna.[24] Salim-Javed credited Gunga Jumna as well as Mehboob Khan's Mother India (1957) as the main inspirations for Deewaar, which they described as a "more urban, much more contemporary" take on their themes; while Mother India and Gunga Jumna took place in a rural context, Salim-Javed reinterpreted their themes in a contemporary urban context with Deewaar.[9]

Amitabh Bachchan's character, Vijay, was loosely inspired by the real-life Bombay underworld gangster Haji Mastan.[6][7] Vijay's story arc in the film parallels that of Mastan's life, such as the rise from a humble dockyard coolie worker to a powerful smuggler,[7][25] and Mastan's rivalry with smuggler Sukkur Narayan Bakhia is similar to Vijay's rivalry with Samant (Madan Puri).[7]

Salim-Javed's screenplay had dynamic dialogues, and incorporated a number of symbolic motifs. For example, the scene where the two brothers meet as adults takes place under a bridge, symbolizing a bridge between the two "deewaars" ("walls") represented by the brothers.[10] Set in the Dharavi slums of Bombay, the film's story of gangsters in Dharavi was a critique of socio-political inequality and injustice in Bombay.[5] The characterizations of the two brothers are sociologically contextualized to represent a form of urban conflict and drama, aimed at presenting a causal explanation for the sequence of events and Vijay's social alienation, with the narrative explaining his every action and decision, grounded in his memories and experiences.[4]

The script generally has an atmosphere of secularism, while incorporating subtle religious motifs.[10] The mother Sumitra Devi (Nirupa Roy) and police brother Ravi (Shashi Kapoor) are religious Hindus, whereas the criminal brother Vijay (Bachchan) is generally not religious and "upset with God", yet he carries a badge numbered 786, which the Muslim Rahim Chacha (Yunus Parvez) points out to be a number of religious significance in Islam[10] (representing Bismillah) and has its own sub-plot.[17] The 786 badge plays a powerful and symbolic role in several scenes,[10] saving Vijay at key moments[26] and signifying something ominous when he loses it.[10] Salim-Javed also experimented with portraying Parveen Babi's character as "a modern woman who felt no guilt or shame in having pre-martial sex, drinking or smoking," which was "novel and revolutionary" at the time. The film's central female role, however, is Nirupa Roy's mother character Sumitra Devi.[10]

Salim-Javed initially showed the script to Bachchan, who they had in mind for Vijay's role after having worked with him on Zanjeer (1973). At the time Bachchan was working on another film with Yash Chopra, and told him about the script. After some initial skepticism, Chopra was eventually convinced to direct the film after Salim-Javed narrated the storyline to him.[10]

Casting and filming[edit]

Bachchan's "angry young man" performance as Vijay in the film was inspired by Dilip Kumar's intense performance as Gunga in Gunga Jumna, which Bachchan sharpened and reinterpreted in a contemporary urban context reflecting the changing socio-political climate of 1970s India.[27][28]

Producer Gulshan Rai initially wanted Rajesh Khanna to play Vijay's role. However, Salim-Javed "felt only he (Bachchan) could do justice to Vijay’s role." According to Akhtar, they "saw his talent, which most makers didn’t. He was exceptional, a genius actor who was in films that weren’t good." At Salim-Javed's insistence, Bachchan was cast in the role.[10] Director Yash Chopra's first choices for Vijay and Ravi's roles were Rajesh Khanna and Navin Nischol, respectively, but Salim-Javed had Amitabh Bachchan and Shatrughan Sinha in mind when they wrote the script; Sinha turned down the film when he heard Khanna was initially cast in the lead, due to a fallout between the two. Nirupa Roy's role as Sumitra Devi was also first offered to Vyjayanthimala; Nischol and Vyjayanthimala turned down the film after they found out Khanna would no longer be in the film. Shashi Kapoor was subsequently cast as Ravi, and Nirupa Roy as Sumitra Devi.[29]

In 2014, Bachchan revealed that his iconic look in the film - a "denim blue shirt worn with khakee pants and a rope dangling over the shoulder" - was the result of a mistake by the tailor. He said, "The knotted shirt and rope on shoulder in [Deewaar] was an adjustment for an error in stitching, shirt too long so knotted it".[30] In certain scenes, Bachchan had some input on Chopra's direction, such as the father's funeral scene where Bachchan, instead of lighting the pyre with his right hand, suggests to use his left hand to show off the tattoo, "Mera baap chor hai" ("My father is a thief").[10]

