Demographics of Eritrea

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Demographics of Eritrea
Flag of Eritrea
PopulationEstimates range between 3.6 million and 6.7 million[1][2] Eritrea has never conducted an official government census.[3]
Life expectancy65.7[4]
Nationality
Major ethnicTigrinya, Tigre
Minor ethnicRashaida, Jeberti, Afar, Saho, Bilen, Beja, Kunama, Nara
Language
SpokenLanguages of Eritrea

Sources disagree as to the current population of Eritrea, with some proposing numbers as low as 3.6 million[1] and others as high as 6.7 million.[2] Eritrea has never conducted an official government census.[3]

The nation has nine recognized ethnic groups.[5] According to SIL Ethnologue, Tigriniya make up about 60% of the population; the Tigre people, who also speak a Semitic language, constitute around 30% of residents. Most of the rest of the population belong to other Afro-Asiatic-speaking communities of the Cushitic branch. Additionally, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking ethnic minorities and other smaller groups.[5][6]

The two most followed religions are Christianity (63% of the population) and Islam (36%).[7]

Ethno-linguistic groups[edit]

Ethno-Demography of Eritrea

Ethnicity in Eritrea (2020) [8]

  Tigrinya (55%)
  Tigre (30%)
  Saho (4%)
  Kunama (2%)
  Rashaida (2%)
  Bilen (2%)
  Other (5%)

Eritrea's population comprises nine recognized ethnic groups, most of whom speak languages from the Ethiopian Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family.[6] The East African Semitic languages spoken in Eritrea are Tigre, Tigrinya, and the newly recognized Dahlik. Other Afro-Asiatic languages belonging to the Cushitic branch are also widely spoken in the country.[6] The latter include Afar, Beja, Blin, and Saho.

In addition, languages belonging to the Nilo-Saharan language family (Kunama and Nara) are spoken as a mother tongue by the Kunama and Nara Nilotic ethnic minorities that live in the north and northwestern part of the country.[6] The Rashaida speak Arabic, while there are also a number of Italians who speak their native Italian language.

Afro-Asiatic communities[edit]

Semitic speakers[edit]

Tigrinya[edit]
A Tigrigna traditional dance.

The majority of the Tigrinya inhabit the highlands of Eritrea; however, migration to other parts of the country has occurred. Their language is called Tigrinya. They are the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting about 55% of the population.[5] The predominantly Tigrinya populated urban centers in Eritrea are the capital Asmara, Mendefera, Dekemhare, Adi Keyh, Adi Quala and Senafe, while there is a significant population of Tigrinya in other cities including Keren, and Massawa.

They are 92% Christians, (of which 90% are of the Eritrean Orthodox faith, 5% Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic (whose mass is held in Ge'ez as opposed to Latin), and 5% belonging to various Protestant and other Christian denominations, the majority of which belong to the (Lutheran) Evangelical Church of Eritrea).

Tigre[edit]
Traditional Tigre dance

The Tigre reside in the western lowlands in Eritrea. Many also migrated to Sudan at the time of the Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict and lived there since. They are a nomadic and pastoralist people, related to the Tigrinya and to the Beja people. They are a predominantly Muslim nomadic people who inhabit the northern, western, and coastal lowlands of Eritrea, where they constitute 30% of local residents.[5] Some also inhabit areas in eastern Sudan. 95% of the Tigre people adhere to the Islamic religion Sunni Islam, but there are a small number of Christians among them as well (often referred to as the Mensaï in Eritrea). Their language is called Tigre.

Rashaida[edit]

The Rashaida are one of Eritrea's nine recognized ethnic groups. They represent around 2% of the population of Eritrea.[5] The Rashaida reside in the northern coastal lowlands of Eritrea and the northern eastern coasts of Sudan. They are predominantly Muslim and are the only ethnic group in Eritrea to have Arabic as their communal language, specifically the Hejazi dialect. The Rashaida first came to Eritrea in the 19th century from the Arabian Coast.[9]

Jeberti[edit]

The Jeberti people in Eritrea trace descent from early Muslim adherents. The term Jeberti is also locally sometimes used to generically refer to all Islamic inhabitants of the highlands.[10] The Jeberti in Eritrea speak Arabic and Tigrinya.[11] They account for about 8% of the Tigrinya speakers in the nation.

