Index of Economic Freedom

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The 2018 Heritage Foundation Index of Economic Freedom overall heatmap

The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created in 1995 by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations. The creators of the index took an approach similar to Adam Smith's in The Wealth of Nations, that "basic institutions that protect the liberty of individuals to pursue their own economic interests result in greater prosperity for the larger society".[1][2]

Purpose[edit]

The Heritage Foundation website states that "Economic freedom is the fundamental right of every human to control his or her own labor and property. In an economically free society, individuals are free to work, produce, consume, and invest in any way they please. In economically free societies, governments allow labor, capital, and goods to move freely, and refrain from coercion or constraint of liberty beyond the extent necessary to protect and maintain liberty itself."[3]. By publishing yearly reports the foundation attempts to highlight where such freedoms do and don't exist.

The Heritage Foundation reports that the top 20% on the index have twice the per capita income of those in the second quintile, and five times that of the bottom 20%.[4] Carl Schramm, who wrote the first chapter of the 2008 Index, states that cities of Medieval Italy and mid-19th century Midwestern American cities all flourished to the degree they possessed economic fluidity and institutional adaptiveness created by economic freedom.[5]

According to Will Wilkinson of the libertarian think tank Cato Institute, studies show that higher economic freedom correlates strongly with higher self-reported happiness.[6] According to economists Tomi Ovaska and Ryo Takashima, economic freedom research suggests "that people unmistakably care about the degree to which the society where they live provides them opportunities and the freedom to undertake new projects, strongly with and make choices based on one's personal preferences."[7]

According to the Cato Institute, higher economic freedom promotes participation and collaboration.[8] Also claimed is that higher economic freedom is extremely significant in preventing wars; according to their calculations, freedom is around 54 times more effective than democracy (as measured by Democracy Score) in diminishing violent conflict.[9]

Ratings[edit]

Since the index was created in 1995, the score for world economic freedom has increased, rising 2.6 points up to 2008.[10] In 2011 the score had decreased from the 2008 score of 60.2 to 59.7, which represents an increase of 2.2 points since 1995. The Economic Freedom score improved for 117 countries, the majority of countries included in the index, which were mainly developing and emerging market economies. With the exception of Europe and North America, there were increased levels of freedom recorded in all regions, with the greatest improvement shown in Sub-Saharan Africa. The top five "free" economies identified by the 2011 index were Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and Switzerland, each scoring over 80 on the economic freedom grading scale.[11] Since the Index was created in 1995, Hong Kong has been the top performing economy.[11][12]

In 2011, the United States dropped to 9th place behind such countries as Denmark, Canada, and first-place Hong Kong.[11] The Heritage Foundation has pointed to increases in government spending as the reason for the United States' decline, and according to data from the 2011 index, the growth rates of countries with the highest levels of government spending were 4.5 points lower, on average, than countries where government spending was under control.[13] In their "Executive Highlights" of index results, the Heritage Foundation stated that "high levels of government spending in response to the global economic turmoil have not resulted in higher economic growth".[11]

The results from the 2012 index showed an overall decline in global economic freedom; according to The Heritage Foundation, the average score in its ranking was the second lowest of the last ten years.[14] In particular, the U.S. dropped to 10th place in the ranking, and has now fallen three places since 2008, when it was 7th.[15] A report issued by the Foundation stated that government spending was the cause of the decline, and had "not only failed to arrest the economic crisis, but also - in many countries - seems to be prolonging it".[16] According to the report, activity in the private sector is threatened by the greater government spending, which has increased public debt and led to more bureaucracy.[14]

Countries that shared the same rank received a tie score.

Reception[edit]

According to the Freedom House, "there is a high and statistically significant correlation between the level of political freedom as measured by Freedom House and economic freedom as measured by the Wall Street Journal/Heritage Foundation survey."[17] The Millennium Challenge Account, a U.S. government foreign aid program, has used the Trade freedom indicator in determining which countries will receive their performance-based compacts.[18]

Critics such as Jeffrey Sachs have contested the Index's assumption that economic openness necessarily leads to better growth. In his book The End of Poverty, Sachs graphed countries' ratings on the index against GDP per capita growth between 1995 and 2003, claiming to demonstrate no correlation between a country's rating and its rate of economic growth. Sachs pointed out, as examples, that countries with good ratings such as Switzerland and Uruguay had sluggish economic performances, others, like China, with poorer rating had very strong economic growth.[19]

The UAE questioned the rating of their country's economic freedom in 2008, comparing its middling rating with the high rating they had received from other indicators such as Transparency International and Moody's. They also argued that the report is "unreliable", because its methodology had changed twice in the last two years.[20]

Stefan Karlsson of the Ludwig von Mises Institute challenged the usefulness of the index due to the fuzziness of many of the categories used to determine freedom.[21] John Miller roundly criticizes the "Index", writing in Dollars & Sense, "In the hands of the Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation, Washington's foremost right-wing think tank, however, an economic freedom index merely measures corporate and entrepreneurial freedom from accountability. Upon examination, the index turns out to be a poor barometer of either freedom more broadly construed or of prosperity."[22] According to Left Business Observer, growth in Index accounts for 10% of the variation in the growth of GDP.[23]

Methodology[edit]

The ranking scores aspects of economic freedom between 0 and 100, with 0 meaning "no economic freedom" and 100 meaning "total economic freedom". There are twelve aspects divided into four categories.[24]

Rule of law[edit]

Property rights[edit]

Degree of a country's legal protection of private property rights and degree of enforcement of those laws. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. physical property rights
  2. intellectual property rights
  3. strength of investor protection
  4. risk of expropriation
  5. quality of land administration

Judicial effectiveness[edit]

Degree of the judiciary's efficiency and fairness, especially dealing with property laws. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. judicial independence
  2. quality of the judicial process
  3. likelihood of obtaining favorable judicial decisions

Government integrity[edit]

Analyzes how prevalent are forms of political corruption and practices such as bribery, extortion, nepotism, cronyism, patronage, embezzlement, and graft. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. public trust in politicians
  2. irregular payments and bribes
  3. transparency of government policymaking
  4. absence of corruption
  5. perceptions of corruption
  6. governmental and civil service transparency

Government size[edit]

Tax burden[edit]

Analyzes marginal tax rates on personal and corporate income and the overall taxation level (including direct and indirect taxes imposed by all levels of government) as a percentage of the GDP. Its sub-factors are:

  1. top marginal tax rate on individual income
  2. top marginal tax rate on corporate income
  3. total tax burden as a percentage of GDP

Government spending[edit]

Quantifies the burden of government expenditures, including consumption by the state and all transfer payments related to various entitlement programs. The ideal level varies from country to country, but zero expenditure is used as a benchmark.

Fiscal health[edit]

Analyzes how well a country manages its budget by quantifying the growing debt and deficit. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. average deficits as a percentage of GDP for the most recent three years (80 percent of score)
  2. debt as a percentage of GDP (20 percent of score)

Regulatory efficiency[edit]

Business freedom[edit]

Analyses the cost, time and freedom to open, operate and close a business, taking into consideration factors like electricity. It is divided into thirteen sub-factors:

  1. starting a business - procedures (number);
  2. starting a business - time (days);
  3. starting a business - cost (% of income per capita);
  4. starting a business - minimum capital (% of income per capita);
  5. obtaining a license - procedures (number);
  6. obtaining a license - time (days);
  7. obtaining a license - cost (% of income per capita);
  8. closing a business - time (years);
  9. closing a business - cost (% of estate);
  10. closing a business - recovery rate (cents on the dollar);
  11. getting electricity - procedures (number);
  12. getting electricity - time (days); and
  13. getting electricity - cost (% of income per capita).

Labor freedom[edit]

Quantifies the intrusiveness of labor rights such as minimum wage, laws inhibiting layoffs, severance requirements, and measurable regulatory restraints on hiring and hours worked, plus the labor force participation rate as an indicative measure of employment opportunities in the labor market. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker
  2. hindrance to hiring additional workers
  3. rigidity of hours
  4. difficulty of firing redundant employees
  5. legally mandated notice period
  6. mandatory severance pay
  7. labor force participation rate

Monetary freedom[edit]

Analyses how stable are prices and how much microeconomy intervenes. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. weighted average inflation rate for the most recent three years
  2. price controls

Market openness[edit]

Trade freedom[edit]

Quantifies the extent to which tariff and nontariff barriers affect imports and exports of goods and services into and out of the country. Its sub-factors are:

  1. trade-weighted average tariff rate
  2. nontariff barriers (NTBs)

Investment freedom[edit]

Analyses how free or constrained is the flow of investment capital of individuals and firms.

