Dignitas (Swiss non-profit organisation)

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Dignitas is a Swiss non-profit members' society providing assisted/accompanied suicide to those members of the organization who suffer from terminal illness and/or severe physical and/or mental illnesses, supported by qualified Swiss doctors independent of the organization. By the end of 2020, they had assisted 3,248 people with dying at home within Switzerland and at Dignitas' house/flat near Zürich.[1] Additionally, they do advisory work on palliative care, health care advance directive and suicide attempt prevention, and they have been leading and supporting numerous court cases and legislation projects for right-to-die laws around the world.[2]

Members of Dignitas who wish for an assisted suicide have to be of sound judgement, themselves able to do the last act which brings about death, and submit a formal request including a letter explaining their wish to die and most of all medical reports showing diagnosis and treatments tried. For people with severe psychiatric illnesses, additionally, an in-depth medical report prepared by a psychiatrist that establishes the patient's condition, is required as per a Swiss Supreme Court decision.[3]

History and operation[edit]

Dignitas was founded 17 May 1998 by Ludwig Minelli, a Swiss lawyer specialising in human rights law. Swiss laws provide that assistance to suicide is legal as long as it is not motivated by selfish motives.

The person who wishes to die meets several Dignitas personnel, in addition to an independent medical doctor, for a private consultation. The independent doctor assesses the evidence provided by the patient in advance and is met on two occasions, with a time gap between each of the consultations.[4] Legally admissible proof that the person wishes to die is also created, in the form of a signed affidavit, countersigned by independent witnesses. In cases where a person is physically unable to sign a document, a short video film of the person is made in which they are asked to confirm their identity, that they wish to die, and that their decision is made of their own free will, without any form of persuasion / coercion. This evidence of informed consent remains private and is preserved only for use in any possible legal dispute.[citation needed]

Finally, a few minutes before the lethal overdose is provided, the person is once again reminded that taking the overdose will surely kill them. Additionally, they are asked several times whether they want to proceed, or take some time to consider the matter further. This gives the person the opportunity to stop the process at any time. However, if at this point the person states that they are determined to proceed, a lethal overdose is provided and ingested.[citation needed]

Suicide method[edit]

In general, Dignitas uses the following protocol to assist suicides: an oral dose of an antiemetic drug, followed approximately half an hour later by a lethal overdose of 15 grams of powdered pentobarbital dissolved in a glass of water. If necessary, the drugs can be ingested via a drinking straw. The pentobarbital overdose depresses the central nervous system, causing the person to become drowsy and fall asleep within 3–5 minutes of drinking it. Anaesthesia progresses to coma and later, as the person's breathing becomes more shallow, is followed by respiratory arrest and death, which occurs within 30–40 minutes of ingesting the pentobarbital.

Exceptionally, in four cases in 2008, Dignitas used breathing helium gas[5] as a suicide method instead of a pentobarbital overdose. The medical supervision was still observed, however, and the method avoided controlled drugs, which reduced the risk of the medical board / authorities harassing the medical doctor giving a "green light" for the accompanied suicide.


In two referendums on 15 May 2011, voters in the Canton of Zürich overwhelmingly rejected calls to ban assisted suicide or to outlaw the practice for non-residents. Out of more than 278,000 ballots cast, the initiative to ban assisted suicide was rejected by 85 per cent of voters and the initiative to outlaw it for non-residents was turned down by 78 per cent.[6][7][8]


Ludwig Minelli said in an interview in March 2008 that Dignitas had assisted 840 people to die, 60% of them Germans.[5] By 2010, that number had exceeded a thousand assisted suicides.[9]

Most people contacting Dignitas do not plan to die but wish for insurance in case their illness becomes intolerable. Of those who receive the so-called "provisional green light", 70% never return to Dignitas.[5]

21% of people receiving assisted suicide in Dignitas do not have a terminal or progressive illness, but rather "weariness of life".[10]

Costs and finances[edit]

According to the official Dignitas website,[11] as of 2017 Dignitas charges its patients 7,000 Swiss Francs (approx. £5,180 / US$7,980) for preparation and suicide assistance, or 10,500 Swiss Francs (approx. £7,770 / US$11,970) in case of taking over family duties, including funerals, medical costs and official fees. Dignitas has been known to waive certain costs where there is hardship.[12] Under Swiss Law, Dignitas operates as a non-profit organization, but does not open its finances to the public,[13] which has elicited criticism from some quarters.