Cushitic speakers[edit]

Afar[edit]

According to the CIA, the Afar constitute under 5% of the nation's population.[5] They live in the Debubawi Keyih Bahri Region of Eritrea, as well as the Afar Region in Ethiopia, and Djibouti. They speak the Afar language as a mother tongue, and are predominantly Muslim. Afars in Eritrea number about 397,000 individuals, the smallest population out of the countries they reside in. In Djibouti, there are about 780,000 group members, and in Ethiopia, they number approximately 1,300,000.

Saho[edit]

The Saho represent 4% of Eritrea's population.[5] They principally reside in the Debubawi Keyih Bahri Region and the Northern Red Sea Region of Eritrea. Their language is called Saho. They are predominantly Muslim, although a few Christians known as the Irob live in the Debub Region of Eritrea and the Tigray region of Ethiopia.

Bilen[edit]

The Bilen in Eritrea represent around 2% of the country's population.[5] They are primarily concentrated in the north-central areas, in and around the city of Keren, and south towards Asmara, the nation's capital. Many of them entered Eritrea from Kush (central Sudan) in the 8th century and settled at Merara, after which they went to Lalibela and Lasta. The Bilen then returned to Axum in Ethiopia's Tigray Province, and battled with the natives; in the resulting aftermath, the Bilen returned to their main base at Merara. The Bilen include adherents of both Islam and Christianity. They speak the Bilen as a mother tongue. Christian adherents are mainly urban and have interbred with the Tigrinya who live in the area. Muslim adherents are mainly rural and have intermingled with the adjacent Tigre.

Beja[edit]

The Beja in Eritrea, or Hedareb, constitute under 5% of local residents.[5] They mainly live along the north-western border with Sudan. Group members are predominantly Muslim and communicate in Hedareb as a first or second language. The Beja also include the Beni-Amer people, who have retained their native Beja language alongside Hedareb.

Nilo-Saharan communities[edit]

Kunama[edit]

According to the CIA, the Kunama constitute around 2% of Eritrea's population.[5] They mainly live in the country's Gash Barka Region, as well as in adjacent parts of Ethiopia's Tigray Region. Many of them reside in the contested border village of Badme. Their language is called Kunama. Although some Kunama still practice traditional beliefs, most are converts to either Christianity (Roman Catholic and Protestant) or Islam.

Nara[edit]

The Nara represent under 5% of the nation's population.[5] They principally reside along the south-western border with Sudan and Ethiopia. They are generally Muslim, with a few Christians and some practising their indigenous beliefs. Their language is called Nara.

Other communities[edit]

Italians[edit]

A few monolingual Italian Eritreans remain. As of 2008, they were estimated at 900 people, down from around 38,000 residents at the end of World War II.

Religion[edit]

Eritrea religious groups
U.S Department of State 2011[12]
religion percent
Christianity
50%
Islam
48%
Others
2%
Maekel RegionAnseba RegionGash-Barka RegionDebub RegionNorthern Red Sea RegionSouthern Red Sea Region
Regions of Eritrea 1. Maekel 2. Anseba 3. Gash-Barka 4. Debub 5. Northern Red Sea 6. Southern Red Sea

People in Eritrea practice various religions. According to the Pew Research Center (2010), 62.9% of the population are Christian, mostly followers of Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo, and to a lesser extent, Roman Catholicism, with the second-largest religion being Muslims.[13][7] In general, most local residents who adhere to Christianity live in the Maekel and Debub regions, whereas those who follow Islam predominantly inhabit the Anseba, Northern Red Sea, Southern Red Sea and Gash-Barka regions. A few adherents of traditional faiths can also be found, particularly in the lowlands.