Financial freedom[edit]

Indicates banking efficiency as well as how independent the government is from the financial sector. This aspect looks at five broad areas:

  1. extent of government regulation of financial services
  2. degree of state intervention in banks and other financial firms through direct and indirect ownership
  3. government influence on the allocation of credit
  4. extent of financial and capital market development
  5. openness to foreign competition

Previous Methodology[edit]

The Index's 2008 definition of economic freedom is "the highest form of economic freedom provides an absolute right of property ownership, fully realized freedoms of movement for labor, capital, and goods, and an absolute absence of coercion or constraint of economic liberty beyond the extent necessary for citizens to protect and maintain liberty itself."[25]

The index scores nations on ten factors of economic freedom, separated into four categories, using statistics from organizations like the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, Economist Intelligence Unit and Transparency International. In each factor, countries are scored 0 to 100, with 0 being the least free and 100 the most free. A score of 100 signifies an economic environment or set of policies that is most conducive to economic freedom.[25] The methodology has shifted and changed as new data and measurements have become available, especially in the area of Labor Freedom, which was given its own indicator spot in 2007.[2] The following list explains what each factor currently assesses and groups them according to their respective category:

Rule of Law
Limited Government
  • Fiscal Freedom: How free is a country from tax burden. It comprises three quantitative measures: top marginal tax rate of both individual (1) and corporate (2) income, and total tax burden as a percentage of GDP (3).
  • Government Size/Spending: Governments' expenditures as a percentage of GDP, including consumption and transfers. The higher the percentual spending, the lower the score.
Regulatory Efficiency
  • Business Freedom: A country's freedom from the burden of regulations on starting, operating, and closing business, given factors such as time, cost and number of procedures, as well as the efficiency of government in the regulatory process.
  • Labor Freedom: How free is a country from legal regulation on the labor market, including those relating to minimum wages, hiring and firing, hours of work and severance requirements.
  • Monetary Freedom: How free from microeconomic intervention and price instability is a country, basing on an equation considering the weighted average inflation rate in the last three years and price controls.
Open Markets
  • Trade Freedom: Freedom from sizeable numbers and burdens of tariffs and non-tariff barriers to imports and exports of a country.
  • Investment Freedom: Freedom from restrictions on the movement and use of investment capital, regardless of activity, within and across the country's borders.
  • Financial Freedom: A country's independence from government control and interference in the financial sector, including banks. It considers government ownership of financial firms, extent of financial and capital market development, government influence on the allocation of credit and openness to foreign competition.

Rankings[edit]

2020 Index[edit]

As of 2020, Singapore’s economic freedom score is 89.4, making it the world’s freest economy in the 2020 Index. Singapore is ranked 1st among 42 countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and its overall score is well above the regional and world averages.

Key: ██ Free (80–100) ██ Mostly Free (70–79.9) ██ Moderately Free (65–69.9) ██ Moderately Unfree (60–64.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (55–59.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (50–54.9) ██ Repressed (0–49.9)

Country[26] Rank Score Change
 Singapore 1 89.4 Steady 0.0
 Hong Kong 2 89.1 Decrease 1.1
 New Zealand 3 84.1 Decrease 0.3
 Australia 4 82.6 Increase 1.7
  Switzerland 5 82.0 Increase 0.1
 Ireland 6 80.9 Increase 0.4
 United Kingdom 7 79.3 Increase 0.4
 Denmark 8 78.3 Increase 1.6
 Canada 9 78.2 Increase 0.5
 Estonia 10 77.7 Increase 1.1
 Taiwan 11 77.1 Decrease 0.2
 Georgia 12 77.1 Increase 1.2
 Iceland 13 77.1 Steady 0.0
 Netherlands 14 77.0 Increase 0.2
 Chile 15 76.8 Increase 1.4
 Lithuania 16 76.7 Increase 2.5
 United States 17 76.6 Decrease 0.2
 United Arab Emirates 18 76.2 Decrease 1.4
 Luxembourg 19 75.8 Decrease 0.1
 Finland 20 75.7 Increase 0.8
 Mauritius 21 74.9 Increase 1.9
 Sweden 22 74.9 Decrease 0.3
 Czech Republic 23 74.8 Increase 1.1
 Malaysia 24 74.7 Increase 0.7
 South Korea 25 74.0 Decrease 1.7
 Israel 26 74.0 Increase 1.2
 Germany 27 73.5 Steady 0.0
 Norway 28 73.4 Increase 0.3
 Austria 29 73.3 Increase 1.3
 Japan 30 73.3 Increase 1.2
 Qatar 31 72.3 Decrease 0.3
 Latvia 32 71.9 Increase 1.5
 Rwanda 33 70.9 Decrease 0.2
 Armenia 34 70.6 Increase 2.9
 Macau 35 70.3 Decrease 0.7
 Bulgaria 36 70.2 Increase 1.2
 Cyprus 37 70.1 Increase 2.0
 Romania 38 69.7 Increase 1.1
 Kazakhstan 39 69.6 Increase 4.2
 Botswana 40 69.6 Decrease 0.1
 North Macedonia 41 69.5 Increase 1.6
 Malta 42 69.5 Increase 0.9
 Thailand 43 69.4 Increase 1.1
 Azerbaijan 44 69.3 Increase 3.9
 Colombia 45 69.2 Increase 1.9
 Poland 46 69.1 Increase 1.3
 Uruguay 47 69.1 Increase 0.5
 Belgium 48 68.9 Increase 1.6
 Jamaica 49 68.5 Decrease 0.1
 Saint Lucia 50 68.2 Increase 0.5
 Peru 51 67.9 Increase 0.1
 Slovenia 52 67.8 Increase 2.3
 Kosovo 53 67.4 Increase 0.4
 Indonesia 54 67.2 Increase 1.4
 Panama 55 67.2 Steady 0.0
 Portugal 56 67.0 Increase 1.7
 Albania 57 66.9 Increase 0.4
 Spain 58 66.8 Increase 1.2
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 59 66.8 Increase 1.0
 Slovakia 60 66.8 Increase 1.8
 Brunei Darussalam 61 66.6 Increase 1.5
 Hungary 62 66.4 Increase 1.4
 Bahrain 63 66.3 Decrease 0.1
 France 64 66.0 Increase 2.2
 Serbia 65 66.0 Increase 2.1
 Jordan 66 66.0 Decrease 0.5
 Mexico 67 66.0 Increase 1.3
 Costa Rica 68 65.8 Increase 0.5
 The Bahamas 69 64.5 Increase 1.6
 Philippines 70 64.5 Increase 0.7
 Turkey 71 64.4 Decrease 0.2
 Seychelles 72 64.3 Decrease 2.9
 Guatemala 73 64.0 Increase 1.4
 Italy 74 63.8 Increase 1.6
 Oman 75 63.6 Increase 2.6
 Cabo Verde 76 63.6 Increase 0.5
 Fiji 77 63.4 Decrease 1.2
 Morocco 78 63.3 Increase 0.4
 Kuwait 79 63.2 Decrease 2.4
 Paraguay 80 63.0 Decrease 1.2
 Kyrgyzstan 81 62.9 Increase 0.6
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 82 62.6 Increase 0.7
 Saudi Arabia 83 62.4 Decrease 1.7
 Croatia 84 62.2 Increase 0.8
 Bhutan 85 62.1 Decrease 0.8
 Samoa 86 62.1 Decrease 0.1
 Moldova 87 62.0 Increase 2.9
 Belarus 88 61.7 Decrease 3.8
 Tanzania 89 61.7 Increase 1.5
 El Salvador 90 61.6 Decrease 0.2
 Montenegro 91 61.5 Increase 1.0
 Barbados 92 61.4 Increase 3.3
 Honduras 93 61.1 Increase 0.9
 Russia 94 61.0 Increase 2.1
 Dominican Republic 95 60.9 Decrease 0.1
 Namibia 96 60.9 Increase 2.2
 Dominica 97 60.8 Decrease 2.8
 Vanuatu 98 60.7 Increase 4.3
 Madagascar 99 60.5 Decrease 3.9
 Greece 100 59.9 Increase 2.2
 Ivory Coast 101 59.7 Decrease 2.7
 Uganda 102 59.5 Decrease 0.2
 China 103 59.5 Increase 1.1
 Ghana 104 59.4 Increase 1.9
 Vietnam 105 58.8 Increase 3.5
 South Africa 106 58.8 Increase 0.5
 Tonga 107 58.8 Increase 1.1
 Papua New Guinea 108 58.4 Steady 0.0
 Trinidad and Tobago 109 58.3 Increase 1.3
 Senegal 110 58.0 Increase 1.7
 Belize 111 57.4 Increase 2.0
 Sri Lanka 112 57.4 Increase 1.0
 Cambodia 113 57.3 Decrease 0.5
 Uzbekistan 114 57.2 Increase 3.9
 Nicaragua 115 57.2 Decrease 0.5
 Nigeria 116 57.2 Decrease 0.1
 Burkina Faso 117 56.7 Decrease 2.7
 Gabon 118 56.7 Increase 0.4
 Maldives 119 56.5 Increase 3.3
 India 120 56.5 Increase 1.3
 Guinea 121 56.5 Increase 0.8
 Bangladesh 122 56.4 Increase 0.8
 The Gambia 123 56.3 Increase 3.9
 Guyana 124 56.2 Decrease 0.6
 São Tomé and Príncipe 125 56.2 Decrease 2.2
 Mali 126 55.9 Decrease 2.2
 Mongolia 127 55.9 Increase 0.5
 Tunisia 128 55.8 Increase 0.4
 Laos 129 55.5 Decrease 1.9
 Mauritania 130 55.3 Decrease 0.4
 Eswatini 131 55.3 Increase 0.6
 Kenya 132 55.3 Increase 0.2
 Benin 133 55.2 Decrease 0.1
 Ukraine 134 54.9 Increase 2.6
 Pakistan 135 54.8 Decrease 0.2
 Afghanistan 136 54.7 Increase 3.2
 Niger 137 54.7 Increase 3.1
 Lesotho 138 54.5 Increase 1.4
   Nepal 139 54.2 Increase 0.4
 Togo 140 54.1 Increase 3.8
 Myanmar 141 54.0 Increase 0.4
 Egypt 142 54.0 Increase 1.5
 Comoros 143 53.7 Decrease 1.7
 Brazil 144 53.7 Increase 1.8
 Cameroon 145 53.6 Increase 1.2
 Ethiopia 146 53.6 Steady 0.0
 Zambia 147 53.5 Decrease 0.1
 Guinea-Bissau 148 53.3 Decrease 0.7
 Argentina 149 53.1 Increase 0.9
 Solomon Islands 150 52.9 Decrease 1.7
 Djibouti 151 52.9 Increase 5.8
 Malawi 152 52.8 Increase 1.4
 Haiti 153 52.3 Decrease 0.4
 Angola 154 52.2 Increase 1.6
 Tajikistan 155 52.2 Decrease 3.4
 Micronesia 156 52.0 Increase 0.1
 Lebanon 157 51.7 Increase 0.6
 Ecuador 158 51.3 Increase 4.4
 Central African Republic 159 50.7 Increase 1.6
 Mozambique 160 50.5 Decrease 1.9
 Chad 161 50.2 Increase 0.3
 Congo-Kinshasa 162 49.5 Decrease 0.8
 Suriname 163 49.5 Increase 1.4
 Iran 164 49.2 Decrease 1.9
 Liberia 165 49.0 Decrease 0.7
 Burundi 166 49.0 Increase 0.1
 Equatorial Guinea 167 48.3 Increase 7.3
 Sierra Leone 168 48.0 Increase 0.5
 Algeria 169 46.9 Increase 0.7
 Turkmenistan 170 46.5 Decrease 1.9
 Timor-Leste 171 45.9 Increase 1.7
 Kiribati 172 45.2 Decrease 2.1
 Sudan 173 45.0 Decrease 2.7
 Zimbabwe 174 43.1 Increase 2.7
 Bolivia 175 42.8 Increase 0.5
 Congo-Brazzaville 176 41.8 Increase 2.1
 Eritrea 177 38.5 Decrease 0.4
 Cuba 178 26.9 Decrease 0.9
 Venezuela 179 25.2 Decrease 0.7
 North Korea 180 4.2 Decrease 1.7