'Suicide tourism'[edit]

Although mainly Germans turn to Dignitas for so called 'assisted suicide', as of August 2015, approximately 300 British citizens have travelled to Switzerland from the UK to die at one of Dignitas' rented apartments in Zürich.[14]

Reaction of local Swiss people and authorities[edit]

Dignitas-founder Ludwig Minelli describes the difficulties that Dignitas has faced over the years.[15] In Sept 2007, it was evicted, blocked or locked out of three flats, and so Mr Minelli offered assisted suicide in his private house. This, however, was then prohibited by the local council. In October 2007, Dignitas was again prevented from working in a private house by the local council and refused rooms on an industrial site. In December 2007, an interim judgment prevented Dignitas from working in a building next to a busy brothel. The media frenzy led to several people offering Dignitas flats or houses, of which one turned out to be suitable. Since 2009, Dignitas has a house at an undisclosed location where accompanied suicide for people from abroad has taken place.

Patient selection[edit]

In certain right-to-die organisations, an age restriction is in place for potential patients, so as to prevent young people from using their services.[16]

Cremation urns found in Lake Zürich[edit]

In April 2010, private divers found a group of over 60 cremation urns in Lake Zürich. Each of the urns bore the logo of the Zürich Nordheim crematorium (German: Krematorium Nordheim) also used by Dignitas. Soraya Wernli, a former employee, had told The Times 18 months previously that Dignitas had dumped at least 300 urns in the lake. She claimed that Minelli dumped them there himself, but later asked his daughter and another member of staff to do it. In 2008, allegedly two members of Dignitas were caught trying to pour the ashes of 20 dead people into the lake.[17] However, it was never established whether Dignitas had anything to do with it and no charges were taken. In Switzerland, it is not against the law to scatter cremation ashes out into nature.

Dignitas in media[edit]

In 2008, the documentary film Right to Die? was broadcast on Sky Real Lives (rebroadcast on PBS Frontline in March 2010 as The Suicide Tourist). Directed by Oscar-winning Canadian John Zaritsky, it depicts the assisted suicide of several people who have gone to Switzerland to end their lives.[citation needed] It includes the story of Craig Ewert, a 59-year-old retired university professor who suffered from a motor neurone disease. Ewert traveled to Switzerland where he was assisted by the Dignitas NGO. The documentary shows him passing away with Mary, his wife of 37 years, at his side. It was shown on the Swiss television network SF1 and is available as a web movie on the Dignitas website.[18]

The BBC produced a film titled A Short Stay in Switzerland telling the story of Dr Anne Turner, who made the journey to the Dignitas assisted suicide clinic. On January 24, 2006, the day before her 67th birthday, she ended her life. The film was shown on BBC1 on January 25, 2009.

British maestro Sir Edward Downes, who conducted the BBC Philharmonic and the Royal Opera but struggled in recent years (but was not terminally ill) as his hearing and sight failed, died with his wife, who had terminal cancer, at an assisted suicide clinic in Switzerland in July 2009. He was 85 and she was 74.[19]

French theorist and translator Michele Causse chose to die on her birthday, July 29, 2010, in association with Dignitas.[20][21]

On June 13, 2011, BBC Two aired a documentary titled Terry Pratchett: Choosing to Die, featuring author and Alzheimer's disease sufferer Sir Terry Pratchett guiding viewers through an assisted suicide which took place at Dignitas facilities in Switzerland. Peter Smedley, a British hotelier and millionaire, and his wife Christine allowed for Pratchett to film Smedley's deliberate consumption of prepared barbiturate in a glass in order to kill himself as Christine comforted Smedley in his demise. The documentary received a highly polarized reaction in the United Kingdom, with much praise for the programme as "brave", "sensitive"[22] and "important"[23] whilst it also gathered accusations of "pro-death" bias from anti-euthanasia pressure groups and of encouraging the view that disability was a good reason for killing from disability groups.[24][25]