Region[14] Christians (63%) Muslims (36%)% Other (1%)
Maekel Region, ዞባ ማእከል 97% 3% 1%
Debub region, ዞባ ደቡብ 96% 3% <1%
Gash-Barka Region, ዞባ ጋሽ ባርካ 9% 90% 1%
Anseba Region, ዞባ ዓንሰባ 27% 72% <1%
Northern Red Sea Region,
Semienawi Keyih Bahri ዞባ ሰሜናዊ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ
1% 99% 0%
Southern Red Sea Region,
Debubawi Keyih Bahri ዞባ ደቡባዊ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ
23% 76% <1%

Population[edit]

Sources disagree as to the current population of Eritrea, with UN DESA proposing a low estimate of 3.6 million for 2021[1] and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa proposing a high estimate of 6.7 million for 2019.[2] Eritrea has never conducted an official government census.[3] In its 2019 data release, UN DESA described why its estimate was much lower than earlier estimates, stating, "The decrease is due to the availability of new official population estimates for several years (population count in 2000, official estimates up to 2018) that contribute to lower the size of the population in the recent years, as well as to revised past estimates since 1950."[15]

In the 2010s, worsening conditions fueled migration pressure, with Eritreans trying to reach Europe illegally.[16][17] The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs expects Eritrean population growth to accelerate to 1.8% per year from 2020-2030, vs. 1.1% per year from 2010-2020.[18]

The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2020 was 41.1%, 54.3% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 4.5% were 65 or older.[18]

Eritrea population pyramid in 2020
Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 45.3 51.6 3.0
1960 43.4 53.9 2.7
1970 44.1 53.4 2.5
1980 44.3 53.1 2.6
1990 45.2 52.1 2.7
2000 45.7 50.4 3.8
2010 39.5 56.5 4.0
2020 41.1 54.3 4.5

Vital statistics[edit]

Demographic surveys[edit]

The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) Population Division published its UN DESA 2019 Revision (World Population Prospects 2019) data release[19] based on several data samples, including the 1995 and 2002 Demographic and Health Surveys (1995 DHS, 2002 DHS) and the 2010 Population and Health Survey (2010 PHS), since a full census had not been carried out in Eritrea as of 2010.[3]: 31 

The 1995 DHS survey was carried out in Eritrea by the Eritrean National Statistics Office (NSO) and Macro International Inc., collecting data by interviewing 5,054 women aged 15–49 and 1,114 men aged 15–59, chosen to be a statistically representative sample, from September 1995 to January 1996.[20]

The 2002 DHS survey was carried out by the NSO (renamed as the National Statistics and Evaluation Office), with support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and ORC Macro, collecting data with interviews of 8,754 women in Eritrea in the 15–49 age range, in what was considered to be a statistically representative sample of the full population.[21] Key findings of the survey included a drop from 1995 to 2002 of fertility from 6.1 to 4.8 children per woman; improved knowledge of contraception; a drop in post-neonatal mortality; improved antenatal care; a doubling of the full vaccination rate for 12–23 month old babies from 41 to 76 percent; 38 percent of children under five years old were chronically malnourished or stunted; and near universal knowledge of HIV and AIDS.[22]

In 2010, the NSO, supported by the Fafo Institute for Applied International Studies, published a Population and Health Survey (EPHS2010), based on a survey covering 34,423 households by choosing 900 areas around Eritrea, 525 rural and 375 urban, and randomly selecting 40 households in each cluster. Interviews aimed to include all women aged 15–49 and men aged 15–59 who were either residents or visitors in any selected household on the night preceding the interview. Key findings compared to the 1995 DHS survey included a decrease in early childhood mortality, increased children's vaccination, decreased maternal death, and a "wide gap between knowledge and use of family planning".[3]

Fertility and mortality[edit]