Not ranked[edit]

Previous Rankings[edit]

Key: ██ Free (80–100) ██ Mostly Free (70.0–79.9) ██ Moderately Free (60.0–69.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (50.0–59.9) ██ Repressed (0–49.9)

  2017[27] 2016[28] 2015[29] 2014[30]
Country Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2016 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2015 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2014 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2013
 Hong Kong 1 89.8 Increase 1.2 1 88.6 Decrease -1.0 1 89.6 Decrease -0.5 1 90.1 Increase 0.8
 Singapore 2 88.6 Increase 1.2 2 87.8 Decrease -1.6 2 89.4 Decrease -0.5 2 89.4 Steady 0.0
 New Zealand 3 83.7 Increase 2.1 3 81.6 Decrease -0.5 3 82.1 Increase 0.9 5 81.2 Decrease -0.2
  Switzerland 4 81.5 Increase 0.5 4 81 Increase 0.5 5 80.5 Decrease -1.1 4 81.6 Increase 0.6
 Australia 5 81 Increase 0.7 5 80.3 Decrease -1.1 4 81.4 Decrease -0.6 3 82 Decrease -0.6
 Estonia 6 79.1 Increase 1.9 9 77.2 Increase 0.4 8 76.8 Increase 0.9 11 75.9 Increase 0.6
 Canada 7 78.5 Increase 0.5 6 78 Decrease -1.1 6 79.1 Decrease -1.1 6 80.2 Increase 0.8
 United Arab Emirates 8 76.9 Increase 4.5 25 72.4 Increase 1 28 71.4 Increase 0.3 28 71.1 Increase 1.8
 Ireland 9 76.7 Decrease -0.6 8 77.3 Increase 0.7 9 76.6 Increase 0.4 9 76.2 Increase 0.5
 Chile 10 76.5 Decrease -1.2 7 77.7 Decrease -0.8 7 78.5 Decrease -0.2 7 78.7 Decrease -0.3
 Taiwan 11 76.5 Increase 1.8 14 74.7 Decrease -0.4 14 75.1 Increase 1.2 17 73.9 Increase 1.2
 United Kingdom 12 76.4 Steady 0 10 76.4 Increase 0.6 13 75.8 Increase 0.9 14 74.9 Increase 0.1
 Georgia 13 76 Increase 3.0 22 73 Increase 0.4 22 72.6 Increase 0.4 21 72.2 Increase 2.8
 Luxembourg 14 75.9 Increase 2.7 21 73.2 Decrease -1 16 74.2 Steady 0 15 74.2 Decrease -0.3
 Netherlands 15 75.8 Increase 2.1 17 73.7 Decrease -0.5 15 74.2 Increase 0.7 17 73.5 Increase 0.2
 Lithuania 16 75.8 Increase 0.6 13 75.2 Increase 0.5 15 74.7 Increase 1.7 21 73 Increase 0.9
 United States 17 75.1 Decrease -0.3 11 75.4 Decrease -0.8 12 76.2 Increase 0.7 12 75.5 Decrease -0.5
 Denmark 18 75.1 Decrease -0.2 12 75.3 Decrease -1.0 11 76.3 Increase 0.2 10 76.1 Steady 0
 Sweden 19 74.9 Increase 2.2 23 72.7 Decrease -0.4 20 73.1 Increase 0.2 18 72.9 Increase 1.2
 Latvia 20 74.8 Increase 5.1 37 69.7 Increase 1 42 68.7 Increase 2.2 55 66.5 Increase 1.3
 Mauritius 21 74.7 Steady 0 15 74.7 Decrease -1.7 10 76.4 Decrease -0.1 8 76.5 Decrease -0.4
 Iceland 22 74.4 Increase 2.4 26 72 Decrease -0.4 23 72.4 Increase 0.3 23 72.1 Increase 1.2
 South Korea 23 74.3 Increase 2.8 29 71.5 Increase 0.3 31 71.2 Increase 0.9 34 70.3 Increase 0.4
 Finland 24 74.0 Increase 0.6 19 73.4 Steady 0 19 73.4 Decrease -0.6 16 74 Increase 1.7
 Norway 25 74 Increase 2.2 27 71.8 Increase 0.9 32 70.9 Increase 0.4 31 70.5 Increase 1.7
 Germany 26 73.8 Steady 0 16 73.8 Increase 0.4 18 73.4 Increase 0.6 19 72.8 Increase 1.8
 Malaysia 27 73.8 Increase 3 31 70.8 Increase 1.2 37 69.6 Increase 3.5 56 66.1 Decrease -0.3
 Czech Republic 28 73.3 Increase 0.8 24 72.5 Increase 0.3 26 72.2 Increase 1.3 29 70.9 Increase 1
 Qatar 29 73.1 Increase 2.3 32 70.8 Decrease -0.4 30 71.2 Decrease -0.1 27 71.3 Steady 0
 Austria 30 72.3 Increase 1.1 30 71.2 Decrease -1.2 24 72.4 Increase 0.6 25 71.8 Increase 1.5
 North Macedonia 31 70.7 Increase 3.6 53 67.1 Decrease -1.5 43 68.6 Increase 0.4 43 68.2 Decrease -0.3
 Macau 32 70.7 Increase 0.4 34 70.3 Decrease -1 29 71.3 Decrease -0.4 26 71.7 Decrease -0.1
 Armenia 33 70.3 Increase 3.2 52 67.1 Decrease -1.8 41 68.9 Decrease -0.5 38 69.4 Increase 0.6
 Botswana 34 71.1 Decrease -2.2 36 69.8 Decrease -2.2 27 72 Increase 1.4 30 70.6 Increase 1
 Brunei 35 69.8 Increase 0.9 39 68.9 Decrease -0.1 40 69 -
 Israel 36 69.7 Decrease -0.8 33 70.5 Increase 2.1 44 68.4 Increase 1.5 51 66.9 Decrease -0.9
 Colombia 37 69.7 Decrease -2 28 71.7 Increase 1 34 70.7 Increase 1.1 37 69.6 Increase 1.6
 Uruguay 38 69.7 Increase 1.1 43 68.6 Decrease -0.7 38 69.3 Decrease -0.4 36 69.7 Decrease -0.2
 Romania 39 69.7 Increase 3.1 57 66.6 Increase 1.1 62 65.5 Increase 0.4 59 65.1 Increase 0.7
 Japan 40 69.6 Decrease -3.7 20 73.3 Increase 0.9 25 72.4 Increase 0.6 24 71.8 Increase 0.2
 Jamaica 41 69.5 Increase 1.8 48 67.7 Increase 1 56 66.7 Decrease -0.1 52 66.8 Increase 1.7
 Kazakhstan 42 69 Increase 5.7 69 63.3 Decrease -0.4 67 63.7 Increase 0.7 68 63 Decrease -0.6
 Peru 43 68.9 Increase 1.2 47 67.7 Increase 0.3 47 67.4 Decrease -0.8 44 68.2 Decrease -0.5
 Bahrain 44 68.5 Decrease -4.9 18 73.4 Decrease -1.7 13 75.1 Decrease -0.4 12 75.5 Increase 0.3
 Poland 45 68.3 Decrease -0.3 42 68.6 Increase 1.6 50 67 Increase 1 57 66 Increase 1.8
 Kosovo 46 67.9
 Bulgaria 47 67.9 Increase 1.1 55 66.8 Increase 1.1 61 65.7 Increase 0.7 60 65 Increase 0.3
 Cyprus 48 67.9 Steady 0 45 67.9 Increase 0.3 46 67.6 Decrease -1.4 41 69 Decrease -2.8
 Belgium 49 67.8 Decrease -1 40 68.8 Decrease -1.1 35 69.9 Increase 0.7 40 69.2 Increase 0.2
 Malta 50 67.7 Increase 1.2 58 66.5 Increase 0.1 58 66.4 Decrease -1.1 47 67.5 Increase 0.5
 Rwanda 51 67.6 Increase 2.8 65 64.8 Increase 0.1 65 64.7 Increase 0.6 63 64.1 Decrease -0.8
 Vanuatu 52 67.4 Increase 6.3 84 61.1 Increase 1.6 93 59.5 Increase 2.9 109 56.6 Steady 0
 Jordan 53 66.7 Decrease -2.6 38 69.3 Increase 0.1 39 69.2 Decrease -1.2 33 70.4 Increase 0.5
 Panama 54 66.3 Increase 2.2 68 64.1 Increase 0.7 71 63.4 Increase 0.9 71 62.5 Decrease -2.7
 Thailand 55 66.2 Increase 3.8 75 62.4 Decrease -0.9 72 63.3 Decrease -0.8 61 64.1 Decrease -0.8
 Hungary 56 65.8 Decrease -1.0 54 66.8 Decrease -0.2 51 67 Decrease -0.3 48 67.3 Increase 0.2
 Slovakia 57 65.7 Decrease -1.5 50 67.2 Increase 0.8 57 66.4 Decrease -2.3 42 68.7 Increase 1.7
 Philippines 58 65.6 Increase 3.4 76 62.2 Increase 2.1 89 60.1 Increase 1.9 97 58.2 Increase 1.1
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 59 65.2 Decrease -2.8 44 68 Increase 1 52 67 Increase 0.3 54 66.7 Increase 0.2
