Bullying and suicide

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Bullying is an undesirable, attacker behavior that often happens among school aged children and adolescents. This behavior happens more than one time. Both children who bully or are bullied may have serious mental problems. There are different types of bullying such as verbal, social, physical and cyber.[1]

Bullying and suicide are considered together when the cause of suicide is attributable to the victim having been bullied, either in person or via social media.[2][3][4][5][6] Writers Neil Marr and Tim Field wrote about it in their 2001 book Bullycide: Death at Playtime.[7]

Up till now, there is little evidence that the effects of bullying participation in childhood on adult functioning, even as a bystander, have been considered as aetiological or remediable factors by adult mental health services in their responses to suicidal behaviour.

Legal analysts criticise the term bullycide because it links a cause with an effect under someone else's control.[8] Research shows those who are bullied have a higher probability of considering or performing suicide than those who are not.[6] However, there are victims of bullying who do not end up committing suicide, and some of them share their experiences in order to send a positive message to bullying victims that suicide is not the only option.[9]

In 2010, the suicides of teenagers in the United States who were bullied because they were gay or perceived to be[10][11] led to the establishment of the It Gets Better project by Dan Savage.[12][13] The online event, Spirit Day, was created in which participants were asked to wear purple as a symbol of respect for the deceased victims of bullying, particularly cyberbullying, and to signify opposition to the bullying of the LGBT community.

Statistics[edit]

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) states that almost 45,000 deaths occur from suicide each year. There are about 100 non-fatal suicide attempts to every 1 suicide. A little over 14% of students in high school consider suicide and approximately 7% of them attempt suicide. Students that are bullied are around 2 to 9 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims.[14] A study in Britain found that at least half of suicides among young people are related to bullying. 10 to 14 year old teen girls are most likely to commit suicide based on this study. According to ABC News, nearly 30% of students are either victims of bullies or bullies themselves and 160,000 kids stay home from school every day because they are scared of being bullied.[15]

Cyberbullying[edit]

Cyberbullying is a form of aggression by using the internet and/or electronic communication, such as mobile phones, e-mail, and text message, to cause humiliation, terrorization, embarrassment, and/or psychological distress to a peer.[16] In comparison to verbal bullying, a research study showed that adolescents who reported cyberbullying were 11.5 times more likely to have suicidal ideation, while those who have reported verbal bullying were only 8.4 times more Iikely.[17] In another study, 75% of adolescents who experienced cyberbullying presented with higher suicidal ideation than those who have experienced verbal bullying.[18]

Circumstances that can affect a person's vulnerability[edit]

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBTQ+) youth[edit]

US lesbian, gay, and bisexual students attempt suicide 2-7 times more than heterosexuals and up to one third of transgender people has made an attempt on their life.[20] Young adults of the LGBT community "must cope with developing sexual minority identity along with negative comments, jokes, and threats of violence".[21] A research identified that 19 studies were linked to suicidal behavior in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students to bullying at school. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender students experience more bullying than heterosexual students.[22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Affairs (ASPA), Assistant Secretary for Public (2019-09-24). "What Is Bullying". StopBullying.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  2. ^ Marr, Neil; Field, Tim (30 January 2001). Bully : Death at Playtime (1st ed.). Success Unlimited. ISBN 978-0-9529121-2-5.[page needed]
  3. ^ Bender, Joyce (28 April 2008). "Bullycide: The Only Escape for Some Brutalizd Children with Disabilities". The Cutting Edge. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  4. ^ Pursell Elliott, Gail (9 May 2003). School Mobbing and Emotional Abuse: See it - Stop it - Prevent it with Dignity and Respect. Routledge. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-415-94551-6.
  5. ^ Moffatt, Gregory K (30 June 2003). Wounded Innocents and Fallen Angels: Child Abuse and Child Aggression. Praeger Publishers. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-275-97848-8.
  6. ^ a b Martinez, Edecio (4 May 2010). "Cyber Bullying Illegal: Mass. Governor Signs Landmark Anti-Bullying Law - Crimesider - CBS News". CBS News. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  7. ^ Marr, Neil; Field, Tim (30 January 2001). Bullycide: Death at Playtime (1st ed.). Success Unlimited. ISBN 978-0-9529121-2-5.[page needed]
  8. ^ Kohut, Margaret R (9 November 2007). The Complete Guide to Understanding, Controlling, and Stopping Bullies & Bullying: A Complete Guide for Teachers & Parents. Atlantic Publishing Company. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-60138-021-0.
  9. ^ "National Suicide Prevention Day ; Tales of a Polar Bear". talesofapolarbear.com. 2018-09-10. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  10. ^ LaSalle, Reneé (16 November 2009). "No Charges in Murray County High School "Bullycide" Case". WDEF News. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  11. ^ Sikora, Kate (31 July 2008). "Signs that can help you save your child". The Daily Telegraph. Australia. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  12. ^ "GT Investigates". GayTimes. No. 387. December 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-11-14. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
  13. ^ "In suicide's wake, a message to gay teens: Hang on; you are not alone". St. Petersburg Times; Tampabay.com. 2 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
  14. ^ "Bullying and Suicide". Bullying Statistics. 2015-07-07. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
  15. ^ Dubreuil, Jim; McNiff, Eamon (14 October 2010). "Bullied to Death in America's Schools". ABC News.
  16. ^ Pinto, Melissa D. (2017). "Challenges and opportunities for addressing adolescent cyberbullying within the context of clinically meaningful psychological outcomes: Addressing Adolescent Cyberbullying". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. 30 (1): 4–5. doi:10.1111/jcap.12168. PMID 28513063.
  17. ^ Alavi, Nazanin; Reshetukha, Taras; Prost, Eric; Antoniak, Kristen; Patel, Charmy; Sajid, Saad; Groll, Dianne (2017). "Relationship between Bullying and Suicidal Behaviour in Youth presenting to the Emergency Department". Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 26 (2): 70–77. PMC 5510935. PMID 28747929.
  18. ^ Roberts, Nasreen; Axas, Nicholas; Nesdole, Robert; Repetti, Leanne (October 2016). "Pediatric Emergency Department Visits for Mental Health Crisis: Prevalence of Cyber-Bullying in Suicidal Youth". Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. 33 (5): 469–472. doi:10.1007/s10560-016-0442-8. S2CID 73804324.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Relationship Between Bullying and Suicide: What We Know and What it Means for Schools" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention. April 2014. Retrieved 2017-01-02.
  20. ^ Haas, Ann P.; Eliason, Mickey; Mays, Vickie M.; Mathy, Robin M.; Cochran, Susan D.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.; Silverman, Morton M.; Fisher, Prudence W.; Hughes, Tonda; Rosario, Margaret; Russell, Stephen T.; Malley, Effie; Reed, Jerry; Litts, David A.; Haller, Ellen; Sell, Randall L.; Remafedi, Gary; Bradford, Judith; Beautrais, Annette L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Diamond, Gary M.; Friedman, Mark S.; Garofalo, Robert; Turner, Mason S.; Hollibaugh, Amber; Clayton, Paula J. (2011). "Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations". Journal of Homosexuality. 58 (1): 10–51. doi:10.1080/00918369.2011.534038. PMC 3662085. PMID 21213174.
  21. ^ Morrow, Deana F. (January 2004). "Social Work Practice with Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescents". Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services. 85 (1): 91–99. doi:10.1606/1044-3894.246. S2CID 144872473. ProQuest 230162051.
  22. ^ "Suicide and Bullying" (PDF). Suicide Prevention Resource Center. Retrieved 2017-01-02.