Period Live births per 5 years[23] Deaths per 5 years[24] Natural change per 5 years CBR*[25] CDR*[26] NC*[27] TFR*[28] IMR*[29]
1950–1955 204 000 128 000 76 000 47.5 29.7 17.7 6.96 199
1955–1960 233 000 128 000 105 000 48.8 26.8 22.0 6.96 181
1960–1965 261 000 127 000 134 000 48.4 23.6 24.8 6.82 160
1965–1970 291 000 133 000 158 000 47.4 21.7 25.7 6.70 148
1970–1975 324 000 140 000 184 000 46.0 19.8 26.2 6.62 140
1975–1980 366 000 148 000 218 000 45.3 18.3 27.9 6.62 132
1980–1985 422 000 161 000 261 000 45.2 17.3 27.7 6.70 121
1985–1990 469 000 174 000 295 000 44.0 16.4 23.3 6.6 112
1990–1995 428 000 168 000 260 000 38.4 15.1 19.4 6.3 94.4
1995–2000 359 000 140 000 219 000 31.9 12.5 24.0 5.6 71.1
2000–2005 442 000 135 000 307 000 34.6 10.6 28.3 5.1 59.4
2005–2010 564 000 140 000 424 000 37.6 9.4 28.3 4.8 51.6
2010–2015 552 000 134 000 418 000 33.9 8.2 25.7 4.35 45.0
2015–2020 528 000 125 000 403 000 30.6 7.2 23.4 4.1 34.7
* Values per year: CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Urban/rural and geographical distribution[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR) (1995 DHS, Table 3.1;[20] 2002 DHS, Table 4.1;[21][30])

Year Total CBR Total TFR Urban CBR Urban TFR Rural CBR Rural TFR
1995 37.5 6.10 29.3 4.23 40.3 6.99
2002 32 4.8 28 3.5 35 5.7

Fertility geographical distribution as of 2010 (PHS, Table 4-2):[3]

Zoba Total fertility rate Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant
Debubawi Keih Bahri 4.2 5.4 7.6
Maekel 3.4 4.1 5.5
Semenawi Keih Bahri 5.4 5.9 8.1
Anseba 5.7 6.3 8.2
Gash-Barka 5.4 5.6 8.0
Debub 5.0 6.0 7.9

Life expectancy[edit]

Period Life expectancy in
Years[4]
1950–1955 34.08
1955–1960 Increase 36.68
1960–1965 Increase 40.08
1965–1970 Increase 42.15
1970–1975 Increase 44.11
1975–1980 Increase 45.91
1980–1985 Increase 47.33
1985–1990 Increase 48.69
1990–1995 Increase 50.77
1995–2000 Increase 53.97
2000–2005 Increase 56.70
2005–2010 Increase 60.71
2010–2015 Increase 63.42
2015–2020 Increase 65.74

Migration[edit]

In 2015, there was a major outflow of emigrants from Eritrea. The Guardian attributed the emigration to Eritrea being "a totalitarian state where most citizens fear arrest at any moment and dare not speak to their neighbours, gather in groups or linger long outside their homes", with a major factor being the conditions and long durations of conscription in the Eritrean Army.[36] At the end of 2018, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that about 507,300 Eritreans were refugees who had fled Eritrea.[37] Factors corresponding to emigration include the "lack of political, religious and social freedom", economic reasons and indefinite military service. Young people choosing to flee Eritrea often keep their plans secret from their families in order to decrease their families' stress and risk of being fined or imprisoned. Payment to people smugglers is typically made when a refugee arrives in Libya and provides the smugglers with a telephone number of a diaspora contact who is expected to pay.[38] Several refugees given educational opportunities while residing in refugee camps in Ethiopia felt that they lacked long-term life opportunities beyond obtaining academic degrees, motivating them to attempt further emigration to Europe.[39]

During the first four half decades of the twenty-first century, UN DESA Population Division, in its 2019 Revision of World Population Prospects, estimated that Eritrea had 227 thousand more immigrants than emigrants during 2000–2005 (more people arrived than left), and had net outflows afterwards, with 80 thousand net emigrants during 2005–2010, 246 thousand during 2010–2015 and 199 thousand during 2015-2020.[40]

Demographic statistics[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2019.[41]