The film contains a fight scene,[31] which involves Bachchan performing martial arts sequences inspired by Hong Kong martial arts cinema, which Deewaar was one of the first to do in Indian cinema.[32] Rather than following the Hollywood model, it follows the Hong Kong model, with an emphasis on acrobatics and stunts. The style of fighting seen in Deewaar combined kung fu (as it was perceived by Indians) with Indian martial arts (particularly Indian wrestling).[33]

Soundtrack[edit]

Deewaar
Soundtrack album to Deewaar by R.D. Burman
Released 1975
Genre Feature film soundtrack
Language Hindi-Urdu
Label Universal
Producer R.D. Burman

The Soundtrack of the movie was composed by Rahul Dev Burman, and the lyrics were penned by Sahir Ludhianvi. The soundtrack did well, and the track "Kehdoon Tumhe" was a chartbuster.

Song Singer(s)
"Kehdoon Tumhe" Kishore Kumar and Asha Bhosle
"Maine Tujhe Manga" Kishore Kumar and Asha Bhosle
"Koi Mar Jaye" Asha Bhosle and Usha Mangeshkar
"Deewaron Ka Jungle" Manna Dey
"Idhar Ka Mal Udhar" Bhupinder Singh
"I Am Falling In Love With A Stranger" Ursula Vaz

Box office[edit]

At the Indian box office, the film grossed 75 million[2] ($9 million).[a] Adjusted for inflation, its box office gross in 1975 is equivalent to $40 million (2.7 billion)[35] in 2016.

DVD & Blu-ray release[edit]

Numerous DVD editions entered the market by companies like "Eros Entertainment", "Shemaroo Entertainment" and "Eagle Home Video". These were released as non-restored, non re-mastered editions and bare bones, void of supplementary features.

Eagle Home Video came out with a restored edition of this movie, preserving the original aspect ratio in 4:3 pillar box and a DTS Master Audio (HD) in 2.0. The restoration took place in Shemaroo studios.

Accolades[edit]

Awards[edit]

23rd Filmfare Awards[36][37]

Wins
Nominations

Rankings[edit]

Indiatimes ranks Deewaar amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[19] It was one of the three Hindi films featured in the book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die, the others being Mother India (1957) and Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995).[38]

Legacy[edit]

Remakes[edit]

The film was later remade in Telugu as Magaadu (1976), starring NTR with Rama Krishna, Manjula Vijayakumar, and Latha Sethupathi; in Tamil as Thee (1981), starring Rajinikanth, Suman, Manorama, and Sripriya; and in Malayalam as Nathi Muthal Nathi Vare (1983), starring Mammootty.

The Brothers (Cha ren da lao bo ming zai in Mandarin, Cha yan daai liu bok meng chai in Cantonese), a 1979 Hong Kong film produced by the Shaw Brothers Studio, is a remake of this film. It is a mostly faithful remake, with many of the same scenes and dialogues, but set in Hong Kong and with notable differences reflecting Chinese culture. For example, the badge's number is changed from 786, a number with symbolic significance in Islam, to 838, which signifies the Chinese Year of the Horse. The film featured a number of notable Hong Kong action film stars, including Tony Liu (in Amitabh Bachchan's criminal role), Danny Lee (in Shashi Kapoor's police role), and Ku Feng (in Iftekhar's role).[17]

Another remake of Deewaar was the 1994 Bollywood film Aatish: Feel the Fire, starring Sanjay Dutt as the older criminal brother, Atul Agnihotri as the younger police brother, and Tanuja as the mother. Aatish had a story "straight out of Deewar" but added a twist, with the mother supporting the criminal brother.[21]

India[edit]

The film had a significant impact on Indian cinema, as well as wider Indian society. It was perceived by audiences to be anti-establishment, while Amitabh Bachchan's character Vijay was seen as a vigilante anti-hero, establishing Bachchan's image as the "angry young man" of Indian cinema.[10] With the unprecedented growth of slums across India at the time, Vijay was seen as a new kind of hero, with his suppressed rage giving a voice to the angst of the urban poor.[4][5] The portrayal of his love interest, played by Parveen Babi, as "a modern woman who felt no guilt or shame in having pre-martial sex, drinking or smoking," was also "novel and revolutionary" at the time,[10] and she became seen as the "new Bollywood woman".[13]