Dignitas continued to be presented in the media as a political stance on the right to die. BBC featured an article regarding the death of UK citizen Jeffrey Spector, a businessman who decided to travel to Switzerland to undergo assisted suicide through Dignitas for an inoperable tumour which most likely would have caused paralysis later on in its development. This situation reignited the debate revolving around the morality of assisted suicides in certain dilemmas, and incited current stances concerning euthanasia. Former Lord Chancellor Lord Falconer said he would "attempt to reintroduce a bill that would allow assisted dying in the UK".[26]

The book Me Before You and the film adaptation of the same name discuss the organization as it serves a vital function in both the main plot and the characters' lives.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Karin. "Statistics". www.dignitas.ch. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  2. ^ Karin. "Latest News / Blog". www.dignitas.ch. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  3. ^ "Supreme Court of Switzerland, decision BGE 133 I 58 of November 3, 2006".
  4. ^ "Paralysed player killed himself". BBC News. December 10, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  5. ^ a b c Wenn Sie das trinken, gibt es kein Zurück Tagesspiegel.de Retrieved April 12, 2008
  6. ^ "Zurich votes to keep 'suicide tourism' alive". The Daily Telegraph. London. May 15, 2011.
  7. ^ "Zurich voters keep "suicide tourism" alive". CBS News.
  8. ^ "Zurich voters keep 'suicide tourism' alive". Fox News. May 15, 2011.
  9. ^ Bruce Falconer (March 2010). "Death Becomes Him". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  10. ^ Fischer, S.; Huber, CA.; Imhof, L.; Mahrer Imhof, R.; Furter, M.; Ziegler, SJ.; Bosshard, G. (Nov 2008). "Suicide assisted by two Swiss right-to-die organisations" (PDF). J Med Ethics. 34 (11): 810–4. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.023887. PMID 18974416. S2CID 19665180.
  11. ^ "Brochure of DIGNITAS". www.dignitas.ch. Retrieved 2017-11-14.
  12. ^ Man who helped partner die calls for assisted suicide law change, The Guardian, 15 June 2009
  13. ^ Branching Out to Serve a Growing but Dying Market The Washington Post, November 1, 2005
  14. ^ "'One person a fortnight' travels to Dignitas from Britain to end their lives". Guardian. August 15, 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
  15. ^ Ludwig A. Minelli, Secretary-General, Attorney-at-law. "Friends At The End (FATE)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 17 December 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ Fischer S. Huber CA. Imhof L. Mahrer Imhof R. Furter M. Ziegler SJ. Bosshard G. Suicide assisted by two Swiss right-to-die organization's, example zalia cyrilia an African was suffering from cancer only paid 2000 to get killed. Journal of Medical Ethics. 2008; 34(11):810-4.
  17. ^ Boyes, Roger (April 28, 2010). "Ashes dumped in Lake Zurich put Dignitas back in the spotlight". The Times. London. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
  18. ^ "DIGNITAS - Dokumentarfilm". 13 December 2008. Archived from the original on 13 December 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  19. ^ Lundin, Leigh (August 2, 2009). "YOUthanasia". Criminal Brief. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
  20. ^ "France Soir". France. Archived from the original on August 6, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  21. ^ http://michele-causse.com/ Michele Causse
  22. ^ Gee, Catherine (13 Jun 2011). "Terry Pratchett: Choosing to Die, BBC Two, review". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  23. ^ Radford, Ceri (13 Jun 2011). "Terry Pratchett: Choosing to Die is important TV, not a tasteless polemic". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  24. ^ "BBC flooded with complaints over Choosing to Die documentary". The Daily Telegraph. London. June 14, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2011.
  25. ^ Taylor, Jerome (June 15, 2011). "Author defends film of assisted dying as BBC fields complaints". The Independent. London. Retrieved June 18, 2011.
  26. ^ "St Annes businessman Jeffrey Spector dies at Dignitas". BBC. London. May 26, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2015.

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