  • One birth every 3 minutes
  • One death every 16 minutes
  • One net migrant every 55 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 4 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook.[42]

Age structure[edit]

Population pyramid of Eritrea in 2017
0-14 years: 39.53% (male 1,186,749 /female 1,173,530)
15-24 years: 19.94% (male 592,365 /female 598,305)
25-54 years: 32.88% (male 965,405 /female 997,771)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 96,967 /female 123,895)
65 years and over: 3.95% (male 97,816 /female 137,843) (2018 est.)
0–14 years: 42.9% (male 1,085,116/female 1,072,262)
15–64 years: 53.5% (male 1,332,349/female 1,355,494)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 88,068/female 95,186) (2008 est.)

Total fertility rate[edit]

3.9 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 37th
According to 2002 official survey, fertility rate was 4.8 with 3.5 in urban and 5.7 in rural.[43]

Birth rate[edit]

29.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 40th

Death rate[edit]

7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 126th

Population growth rate[edit]

0.89% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 123rd
2.445% (2011 est.)

Median age[edit]

total: 19.9 years Country comparison to the world: 194th
male: 19.4 years
female: 20.4 years (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth[edit]

21.3 years (2010 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rate[edit]

8.4% (2010)

Net migration rate[edit]

-13.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 215th

Dependency ratios[edit]

total dependency ratio: 85 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 78.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 14.8 (2015 est.)

Urbanization[edit]

urban population: 40.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.86% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]


at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2008 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 65.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 63 years (2018 est.)
female: 68.2 years (2018 est.)

Nationality[edit]


noun: Eritrean(s)
adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups[edit]

Tigrinya 55%, Tigre 30%, Saho 4%, Kunama 2%, Rashaida 2%, Bilen 2%, other (Afar, Beni-Amer, Nera) 5% (2010 est.)[44]

Religion[edit]

Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Sunni Islam, Eritrean Catholic Church, Protestantism in Eritrea

Languages[edit]

Afar, Arabic (spoken by the Rashaida), Beja (spoken by the Hedareb), Blin, Kunama, Nara, Saho, Tigre, Tigrinya, as a second language. English, Italian and Arabic are the foremost second languages.

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 73.8% (2015 est.)
male: 82.4% (2015 est.)
female: 65.5% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)[edit]