 Turkey 60 65.2 Increase 2 70 63.2 Decrease -1.7 64 64.9 Increase 2 69 62.9 Increase 0.4
 Kuwait 61 65.1 Increase 2.6 74 62.5 Increase 0.2 76 62.3 Decrease -0.8 66 63.1 Increase 0.6
 Saint Lucia 62 65 Decrease -5.2 35 70.2 Decrease -0.5 33 70.7 Increase 0.3 32 70.4 Decrease -0.9
 Costa Rica 63 65 Decrease -2.2 51 67.2 Increase 0.3 53 66.9 Decrease -0.1 49 67 Decrease -1
 Saudi Arabia 64 64.4 Increase 2.3 77 62.1 Decrease -0.1 77 62.2 Increase 1.6 82 60.6 Decrease -1.9
 Albania 65 64.4 Decrease -1.3 63 65.7 Decrease -1.2 54 66.9 Increase 1.7 58 65.2 Increase 0.1
 El Salvador 66 64.1 Decrease -1.6 62 65.7 Decrease -0.5 59 66.2 Decrease -0.5 53 66.7 Decrease -2
 Dominica 67 63.7 Decrease -2.4 61 66.1 Increase 0.9 63 65.2 Increase 1.3 64 63.9 Increase 2.3
 Azerbaijan 68 63.6 Increase 2.6 85 61 Decrease -0.3 81 61.3 Increase 1.6 88 59.7 Increase 0.8
 Spain 69 63.6 Decrease -4.0 49 67.6 Increase 0.4 49 67.2 Decrease -0.8 46 68 Decrease -1.1
 Mexico 70 63.6 Decrease -2.8 59 66.4 Decrease -0.4 55 66.8 Decrease -0.2 50 67 Increase 1.7
 Fiji 71 63.4 Increase 4.4 98 59 Increase 0.3 99 58.7 Increase 1.5 105 57.2 Decrease -0.1
 France 72 63.3 Increase 0.8 73 62.5 Decrease -1 70 63.5 Decrease -0.6 62 64.1 Increase 0.9
 Tonga 73 63 Increase 3.7 95 59.3 Increase 1.1 104 58.2 Increase 2.2 112 56 Decrease -1
 Guatemala 74 63 Increase 2.6 87 60.4 Decrease -0.8 83 61.2 Increase 1.2 85 60 Decrease -0.9
 Ivory Coast 75 63.0 Increase 4.5 103 58.5 Increase 0.8 107 57.7 Increase 3.6 126 54.1 Decrease -0.2
 Dominican Republic 76 62.9 Increase 1.9 86 61 Decrease -0.3 80 61.3 Increase 1.6 87 59.7 Decrease -0.5
 Portugal 77 62.6 Decrease -2.7 64 65.3 Increase 1.8 69 63.5 Increase 0.4 67 63.1 Increase 0.1
 Namibia 78 62.5 Increase 2.9 93 59.6 Increase 0.2 94 59.4 Decrease -0.9 84 60.3 Decrease -1.6
 Italy 79 62.5 Increase 0.8 80 61.7 Increase 0.8 86 60.9 Increase 0.3 83 60.6 Increase 1.8
 Paraguay 80 62.4 Increase 1.3 83 61.1 Decrease -0.9 78 62 Increase 0.9 80 61.1 Decrease -0.7
 South Africa 81 62.3 Decrease -0.3 72 62.6 Increase 0.1 75 62.5 Increase 0.7 74 61.8 Decrease -0.9
 Oman 82 62.1 Decrease -4.6 56 66.7 Decrease -0.7 48 67.4 Decrease -0.7 45 68.1 Increase 0.2
 Montenegro 83 62 Decrease -2.7 66 64.7 Increase 1.1 68 63.6 Increase 1 70 62.6 Increase 0.1
 Indonesia 84 61.9 Increase 3.8 105 58.1 Decrease -0.4 100 58.5 Increase 1.6 108 56.9 Increase 0.5
 Seychelles 85 61.8 Increase 4.3 114 57.5 Increase 1.3 117 56.2 Increase 1.3 124 54.9 Increase 1.9
 Morocco 86 61.5 Increase 1.4 89 60.1 Increase 1.8 103 58.3 Decrease -1.3 90 59.6 Decrease -0.6
 Trinidad and Tobago 87 61.2 Decrease -2.9 67 64.1 Increase 1.4 73 62.7 Increase 0.4 72 62.3 Decrease -2.1
 Eswatini 88 61.1 Increase 1.2 91 59.9 Decrease -1.3 82 61.2 Increase 4 104 57.2 Steady 0
 Kyrgyzstan 89 61.1 Decrease -0.2 82 61.3 Increase 0.2 85 61.1 Increase 1.5 89 59.6 Decrease -0.6
 Bahamas 90 61.1 Decrease -7.6 41 68.7 Decrease -1.1 36 69.8 Decrease -0.3 35 70.1 Increase 2.1
 Uganda 91 60.9 Increase 1.2 92 59.7 Decrease -0.2 91 59.9 Decrease -1.2 79 61.1 Decrease -0.8
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 92 60.2 Increase 1.2 97 59 Increase 0.6 101 58.4 Increase 1.1 103 57.3 Steady 0
 Burkina Faso 93 59.6 Increase 1 102 58.6 Decrease -0.3 98 58.9 Decrease -1 86 59.9 Decrease -0.7
 Cambodia 94 59.5 Increase 2 110 57.5 Increase 0.1 108 57.4 Decrease -1.1 95 58.5 Increase 0.9
 Croatia 95 59.4 Decrease -2.1 81 61.5 Increase 1.1 87 60.4 Decrease -0.9 78 61.3 Increase 0.4
 Benin 96 59.2 Increase 0.4 99 58.8 Increase 1.7 113 57.1 Decrease -0.5 101 57.6 Increase 1.9
 Slovenia 97 59.2 Decrease -1.1 88 60.3 Decrease -2.4 74 62.7 Increase 1 76 61.7 Decrease -1.2
 Nicaragua 98 59.2 Increase 1.6 108 57.6 Decrease -0.8 102 58.4 Increase 1.8 110 56.6 Decrease -1.3
 Serbia 99 58.9 Decrease -1.1 90 60 Increase 0.6 95 59.4 Increase 0.8 94 58.6 Increase 0.6
 Honduras 100 58.8 Increase 1.4 116 57.4 Increase 0.3 112 57.1 Decrease -1.3 96 58.4 Decrease -0.4
 Belize 101 58.6 Increase 1.8 117 56.8 Increase 0.1 115 56.7 Decrease -0.6 102 57.3 Decrease -4.6
 Mali 102 58.6 Increase 2.2 119 56.4 Increase 0.9 122 55.5 Decrease -0.9 111 56.4 Increase 0.6
 Gabon 103 58.6 Increase 0.3 104 58.3 Increase 0.5 105 57.8 Steady 0 99 57.8 Increase 1.4
 Belarus 104 58.6 Increase 8.8 153 49.8 Decrease -0.3 150 50.1 Increase 2.1 154 48 Decrease -1
 Tanzania 105 58.6 Increase 1.1 109 57.5 Decrease -0.3 106 57.8 Decrease -0.1 98 57.9 Increase 0.9
 Guyana 106 58.5 Increase 3 123 55.5 Decrease -0.2 121 55.7 Increase 1.9 129 53.8 Increase 2.5
 Bhutan 107 58.4 Increase 1 115 57.4 Increase 0.7 116 56.7 Increase 1.7 122 55 Decrease -1.6
 Samoa 108 58.4 Decrease -3.5 78 61.9 Increase 0.8 84 61.1 Increase 4 106 57.1 Decrease -3.4
 Tajikistan 109 58.2 Increase 5.5 140 52.7 Increase 0.7 139 52 Decrease -1.4 131 53.4 Steady 0
 Moldova 110 58 Increase 0.5 111 57.5 Increase 0.2 110 57.3 Increase 1.8 115 55.5 Increase 1.1
 China 111 57.4 Increase 4.7 139 52.7 Increase 0.2 137 52.5 Increase 0.6 136 51.9 Increase 0.7
 Sri Lanka 112 57.4 Decrease -1.2 101 58.6 Decrease -1.4 90 60 Decrease -0.7 81 60.7 Increase 2.4
 Madagascar 113 57.4 Decrease -4.3 79 61.7 Steady 0 79 61.7 Decrease -0.3 73 62 Decrease -0.4
 Russia 114 57.1 Increase 5 143 52.1 Increase 0.2 140 51.9 Increase 0.8 139 51.1 Increase 0.6
 Nigeria 115 57.1 Increase 1.5 120 55.6 Increase 1.3 129 54.3 Decrease -0.8 120 55.1 Decrease -1.2
 Cape Verde 116 56.9 Decrease -9.5 60 66.4 Increase 0.3 60 66.1 Increase 2.4 65 63.7 Increase 0.2
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 117 56.4 Increase 13.7 170 42.7 Decrease -1 169 43.7 Increase 0.2 167 43.5 Decrease -0.3
 Ghana 118 56.2 Decrease -6.8 71 63 Decrease -1.2 66 64.2 Increase 2.9 77 61.3 Increase 0.6
 Guinea-Bissau 119 56.1 Increase 4.1 145 52 Increase 0.7 143 51.3 Increase 0.2 138 51.1 Increase 1