The film cemented the success of the writing duo Salim-Javed, who went on to write many more blockbuster films. After the success of this film, the value of film writers skyrocketed thanks to Salim-Javed, and they soon were being paid as highly as some actors at the time.[16] Amitabh Bachchan described Salim-Javed's screenplay for Deewaar as "the perfect script".[10]

Deewaar, one of the first Indian films with an action sequence modeled after Hong Kong martial arts cinema, popularized the use of martial arts sequences in Bollywood films from the 1970s to the 1990s.[32] The style of fighting popularized by Deewaar, with acrobatics and stunts, and combining kung fu (as it was perceived by Indians, based on 1970s Hong Kong films) with Indian martial arts (particularly Indian wrestling), became the standard model for Bollywood action scenes up until the 1990s.[33]

The Bollywood film Naam (1986) was influenced by Deewaar. It was written by Salim Khan, one half of Deewaar's writing duo Salim-Javed.

Deewaar is also remembered for its iconic dialogues written by Salim-Javed. The most famous is when Shashi Kapoor delivers the line, "Mere paas maa hai" ("I have mother"), a line that is widely known in India and has become part of Indian popular culture.[39] The film Loins of Punjab Presents (2007) mocked how the line is sometimes wrongly attributed to Amitabh Bachchan.[40]

Overseas[edit]

Deewaar went on to influence Hong Kong cinema, where Deewaar was remade as The Brothers (1979).[17] The Brothers went on to inspire John Woo's internationally acclaimed breakthrough A Better Tomorrow (1986), which involved a similar conflict between brothers.[20] In particular, Ti Lung's character in A Better Tomorrow is similar to Amitabh Bachchan's Deewaar character Vijay, played by Tony Liu in The Brothers.[17] In turn, A Better Tomorrow began the heroic bloodshed genre in Hong Kong action cinema.[41] The Brothers also established Danny Lee (playing Shashi Kapoor's character) with a police officer persona later seen in Hong Kong crime films such as Woo's The Killer (1989).[17]

British director Danny Boyle described Deewaar as being “absolutely key to Indian cinema” and cited the film as an influence on his Academy Award winning film Slumdog Millionaire (2008).[6] The film's co-director Loveleen Tandan noted that "Simon Beaufoy studied Salim-Javed's kind of cinema minutely."[42] Actor Anil Kapoor noted that some scenes of Slumdog Millionaire "are like Deewaar, the story of two brothers of whom one is completely after money while the younger one is honest and not interested in money."[43] Slumdog Millionaire, which pays homage to Amitabh Bachchan, has a similar narrative structure to Deewaar. Composer A. R. Rahman referenced the film in his Oscar acceptance speech.[40]