total: 5 years (2015)
male: 6 years (2015)
female: 5 years (2015)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "World Population Prospects 2019". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-02-27. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  2. ^ a b c "Eritrea – Indicators – Population (million people), 2018". Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-02-28. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Eritrea – Population and Health Survey 2010" (PDF). National Statistics Office, Fafo Institute for Applied International Studies. 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-06-06. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  4. ^ a b "File MORT/7-1: Life expectancy at birth (both sexes combined) by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (years)". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The World Factbook". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d Minahan, James (1998). Miniature empires: a historical dictionary of the newly independent states. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 76. ISBN 0-313-30610-9. The majority of the Eritreans speak Semitic or Cushitic languages of the Afro-Asiatic language group. The Kunama, Baria, and other smaller groups in the north and northwest speak Nilotic languages.
  7. ^ a b "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2021-05-12.
  8. ^ The World Factbook
  9. ^ Alders, Anne. "the Rashaida". Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  10. ^ Kifleyesus, Abbebe (January 2009). "Jeberti Women Traders' Innumeracy: Its Impact on Commercial Activity in Eritrea". L'Homme: Revue française d'anthropologie (189): 59. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  11. ^ Facts On File, Incorporated (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. p. 336. ISBN 978-1438126760.
  12. ^ "Eritrea". U.S. State Department.
  13. ^ "Table: Christian Population as Percentages of Total Population by Country". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 19 December 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  14. ^ Hsu, Becky (2011). "Eritrea". In Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (eds.). Encyclopedia of Global Religion. Los Angeles: SAGE Publishing. pp. 354–355. ISBN 978-0-7619-2729-7. Retrieved 2020-10-22 – via Google Books.
  15. ^ "World Population Prospect 2019: release note about major differences in total population estimates for mid-2019 between 2017 and 2019 revisions" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. 2019-08-28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-01-11. Retrieved 2021-03-03. The population of Eritrea in 2019 is 3.5 million, which is about 1.8 million (34.1 per cent) less than the previous estimate from the 2017 revision. The decrease is due to the availability of new official population estimates for several years (population count in 2000, official estimates up to 2018) that contribute to lower the size of the population in the recent years, as well as to revised past estimates since 1950.
  16. ^ Why they leave -- Eritreans are taking to the seas because of worsening conditions at home 12 October 2013. "Some 30,000 people reached Italy illegally in boats in the first nine months of 2013, three times as many as in the whole of 2012, according to Frontex, [...] the largest batch came from Eritrea, a country that has supposedly been at peace for the past 13 years." Emigration has left Eritrea ‘desolate’, say bishops, Catholic Herald, 6 September 2014.
  17. ^ Bilateral Estimates of Migrant Stocks in 2010 estimates 942,000 emigrants, of whom 450,000 migrated to Sudan and 290,000 to Ethiopia. C.f. the World' Bank's Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011.
  18. ^ a b "World Population Prospects 2019, custom data acquired via website". United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  19. ^ "Population Division – World Population Prospects 2019 – Data Sources". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-02-28. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  20. ^ a b "Eritrea – Demographic and Health Survey 1995" (PDF). National Statistics Office. 2001-01-29. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-07-09. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  21. ^ a b "Eritrea – Demographic and Health Survey 2002" (PDF). National Statistics Office (Eritrea). 2003-06-02. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-03-03. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  22. ^ "Eritrea – 2002 Demographic and Health Survey – Key Findings" (PDF). National Statistics Office (Eritrea), ORC Macro. 2003-06-16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-10-24. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  23. ^ "File FERT/1: Births (both sexes combined) by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (thousands)". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  24. ^ "File MORT/3-1: Deaths (both sexes combined) by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (thousands)". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  25. ^ "File FERT/3: Crude birth rate by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (births per 1,000 population)". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  26. ^ "File MORT/2: Crude death rate by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (deaths per 1,000 population)". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  27. ^ "File POP/3: Rate of natural increase by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (per 1,000 population)". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  28. ^ "File FERT/4: Total fertility by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (live births per woman)". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-02-28. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  29. ^ "File MORT/1-1: Infant mortality rate (both sexes combined) by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (infant deaths per 1,000 live births)". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  30. ^ "MEASURE DHS: Demographic and Health Surveys". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  31. ^ "File MIGR/2: Net number of migrants (both sexes combined) by major area, region and country, 1950-2100 (thousands)". UN DESA. 2013. Archived from the original on 2015-03-20. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  32. ^ "File MIGR/2: Net number of migrants (both sexes combined) by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (thousands)". UN DESA. 2017. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  33. ^ "File 19: Net number of migrants (both sexes combined) by major area, region and country, 1950-2100 (thousands)". UN DESA. 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  34. ^ "File MIGR/2: Net number of migrants (both sexes combined) by major area, region and country, 1950-2100 (thousands)". UN DESA. 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  35. ^ "File MIGR/2: Net number of migrants (both sexes combined) by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (thousands)". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-02-28. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  36. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (2015-07-15). "It's not at war, but up to 3% of its people have fled. What is going on in Eritrea?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  37. ^ "Eritrea – events of 2019". Human Rights Watch. 2020. Archived from the original on 2021-02-28. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  38. ^ Belloni, Milena (2019-07-22). "I asked young Eritreans why they risk migration. This is what they told me". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  39. ^ Poole, Amanda; Riggan, Jennifer (2021-02-28). "Why Eritrean refugees choose the risky migration to Europe". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  40. ^ "File MIGR/2: Net number of migrants (both sexes combined) by region, subregion and country, 1950-2100 (thousands)". UN DESA. 2019. Archived from the original on 2021-02-28. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  41. ^ "Eritrea Population 2019", World Population Review
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Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document: "2008 edition".

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