 Senegal 120 55.9 Decrease -1.9 106 57.8 Increase 2.4 125 55.4 Decrease -0.1 116 55.5 Increase 0.1
 Comoros 121 55.8 Increase 3.7 142 52.1 Increase 0.7 142 51.4 Increase 3.9 157 47.5 Increase 1.8
 Zambia 122 55.8 Decrease -2.9 100 58.7 Decrease -1.7 88 60.4 Increase 1.7 93 58.7 Increase 0.4
 Tunisia 123 55.7 Decrease -2.0 107 57.7 Increase 0.4 109 57.3 Increase 0.3 107 57 Decrease -1.6
 São Tomé and Príncipe 124 55.4 Increase 2.1 136 53.3 Increase 4.5 157 48.8 Increase 0.8 153 48 Decrease -2.2
   Nepal 125 55.1 Increase 3.8 152 51.3 Increase 1.2 149 50.1 Decrease -0.3 141 50.4 Increase 0.2
 Solomon Islands 126 55 Increase 8 159 47 Increase 0.8 165 46.2 Increase 1.2 165 45 Decrease -1.2
 Greece 127 55 Increase 1 130 54 Decrease -1.7 119 55.7 Increase 0.3 117 55.4 Steady 0
 Bangladesh 128 55 Increase 1.1 131 53.9 Decrease -0.2 131 54.1 Increase 1.5 132 52.6 Decrease -0.6
 Mongolia 129 54.8 Decrease -4.4 96 59.2 Increase 0.3 97 58.9 Decrease -2.8 75 61.7 Increase 0.2
 Barbados 130 54.5 Decrease -13.4 46 67.9 Decrease -0.4 45 68.3 Decrease -1 39 69.3 Increase 0.3
 Mauritania 131 54.4 Increase 1.1 135 53.3 Increase 0.1 134 53.2 Increase 0.9 134 52.3 Decrease -0.7
 Federated States of Micronesia 132 54.1 Increase 4.5 154 49.6 Decrease -0.2 153 49.8 Decrease -0.3 143 50.1 Decrease -0.6
 Laos 133 54 Increase 2.6 150 51.4 Increase 0.2 144 51.2 Increase 1.1 144 50.1 Increase 0.1
 Lesotho 134 53.9 Increase 4.3 155 49.6 Increase 0.1 154 49.5 Increase 2.4 155 47.9 Increase 1.3
 Kenya 135 53.5 Decrease -2.1 122 55.6 Decrease -1.5 111 57.1 Increase 1.2 114 55.9 Decrease -1.6
 Gambia 136 53.4 Decrease -4.1 113 57.5 Decrease -2 92 59.5 Increase 0.7 92 58.8 Steady 0
 Lebanon 137 53.3 Decrease -6.0 94 59.3 Decrease -0.1 96 59.4 Decrease -0.1 91 59.5 Decrease -0.6
 Togo 138 53.2 Increase 0.2 138 53 Increase 3.1 152 49.9 Increase 1.1 150 48.8 Increase 0.5
 Burundi 139 53.2 Decrease -0.5 132 53.7 Increase 2.3 141 51.4 Increase 2.4 148 49 Increase 0.9
 Brazil 140 52.9 Decrease -3.7 118 56.6 Decrease -0.3 114 56.9 Decrease -0.8 100 57.7 Decrease -0.2
 Pakistan 141 52.8 Decrease -2.8 121 55.6 Increase 0.4 126 55.2 Increase 0.1 121 55.1 Increase 0.4
 Ethiopia 142 52.7 Increase 1.2 149 51.5 Increase 1.5 151 50 Increase 0.6 146 49.4 Decrease -2.6
 India 143 52.6 Decrease -2 128 54.6 Decrease -1.1 120 55.7 Increase 0.5 119 55.2 Increase 0.6
 Egypt 144 52.6 Decrease -2.6 124 55.2 Increase 2.3 135 52.9 Decrease -1.9 125 54.8 Decrease -3.1
 Sierra Leone 145 52.6 Increase 0.9 147 51.7 Increase 1.2 148 50.5 Increase 2.2 151 48.3 Decrease -0.8
 Myanmar 146 52.5 Increase 5.6 161 46.9 Increase 0.4 162 46.5 Increase 7.3 172 39.2 Increase 0.5
 Vietnam 147 52.4 Increase 0.7 148 51.7 Increase 0.9 147 50.8 Decrease -0.2 140 51 Decrease -0.3
 Uzbekistan 148 52.3 Increase 5.3 160 47 Increase 0.5 163 46.5 Increase 0.5 162 46 Increase 0.2
 Malawi 149 52.9 Decrease -1.9 126 54.8 Decrease -0.6 124 55.4 Increase 0.1 118 55.3 Decrease -1.1
 Cameroon 150 51.8 Decrease -0.1 146 51.9 Decrease -0.7 136 52.6 Increase 0.3 133 52.3 Increase 0.5
 Central African Republic 151 51.8 Increase 5.9 166 45.9 Decrease -0.8 161 46.7 Decrease -3.7 142 50.4 Increase 0.1
 Papua New Guinea 152 50.9 Decrease -2.2 137 53.1 Decrease -0.8 132 53.9 Increase 0.3 130 53.6 Decrease -0.2
 Kiribati 153 50.9 Increase 4.5 164 46.4 Increase 0.1 164 46.3 Increase 0.4 163 45.9 Decrease -1
 Niger 154 50.8 Decrease -3.8 127 54.6 Decrease -0.5 127 55.1 Increase 1.2 128 53.9 Decrease -0.4
 Iran 155 50.5 Increase 8.7 171 41.8 Increase 1.5 173 40.3 Decrease -2.9 168 43.2 Increase 0.9
 Argentina 156 50.4 Increase 6.3 169 44.1 Decrease -0.5 166 44.6 Decrease -2.1 160 46.7 Decrease -1.3
 Maldives 157 50.3 Decrease -3.1 134 53.4 Increase 2.4 145 51 Increase 2 149 49 Decrease -0.2
 Mozambique 158 49.9 Decrease -4.9 125 54.8 Decrease -0.2 128 55 Steady 0 123 55 Decrease -2.1
 Haiti 159 49.6 Decrease -1.7 151 51.3 Increase 2.4 156 48.9 Increase 0.8 152 48.1 Decrease -2.6
 Ecuador 160 49.3 Increase 0.1 156 49.2 Increase 1.2 159 48 Increase 1.1 159 46.9 Decrease -1.4
 Liberia 161 49.1 Decrease -3.6 141 52.7 Increase 0.3 138 52.4 Increase 3.1 147 49.3 Increase 0.7
 Chad 162 49 Increase 3.1 165 45.9 Increase 1.4 167 44.5 Decrease -0.7 164 45.2 Increase 0.4
 Afghanistan 163 48.9
 Angola 165 48.5 Increase 0.6 158 47.9 Increase 0.2 160 47.7 Increase 0.4 158 47.3 Increase 0.6
 Ukraine 166 48.1 Increase 1.2 162 46.9 Decrease -2.4 155 49.3 Increase 3 161 46.3 Increase 0.2
 Suriname 167 48 Decrease -6.2 129 54.2 Steady 0 130 54.2 Increase 2.2 135 52 Decrease -0.6
 Bolivia 168 47.7 Increase 0.9 163 46.8 Decrease -1.6 158 48.4 Increase 0.5 156 47.9 Decrease -2.3
 Guinea 169 47.6 Decrease -4.5 144 52.1 Decrease -1.4 133 53.5 Increase 2.3 137 51.2 Increase 0.4
 Turkmenistan 170 47.4 Increase 6 172 41.4 Decrease -0.8 171 42.2 Decrease -0.4 169 42.6 Decrease -1.2
 Djibouti 171 46.7 Decrease -10.8 112 57.5 Increase 1.6 118 55.9 Increase 2 127 53.9 Steady 0
 Algeria 172 46.5 Decrease -2.4 157 48.9 Decrease -1.9 146 50.8 Increase 1.2 145 49.6 Decrease -1.4
 Timor-Leste 173 46.3 Increase 0.8 167 45.5 Increase 2.3 170 43.2 Decrease -0.5 166 43.7 Increase 0.4
 Equatorial Guinea 174 45 Increase 4.6 173 40.4 Decrease -4 168 44.4 Increase 2.1 170 42.3 Decrease -0.5
 Zimbabwe 175 44 Increase 6.4 175 37.6 Increase 2.1 176 35.5 Increase 6.9 175 28.6 Increase 2.3
 Eritrea 176 42.2 Increase 3.3 174 38.9 Increase 0.4 174 38.5 Increase 2.2 173 36.3 Increase 0.1
 Republic of the Congo 177 40 Decrease -5 168 45 Increase 4.4 172 40.6 Increase 1 171 39.6 Decrease -1.5
 Cuba 178 33.9 Increase 4.3 177 29.6 Increase 0.9 177 28.7 Increase 0.2 176 28.5 Increase 0.2
 Venezuela 179 27 Decrease -7.3 176 34.3 Decrease -2 175 36.3 Increase 0.2 174 36.1 Decrease -2
 North Korea 180 4.9 Increase 3.6 178 1.3 Increase 0.3 178 1 Decrease -0.5 177 1.5 Increase 0.5
 Yemen 133 53.7 Decrease -1.8 123 55.5 Decrease -0.4 113 55.9