Further reading[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b 8.3759 Indian rupees per US dollar in 1975[34]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aḵẖtar, Jāvīd; Kabir, Nasreen Munni (2002). Talking Films: Conversations on Hindi Cinema with Javed Akhtar. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780195664621. JA: I write dialogue in Urdu, but the action and descriptions are in English. Then an assistant transcribes the Urdu dialogue into Devnagari because most people read Hindi. But I write in Urdu. 
  2. ^ a b Box Office 1975, Box Office India. Archived 20 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ "Deewar: the fiction of film and the fact of politics". Ejumpcut.org. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c Mazumdar, Ranjani. Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City. University of Minnesota Press. p. 14. ISBN 9781452913025. 
  5. ^ a b c Lee, Joseph Tse-Hei; Kolluri, Satish (2016). Hong Kong and Bollywood: Globalization of Asian Cinemas. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 173. ISBN 9781349949328. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Amitava Kumar (23 December 2008). "Slumdog Millionaire's Bollywood Ancestors". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 4 January 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c d Virdi, Jyotika. "Deewaar: the fiction of film and the fact of politics." Jump Cut, No. 38, June 1993:26–32.
  8. ^ Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema, page 153
  9. ^ a b c Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema’s Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Books. p. 72. ISBN 9789352140084. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Deewaar was the perfect script: Amitabh Bachchan on 42 years of the cult film". Hindustan Times. 29 January 2017. 
  11. ^ "Film legend promotes Bollywood". BBC News. 23 April 2002. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  12. ^ Bombay Cinema. Books.google.com. 23 April 2007. ISBN 9781452913025. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  13. ^ a b Amitabh Bachchan; Parveen Babi in Deewar (23 January 2005). "As in life, so in death: lonely and lovelorn". Telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  14. ^ "'We'll never know her full story'". Inhome.rediff.com. 24 January 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  15. ^ "'Cool' Babi broke Deewar of stereotypes". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 22 January 2005. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  16. ^ a b "Topmoviestowatch.info". 2 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 December 2012. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Mondal, Sayantan. "Amitabh Bachchan starrer 'Deewar' was remade in Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam – and Cantonese". Scroll.in. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  18. ^ "BoxOffice India.com". BoxOffice India.com. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  19. ^ a b "25 Must See Bollywood Movies – Special Features-Indiatimes – Movies". Movies.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  20. ^ a b "The Brothers". Hong Kong Cinemagic. Retrieved 21 November 2017. 
  21. ^ a b Chaudhuri, Diptakirti (2015). Written by Salim-Javed: The Story of Hindi Cinema’s Greatest Screenwriters. Penguin Books. p. 245. ISBN 9789352140084. 
  22. ^ Mahan, Deepak (4 March 2010). "Gunga Jamuna (1961)". The Hindu. 
  23. ^ "Hindi classics that defined the decade: 1960s Bollywood was frothy, perfectly in tune with the high spirits of the swinging times". The Indian Express. 31 October 2017. 
  24. ^ Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). Bollywood: A Guidebook to Popular Hindi Cinema. Psychology Press. p. 153. ISBN 9780415288545. 
  25. ^ "Amitabh Bachchan's Deewar is 40: 9 Things You Didn't Know About the Angry Young Man - NDTV Movies". NDTV. 22 January 2015. 
  26. ^ Prasad, M. Madhava (2000). Ideology of the Hindi Film: A Historical Construction. Oxford University Press. p. 152. ISBN 9780195652956. 
  27. ^ Raj, Ashok (2009). Hero Vol.2. Hay House. p. 21. ISBN 9789381398036. 
  28. ^ Kumar, Surendra (2003). Legends of Indian cinema: pen portraits. Har-Anand Publications. p. 51. 
  29. ^ "Indian cinema@100: 12 fun facts about Deewar - NDTV". Movies.ndtv.com. 2013-05-02. Retrieved 2014-08-05. 
  30. ^ "Amitabh Bachchan's Iconic look in Deewar Resulted From Tailoring Error - NDTV Movies". 3 July 2014. 
  31. ^ India Today. Thomson Living Media India Limited. 1993. p. 166. 
  32. ^ a b Heide, William Van der (2002). Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film: Border Crossings and National Cultures. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789053565803. 
  33. ^ a b Morris, Meaghan; Li, Siu Leung; Chan, Stephen Ching-kiu (2005). Hong Kong Connections: Transnational Imagination in Action Cinema. Hong Kong University Press. p. 149. ISBN 9781932643190. 
  34. ^ "Pacific Exchange Rate Service" (PDF). UBC Sauder School of Business. University of British Columbia. p. 3. Retrieved 21 November 2017. 
  35. ^ "Exchange Rates (68.3 INR per USD)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2016. 
  36. ^ "When Kishore sang non-stop for Filmfare". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 28 February 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  37. ^ "1st Filmfare Awards 1953" (PDF). Deep750.googlepages.com. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  38. ^ "1001 Series". Archived from the original on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2010. 
  39. ^ "'Mere Paas Maa Hai': The iconic Deewar dialogue that makes Shashi Kapoor immortal". Deccan Chronicle. 4 December 2017. 
  40. ^ a b Lal, Vinay (2012). Deewar. Harper Collins. p. 5. ISBN 9789350292464. 
  41. ^ Morton, Lisa (2001). The Cinema of Tsui Hark. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0990-8. 
  42. ^ "'Slumdog Millionaire' has an Indian co-director". The Hindu. 11 January 2009. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2009. 
  43. ^ Runna Ashish Bhutda; Ashwini Deshmukh; Kunal M Shah; Vickey Lalwani; Parag Maniar; Subhash K Jha (13 January 2009). "The Slumdog Millionaire File". Mumbai Mirror. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 

External links[edit]