Mahadevi or Durga
|Date||9th- to 14th-centuries CE|
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The Devi Upanishad (Sanskrit:देवी उपनिषत्), is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism and a text composed in Sanskrit. It is one of the 19 Upanishads attached to the Atharvaveda, and is classified as one of the eight Shakta Upanishads. It is, as an Upanishad, a part of the corpus of Vedanta literature collection that present the philosophical concepts of Hinduism.
The text was likely composed between 9th- to 14th-centuries CE. It refers to Mahadevi as representing all goddesses. The Devi Upanishad is part of the five Atharvashiras Upanishads important to Tantra and Shakta philosophy traditions.
The Upanishad states that the Goddess is the Brahman (ultimate metaphysical Reality), and from her arise Prakṛti (matter) and Purusha (consciousness). She is bliss and non-bliss, the Vedas and what is different from it, the born and the unborn, and all of the universe.
Devi and Deva are Sanskrit terms found in the Vedic literature, such as the Rigveda of the 2nd millennium BCE. Deva is masculine, and the related feminine equivalent is Devi. They mean "heavenly, divine, terrestrial things of high excellence, exalted, shining ones". Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Latin dea and Greek thea.
The term Upanishad means it is knowledge or "hidden doctrine" text that belongs to the corpus of Vedanta literature collection presenting the philosophical concepts of Hinduism and considered the highest purpose of its scripture, the Vedas.
According to Cheever Mackenzie Brown – a professor of Religion at the Trinity University, this important Tantric and Shaktism text was probably composed sometime between the ninth and fourteenth centuries CE.
The Devi Upanishad is part of the five Atharva Shiras Upanishads, each of which are named after the five main deities or shrines (panchayatanan) of Ganapati, Narayana, Rudra, Surya and Devi. Its philosophy is also found in the Tripura Upanishad, Bahvricha Upanishad, and the Guhyakala Upanishad.
Composed in Sanskrit, it is a minor Upanishad. The text is listed at 81 in the modern era anthology of 108 Upanishads found in the Muktika enumerated by Rama to Hanuman. Some manuscripts of this Upanishad are titled as the Devyupanishad (देव्युपनिषत्).
Foundation and structure
The Devi Upanishad comprises 32 verses after an invocation from the Atharvaveda. The text describes the goddess as the highest principle, and the ultimate truth in the universe (Brahman).
I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.
Thus gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in.
Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, – each man who sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken.
They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it.
I, verily, myself announce and utter the word that gods and men alike shall welcome.
I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him nourished, a sage, and one who knows Brahman.
I bend the bow for Rudra [Shiva], that his arrow may strike, and slay the hater of devotion.
I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth and Heaven and reside as their Inner Controller.
On the world's summit I bring forth sky the Father: my home is in the waters, in the ocean as Mother.
Thence I pervade all existing creatures, as their Inner Supreme Self, and manifest them with my body.
I created all worlds at my will, without any higher being, and permeate and dwell within them.
The eternal and infinite consciousness is I, it is my greatness dwelling in everything.
The Devi Upanishad, in a manner similar to this Rigvedic hymn, asserts that from the Goddess arise Prakṛti (matter) and Purusha (consciousness), she is bliss and non-bliss, from her emerged the Vedas and what is different from it, the born and the unborn, and all of the universe. She suggests that "Brahman and non-Brahman must be known", that she is all the five elements, as well as all that is different from these elements, what is above, what is below, what is around, and thus the universe in its entirety.
Who is the Goddess?
The Devi Upanishad opens with a gathering of gods, who ask, "Great Goddess, who are you?"
The Devi asserts that she is Svarupini – identical in form to – Brahman.[note 1] In verses 2 and 3, states Thomas B. Coburn, Devi explains her forms of nirguna (without attributes) and suguna (with attributes), the true being (Sat), the consciousness (Citta) and the bliss (Anand).[note 2]
The verses 2 and 3 further assert that she is the universe, the Prakrti (nature) and Purusha (consciousness), the knowledge and ignorance, Brahman and Non-Brahman, the Vedas and whatever is different from it, "the unborn and the born, I am below, above and around".
In verses 4 and 5, the Devi Upanishad mirrors the opening verses of the Devi sukta hymn of the Rigveda.
I move with Rudras and Vasus, with Adityas and Visvedevas,
Mitra and Varuna, Indra and Agni, I support, and the two Asvins.
I uphold Soma, Tvastir, Pusan and Bhaga,
The wide-stepping Vishnu, Brahma, Prajapati.
I travel with the Rudras and the Vasus, with the Adityas and All-Gods I wander.
I hold aloft both Varuna and Mitra, Indra and Agni, and the Pair of Asvins.
I cherish and sustain high-swelling Soma, and Tvastar I support, Pusan, and Bhaga.
I load with wealth the zealous sacrificer who pours the juice and offers his oblation
The first five verses of the Devi Upanishad resonate with ideas from the Mahanarayana Upanishad and the Shvetashvatara Upanishad. There, states June McDaniel – a Professor of Religious Studies, the ideas of metaphysical reality called Brahman is in "everything below, around and above is her own personification".