2020 Index in full[edit]

Key: ██ Free (80–100) ██ Mostly Free (70.0–79.9) ██ Moderately Free (60.0–69.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (50.0–59.9) ██ Repressed (0–49.9)

Country Name 2020 Score Property Rights Judicial Effectiveness Government Integrity Tax Burden Gov't Spending Fiscal Health Business Freedom Labor Freedom Monetary Freedom Trade Freedom Investment Freedom Financial Freedom
Afghanistan 54.7 48.3 30.0 24.8 91.4 79.2 99.9 54.7 61.6 81 66.0 10 10
Albania 66.9 57.1 33.0 38.8 85.9 74.6 86.3 65.7 52.1 81.2 88.4 70 70
Algeria 46.9 37.9 35.0 28.3 75.4 52.6 17.3 63.0 50.5 76.2 66.2 30 30
Angola 52.2 36.9 14.3 15.1 87.3 85.7 71.9 57.7 61.1 59.6 66.2 30 40
Argentina 53.1 50.5 47.0 49.7 69.6 50.7 24.7 60.2 46.5 53.7 69.2 55 60
Armenia 70.6 60.7 54.1 43.4 84.9 80.6 68.8 81.0 72.5 76.0 80.6 75 70
Australia 82.6 82.8 86.1 89.3 63.0 61.6 91.8 87.8 84.0 86.2 88.2 80 90
Austria 73.3 87.3 73.2 84.0 51.3 27.2 87.9 73.0 68.3 81.0 86.4 90 70
Azerbaijan 69.3 67.1 53.9 38.7 88.0 63.0 99.2 80.8 66.2 69.8 74.6 70 60
Bahamas 64.5 54.9 46.4 46.0 96.8 87.4 69.2 69.0 70.0 76.3 47.8 50 60
Bahrain 66.3 70.6 48.4 51.0 99.4 66.1 2.6 70.5 71.1 81.1 79.4 75 80
Bangladesh 56.4 41.0 36.1 26.6 72.7 94.3 76.8 52.3 68.4 70.0 63.6 45 30
Barbados 61.4 56.6 36.1 44.0 73.6 69.2 63.1 69.4 60.0 77.9 56.6 70 60
Belarus 61.7 63.2 48.4 37.4 88.8 54.1 95.4 76.4 74.8 69.8 82.0 30 20
Belgium 68.9 84.5 62.5 80.2 46.7 17.2 77.0 75.2 61.1 80.5 86.4 85 70
Belize 57.4 44.4 46.4 33.5 79.5 66.3 53.9 60.9 54.3 80.4 64.2 55 50
Benin 55.2 41.3 36.4 29.6 69.0 84.2 46.6 58.0 53.7 84.3 49.4 60 50
Bhutan 62.1 69.9 46.4 51.2 82.9 71.1 74.8 68.2 79.4 71.6 79.4 20 30
Bolivia 42.8 20.1 11.2 23.1 86.3 54.2 14.2 58.3 52.9 69.9 67.8 15 40
Bosnia and Herzegovina 62.6 44.4 33.9 41.8 83.6 49.3 97.3 45.7 67.4 82.7 80.0 65 60
Botswana 69.6 60.9 45.2 46.4 87.0 69.1 97.5 69.3 68.2 73.6 82.8 65 70
Brazil 53.7 57.3 46.7 45.6 70.4 54.6 4.6 60.5 49.5 77.2 67.8 60 50
Brunei Darussalam 66.6 69.8 56.8 49.6 89.8 61.5 20.0 84.1 90.5 77.1 85.0 65 50
Bulgaria 70.2 64.2 45.4 44.2 90.3 66.1 99.2 62.6 68.1 85.7 86.4 70 60
Burkina Faso 56.7 46.9 42.6 34.1 81.3 77.0 49.2 47.6 52.1 82.4 61.8 65 40
Burma 54.0 32.5 14.3 31.5 86.6 87.5 84.6 53.1 59.9 77.5 70.8 30 20
Burundi 49.0 24.9 26.9 22.3 73.7 85.8 13.2 55.1 67.4 70.3 68.2 50 30
Cambodia 57.3 43.1 28.1 14.8 89.4 83.9 94.8 31.2 62.5 74.8 65.4 50 50
Cameroon 53.6 45.3 30.8 20.8 74.8 88.3 63.7 46.0 50.1 84.1 59.6 30 50
Canada 78.2 87.7 72.7 90.3 76.5 50.9 83.3 81.7 72.0 76.0 87.0 80 80
Cabo Verde 63.6 47.5 48.0 46.1 77.7 71.7 66.2 58.5 55.6 83.1 68.2 80 60
Central African Republic 50.7 38.1 31.7 24.3 65.5 93.5 95.3 24.3 40.4 73.3 47.2 45 30
Chad 50.2 32.4 27.4 15.1 45.8 93.5 95.6 26.8 43.0 76.1 47.2 60 40
Chile 76.8 69.9 61.1 73.4 76.4 80.8 90.5 75.0 64.7 85.2 89.0 85 70
China 59.5 60.9 76.3 46.0 70.4 67.9 67.5 76.8 64.4 71.1 72.4 20 20
Colombia 69.2 61.1 32.8 46.1 70.4 77.0 85.5 71.3 78.0 77.5 81.2 80 70
Comoros 53.7 43.1 31.7 23.8 63.6 73.6 85.0 47.8 60.3 81.7 59.2 45 30
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo 49.5 30.1 26.5 13.1 74.4 95.4 98.0 51.2 41.6 49.6 64.6 30 20
Congo, Republic of 41.8 40.7 30.0 23.1 63.3 56.2 0.6 37.5 35.3 83.2 56.8 45 30
Costa Rica 65.8 66.7 54.4 57.2 78.9 88.4 39.7 66.5 55.0 81.2 81.4 70 50
Côte d'Ivoire 59.7 48.5 33.0 25.5 77.8 82.5 66.9 62.3 49.2 75.7 69.4 75 50
Croatia 62.2 69.9 39.6 51.0 65.9 34.7 89.1 53.6 44.0 77.6 86.4 75 60
Cuba 26.9 20.1 10.0 38.7 49.5 0.0 14.8 20.0 20.0 64.1 65.6 10 10
Cyprus 70.1 77.4 50.5 57.6 74.8 58.6 80.0 76.6 59.7 84.3 86.4 75 60
Czech Republic 74.8 76.8 49.9 64.2 82.0 52.7 97.8 69.7 77.6 80.8 86.4 80 80
Denmark 78.3 86.3 84.6 93.0 42.0 19.7 97.7 88.7 86.2 84.6 86.4 90 80
Djibouti 52.9 58.8 31.7 25.5 75.3 53.6 10.9 62.3 60.6 76.5 49.8 80 50
Dominica 60.8 59.8 62.6 51.2 70.5 16.0 86.2 70.4 60.7 83.5 68.4 70 30
Dominican Republic 60.9 55.8 18.2 31.2 84.5 90.5 82.4 50.3 57.5 73.5 76.6 70 40
Ecuador 51.3 40.4 20.7 33.4 77.5 57.9 62.3 53.8 48.0 81.0 66.0 35 40
Egypt 54.0 48.5 51.2 34.0 86.1 69.9 2.8 62.0 51.5 61.3 70.2 60 50
El Salvador 61.6 41.6 30.1 31.6 77.8 82.8 80.0 53.6 52.3 78.6 80.8 70 60
Equatorial Guinea 48.3 38.1 19.5 15.1 75.1 86.4 77.2 37.5 34.2 78.1 48.8 40 30
Eritrea 38.5 32.5 14.3 21.4 81.4 74.7 0.0 18.2 69.7 61.0 69.2 0 20
Estonia 77.7 83.2 73.7 85.9 81.1 53.3 99.9 73.5 57.3 78.6 86.4 90 70
Eswatini 55.3 49.8 42.4 37.2 72.8 62.8 17.6 58.9 67.9 75.2 88.6 50 40
Ethiopia 53.6 36.5 45.1 29.4 77.4 90.8 79.2 48.6 57.6 62.7 60.8 35 20
Fiji 63.4 69.9 42.6 45.6 80.5 68.9 84.2 62.6 76.2 72.5 52.8 55 50
Finland 75.7 92.3 80.5 96.1 67.5 11.2 90.7 84.8 50.3 83.6 86.4 85 80
France 66.0 85.9 71.2 83.3 48.8 4.5 67.1 82.5 46.1 76.7 81.4 75 70
Gabon 56.7 36.9 20.8 36.7 74.3 89.3 88.9 52.1 52.3 77.3 51.2 60 40
Gambia 56.3 43.9 43.4 39.2 74.6 85.6 25.3 53.5 67.4 63.3 64.6 65 50
Georgia 77.1 68.6 57.9 64.8 87.1 73.6 94.4 85.3 76.3 78.3 88.6 80 70
Germany 73.5 80.5 74.3 82.8 60.9 42.2 92.9 82.8 53.0 76.7 86.4 80 70
Ghana 59.4 52.5 46.1 32.2 78.4 88.1 35.6 58.4 59.3 68.9 63.8 70 60
Greece 59.9 57.0 48.6 51.2 59.0 31.5 80.0 73.7 52.0 79.4 81.4 55 50
Guatemala 64.0 45.5 32.2 29.6 79.2 95.6 95.7 62.6 48.4 77.4 82.2 70 50
Guinea 56.5 38.7 33.3 16.1 70.0 91.4 93.8 55.4 58.0 70.6 60.4 50 40
Guinea-Bissau 53.3 41.3 48.4 14.8 88.7 86.7 67.3 39.1 61.2 82.7 49.0 30 30
Guyana 56.2 53.6 42.6 34.1 66.0 64.4 58.6 58.9 62.1 82.5 66.8 55 30
Haiti 52.3 16.4 23.3 22.3 80.2 89.4 96.3 33.6 62.3 61.5 67.0 45 30
Honduras 61.1 48.6 34.2 28.6 82.3 78.2 96.7 56.7 31.5 72.2 79.4 65 60
Hong Kong 89.1 93.6 76.8 84.7 93.0 90.3 99.9 96.2 89.1 80.7 95.0 80 90
Hungary 66.4 64.8 45.7 47.5 79.9 34.5 83.6 60.2 64.6 79.9 86.4 80 70
Iceland 77.1 87.6 63.2 90.3 71.7 44.1 97.5 84.7 63.5 80.3 86.8 85 70
India 56.5 63.0 64.1 47.2 79.4 77.9 13.1 65.6 41.2 73.0 73.4 40 40
Indonesia 67.2 59.8 56.2 37.2 83.4 91.7 90.2 70.0 49.2 78.4 80.8 50 60
Iran 49.2 36.9 37.1 33.5 81.0 89.2 86.5 57.3 50.7 49.0 54.6 5 10
Iraq N/A 43.9 11.2 20.8 N/A 59.5 76.6 52.6 44.8 76.4 N/A N/A N/A
Ireland 80.9 86.6 64.4 82.8 76.4 78.8 91.4 82.7 75.9 85.3 86.4 90 70
Israel 74.0 82.3 71.8 77.2 61.0 53.5 89.2 72.2 64.4 84.9 86.2 75 70
Italy 63.8 75.4 51.3 62.2 56.0 28.5 71.1 70.4 50.9 83.2 86.4 80 50
Jamaica 68.5 62.1 50.5 46.8 80.0 74.8 80.2 77.7 74.0 77.7 68.4 80 50
Japan 73.3 86.6 71.4 80.5 68.3 55.8 62.0 81.4 78.7 84.4 80.0 70 60
Jordan 66.0 64.8 54.6 49.6 91.8 73.5 55.9 60.1 52.5 77.6 81.2 70 60
Kazakhstan 69.6 61.3 62.1 40.9 92.3 85.5 84.1 74.6 86.0 68.1 80.2 50 50
Kenya 55.3 63.2 48.6 28.2 78.7 79.6 13.5 55.0 55.8 75.0 60.4 55 50
Kiribati 45.2 47.5 34.2 24.3 72.4 0.0 99.0 40.6 62.9 82.2 23.8 25 30
Korea, North 4.2 20.1 5.0 15.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0 0
Korea, South 74.0 82.5 61.0 67.5 63.9 67.7 96.7 90.5 56.2 82.1 80.0 70 70
Kosovo 67.4 66.3 54.1 39.2 92.6 76.5 94.0 75.0 61.0 78.4 76.2 65 30
Kuwait 63.2 57.1 47.0 46.0 97.7 22.4 99.6 61.3 62.2 73.2 76.4 55 60
Kyrgyz Republic 62.9 53.6 31.3 32.0 94.1 58.5 66.7 73.6 79.6 76.4 79.2 60 50
Laos 55.5 42.5 37.3 32.0 87.0 86.6 53.3 54.3 58.6 76.8 82.0 35 20
Latvia 71.9 72.3 51.1 46.4 76.9 58.3 96.5 77.0 72.4 80.2 86.4 85 60
Lebanon 51.7 44.6 30.8 25.0 90.8 72.5 0.0 45.6 47.8 75.6 77.4 60 50
Lesotho 54.5 45.2 47.0 29.6 73.0 34.4 60.3 52.8 58.8 75.7 82.2 55 40
Liberia 49.0 31.1 37.9 23.8 86.1 65.5 59.7 48.2 38.2 62.1 60.6 55 20
Libya N/A 30.1 20.8 18.9 N/A 0 N/A 40.7 53.9 53.6 N/A 5 N/A
Liechtenstein N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 85 80
Lithuania 76.7 77.9 62.1 67.4 84.9 66 97.4 71.9 76.5 79.7 86.4 80 70
Luxembourg 75.8 86.4 74.4 90.3 64.1 45.4 99.0 66.8 45.3 76.4 86.4 95 80
Macau 70.3 60.0 60.0 33.5 75.0 89.8 99.9 60.0 50.0 70.0 90.0 85 70
North Macedonia 69.5 62.5 42.7 42.2 91.5 71.0 87.7 80.6 67.0 77.7 86.2 65 60
Madagascar 60.5 45.6 39.6 25.0 90.7 91.5 90.6 47.3 44.6 72.7 73.6 55 50
Malawi 52.8 43.1 42.1 24.8 79.0 71.7 23.6 41.9 62.8 69.1 75.4 50 50
Malaysia 74.7 86.5 74.6 49.4 85.7 84.6 80.2 87.8 74.5 81.6 82.0 60 50
Maldives 56.5 48.5 31.7 39.2 95.8 67.9 42.9 78.7 70.6 77.0 61.0 35 30
Mali 55.9 36.1 32.7 20.7 69.2 85.8 73.6 49.2 52.2 81.6 65.0 65 40
Malta 69.5 70.5 49.6 55.1 64.8 60.0 95.9 68.0 61.1 77.1 86.4 85 60
Mauritania 55.3 32.5 20.8 21.9 80.9 76.4 85.9 61.7 51.3 79.6 62.6 50 40
Mauritius 74.9 75.8 62.6 53.3 91.5 82.1 79.3 82.5 60.2 73.8 88.2 80 70
Mexico 66.0 58.3 34.7 36.7 76.1 79.3 87.5 67.0 58.4 70.9 87.6 75 60
Micronesia 52.0 30.1 26.5 22.3 92.9 0.0 99.2 56.9 78.2 82.2 70.8 35 30
Moldova 62.0 60.5 31.7 37.2 86.1 71.6 96.2 68.1 37.0 72.0 78.0 55 50
Mongolia 55.9 50.3 23.0 36.9 87.4 66.6 9.3 63.6 75.7 74.2 74.0 50 60
Montenegro 61.5 59.1 55.3 47.5 85.4 32.1 23.4 70.8 74.8 80.3 83.8 75 50
Morocco 63.3 66.3 48.0 39.2 71.8 72.8 67.2 70.4 33.0 77.0 78.6 65 70
Mozambique 50.5 34.9 31.7 23.2 74.1 69.6 40.3 55.3 41.7 72.0 78.0 35 50
Namibia 60.9 58.9 58.5 46.0 65.7 58.1 28.7 65.6 84.9 75.9 83.2 65 40