After suggesting in the first six verses that she is identical with Mahadevi, Durga, Kali, Mahalakshmi, Vaishnavi, Saraswati and all goddesses, Devi asserts that it is she to whom the oblations of any Yajna (fire rituals) reach. In verse 7, with a hymn structure resonating with the Gayatri Mantra, the Devi states, that one who knows "my essence in the water of the inner sea", attains her.
Devi stuti and iconography
In verses 8 through 14, the gathered gods acknowledge Devi's answer. They accept, states Devi Upanishad, that she is the Shakti, the Maha-vidya (the great knowledge), the Vedas, the power of Vishnu, she is the inspirer, she is the reason that gods were born, she is the love in the universe, the primordial source of universe, the bearer of thunderbolt, the cave, the wind, the cloud, the enchanting, the power of Self. This part of the Upanishad is the same as the Devi Stuti in Devi Gita 1.44–1.48.
According to verse 18, she is venerated because Devi is eight attendant deities of Indra ("Vasus"); the eleven Rudras; and the twelve Adityas or sun gods representing each month of a year. She represents all gods who consume the Vedic ritual drink Soma or those who choose not to. She is also all the goblins, the demons, the evil beings, the ghosts, the super-human and the semi-divine, the planets, stars and all that shines in the sky, she is time and its divisions, she is everything that was, is and will be in the universe.
She is, states the text, the three Guṇas – Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. She is Prajapati, Indra and Manu. She is infinite, pure, Shiva, refuge and the giver of that which is good, states verse 19.
In another iconic description, in verses 20 and 24, the texts says that she is seated in one's "lotus heart", adorned with a crescent moon, conjoined with fire, glowing like the early morning sun, propitious, armed with the "noose and goad", with expressions marking her benevolence and dissolving fears, and that she is three eyed, attired in red, tender, bestows all wishes to her devotees.
The Upanishad, in verses 26 to 28, asserts that Devi is "Unknowable, the Endless, the Incomprehensible, the Unknown, the One and the Many." The Upanishad states that Devi is the fountainhead of all mantras. All knowledge is her inherent characteristic, beyond her there is nothing, she is the pilot of worldly life.
In verses 29 to 32, the benefits of reciting this Upanishad, at specific times and days are explained. Reciting the Upanishad ten times removes all sins and obstacles; also prescribes recitation in the morning and evening hours to get the same benefits. Recitation at midnight makes one's speech perfect. Recitation during the consecration of an image of a deity imbibes the image with energy.
Influence in Tantra
The five verses from 8 to 12 form part of the Devi Stuti (in Devi Gita 1.44–48). This reflects the Vedicization of tantric nature of the Devi Upanishad, a fusion, which the author of the Devi Gita says "as one of those texts whose recitation is pleasing to her." Her progeny through Shiva like Aditi and Skanda, her comradeship with goddesses like Saraswati and Lakshmi, her status as Maya (the empirical reality) and her representation of the wind, the cloud and Indra are all recalled in verses 8 to 14.
- Tinoco 1997, p. 89.
- Coburn 1991, p. 217.
- Klaus Klostermaier (1984), Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, ISBN 978-0889201583, pages 198-202
- Klostermaier 2010, p. 496.
- Klostermaier 2010, p. 492, 101-102.
- John Stratton Hawley and Donna Marie Wulff (1998), Devi: Goddesses of India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814912, pages 18-21
- John Stratton Hawley and Donna Marie Wulff (1998), Devi: Goddesses of India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814912, page 2
- Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 1, Oxford University Press, page LXXXVI footnote 1, 22, verse 13.4
- C Mackenzie Brown Trinity University, Department of Religion, Texas (2015)
- Brown 1998, pp. 25-26.
- Kennedy 1831, p. 442.
- McDaniel 2004, p. 90.
- Ramamoorthy & Nome 2000, p. 19.
- Deussen, Bedekar & Palsule (tr.) 1997, pp. 557.
- Knapp 2005, p. 475.
- Vedic Literature, Volume 1, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts, p. PA424, at Google Books, Government of Tamil Nadu, Madras, India, pages 424-425
- Warrier 1967, pp. 77-84.
- McDaniel 2004, pp. 90–92.
- Brown 1998, p. 26.
- Coburn 1991, p. 136.
- James Lochtefeld (2002), Brahman, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 122
- PT Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-4067-3262-7, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII
- The Rig Veda/Mandala 10/Hymn 125 Ralph T.H. Griffith (Translator); for Sanskrit original see: ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं १०.१२५
- McDaniel 2004, p. 91.
- ॥ देवी उपनिषत् ॥ Sanskrit text of Devi Upanishad, Sanskrit Documents Archives (2009)
- Coburn 1991, pp. 136–137, 217.
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- ॥ देवी उपनिषत् ॥ Sanskrit text of Devi Upanishad, SanskritDocuments Archives (2009)
- Brown 1998, p. 77.
- June McDaniel, Department of Religious Studies, College of Charleston (2015)
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- Brown 1998.
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- Deussen, Paul; Bedekar, V.M. (tr.); Palsule (tr.), G.B. (1 January 1997). Sixty Upanishads of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7.
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- McDaniel, June (9 July 2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls : Popular Goddess Worship in West Bengal: Popular Goddess Worship in West Bengal. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5.
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- Warrier, AG Krishna (1967). Śākta Upaniṣads. Adyar Library and Research Center. ISBN 978-0835673181. OCLC 2606086.