Nepal 54.2 40.7 32.0 31.5 83.4 77.9 98.1 61.6 53.7 71.2 60.4 10 30
Netherlands 77.0 90.0 73.9 90.1 51.7 45.2 94.1 80.4 60.2 82.5 86.4 90 80
New Zealand 84.1 93.3 79.1 93.9 71.0 57.8 98.3 90.4 86.7 87.0 92.2 80 80
Nicaragua 57.2 33.5 19.5 24.3 76.3 77.5 87.2 55.1 55.5 71.5 75.4 60 50
Niger 54.7 45.6 42.6 33.4 76.7 79.0 44.7 55.4 47.9 74.8 61.2 55 40
Nigeria 57.2 38.1 32.2 22.3 85.1 96.2 64.1 54.7 84.0 61.7 62.4 45 40
Norway 73.4 84.3 82.8 95.6 57.7 25.6 97.3 86.1 57.4 74.8 83.8 75 60
Oman 63.6 66.4 66.2 64.6 98.4 36.2 14.8 74.6 56.9 78.4 81.6 65 60
Pakistan 54.8 48.3 43.2 29.7 80.4 86.8 40.4 54.9 41.3 72.5 64.8 55 40
Panama 67.2 58.8 30.0 37.2 85.3 85.7 91.2 70.8 43.3 79.4 79.2 75 70
Papua New Guinea 58.4 54.9 48.4 29.7 71.5 86.4 76.4 58.4 69.6 70.7 79.8 25 30
Paraguay 63.0 44.7 26.4 29.6 96.1 88.6 98.0 60.9 29.0 72.5 75.4 75 60
Peru 67.9 54.9 30.6 33.5 80.8 86.4 89.0 67.1 62.9 86.3 88.4 75 60
Philippines 64.5 54.6 34.2 38.7 76.7 87.9 96.3 59.5 57.4 66.9 81.6 60 60
Poland 69.1 63.1 42.8 64.6 74.7 48.8 92.2 62.6 62.0 82.0 86.4 80 70
Portugal 67.0 75.4 65.6 68.9 59.6 39.8 74.4 76.5 44.1 83.0 86.4 70 60
Qatar 72.3 66.9 58.7 64.6 99.8 64.6 93.7 71.1 65.9 80.6 81.6 60 60
Romania 69.7 72.5 56.1 55.1 90.3 70.4 85.6 58.6 63.0 78.1 86.4 70 50
Russia 61.0 56.8 44.4 41.3 88.5 63.8 98.7 80.2 52.1 68.2 77.8 30 30
Rwanda 70.9 76.5 78.3 57.6 79.2 79.8 86.7 60.3 81.8 79.8 70.4 60 40
Saint Lucia 68.2 69.8 62.6 41.8 76.9 80.6 83.8 76.7 66.4 82.0 73.2 65 40
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 66.8 50.5 62.6 46.1 72.4 73.7 89.0 75.8 73.3 80.8 67.2 70 40
Samoa 62.1 60.5 31.7 31.5 79.6 62.5 94.6 76.6 78.8 79.5 64.6 55 30
São Tomé and Príncipe 56.2 41.0 26.5 37.4 88.3 77.1 73.0 64.8 43.4 68.1 64.2 60 30
Saudi Arabia 62.4 64.6 72.3 49.6 99.8 61.8 19.3 66.6 63.3 81.0 75.4 45 50
Senegal 58.0 52.4 39.8 40.6 70.2 84.4 75.2 50.4 38.1 79.7 65.4 60 40
Serbia 66.0 55.4 46.8 44.0 83.7 49.7 94.1 72.6 66.9 80.7 78.0 70 50
Seychelles 64.3 68.3 46.4 53.3 76.8 58.9 93.2 65.3 62.8 78.6 82.6 55 30
Sierra Leone 48.0 40.7 39.4 21.8 87.5 83.5 9.8 50.1 29.7 64.2 69.4 60 20
Singapore 89.4 96.8 92.9 92.4 90.3 91.1 80.0 92.8 90.9 85.6 94.8 85 80
Slovakia 66.8 73.1 41.7 49.7 78.5 50.2 92.6 55.3 52.6 75.9 86.4 75 70
Slovenia 67.8 76.5 48.6 67.4 59.2 42.9 90.3 78.4 61.4 82.2 86.4 70 50
Solomon Islands 52.9 54.6 53.7 33.5 65.6 34.2 76.6 67.7 72.0 84.3 48.0 15 30
Somalia N/A 20.1 26.5 13.1 N/A N/A N/A 31.6 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
South Africa 58.8 58.4 38.0 46.6 63.7 67.4 64.0 62.0 58.8 75.9 75.8 45 50
Spain 66.9 74.9 51.8 55.1 62.1 48.3 62.6 66.8 57.7 82.0 86.4 85 70
Sri Lanka 57.4 47.7 39.2 34.7 84.8 88.9 39.3 76.5 58.6 71.1 67.6 40 40
Sudan 45.0 33.7 20.8 25.5 86.1 94.5 12.4 53.5 60.0 77.0 52.0 5 20
Suriname 49.5 45.6 19.5 36.9 70.5 74.8 10.3 48.2 71.9 76.1 69.8 40 30
Sweden 74.9 88.8 79.9 91.4 43.6 25.8 97.0 85.3 53.8 81.2 86.4 85 80
Switzerland 82.0 87.4 81.5 90.1 70.1 65.3 96.7 74.2 72.4 84.4 86.6 85 90
Syria N/A 45.6 20.8 21.9 N/A N/A N/A 48.9 59.3 58.8 51.6 0 N/A
Taiwan 77.1 86.9 70.1 68.9 75.0 90.5 91.0 93.9 60.3 82.7 86.0 60 60
Tajikistan 52.2 49.1 50.0 32.0 91.8 62.3 26.0 65.9 47.7 71.0 75.0 25 30
Tanzania 61.7 41.9 43.4 32.5 80.6 91.6 92.9 45.9 66.4 72.2 67.8 55 50
Thailand 69.4 59.5 48.0 43.4 80.7 85.9 96.4 83.0 63.7 74.0 83.0 55 60
Timor-Leste 45.9 45.2 12.6 32.5 96.3 5.3 19.9 64.0 58.9 76.5 75.0 45 20
Togo 54.1 41.6 31.7 31.2 67.5 78.6 59.4 55.0 46.9 79.5 63.2 65 30
Tonga 58.8 60.9 26.5 44.2 85.2 42.8 95.2 75.0 69.8 71.4 74.0 40 20
Trinidad and Tobago 58.3 56.6 42.1 37.4 82.6 66.5 15.9 67.3 76.0 77.4 67.8 60 50
Tunisia 55.8 56.4 43.6 39.7 74.2 73.1 38.8 78.1 49.8 73.9 66.4 45 30
Turkey 64.4 57.4 53.7 44.6 76.7 64.1 86.1 67.0 49.2 66.1 78.0 70 60
Turkmenistan 46.5 20.1 20.0 21.4 95.9 93.1 94.5 30.0 20.0 68.7 74.2 10 10
Uganda 59.5 45.6 36.9 21.4 80.3 88.4 64.3 46.0 83.1 78.0 75.4 55 40
Ukraine 54.9 47.5 42.2 37.9 81.1 47.2 83.9 61.3 48.3 63.0 81.2 35 30
United Arab Emirates 76.2 80.3 84.6 64.6 99.2 72.1 94.1 78.6 81.3 79.6 80.4 40 60
United Kingdom 79.3 92.2 82.7 89.9 64.7 49.5 78.1 94.7 73.1 80.3 86.4 80 80
United States 76.6 81.8 83.7 77.2 74.6 56.5 54.3 83.3 87.9 75.5 79.8 85 80
Uruguay 69.1 72.0 59.8 73.5 75.2 66.5 72.3 73.6 71.0 72.7 77.4 85 30
Uzbekistan 57.2 59.1 34.2 28.2 91.6 74.7 98.9 72.6 59.9 59.9 67.6 20 20
Vanuatu 60.7 68.3 36.1 37.4 97.1 61.1 78.4 51.8 54.6 74.6 63.4 65 40
Venezuela 25.2 10.1 12.6 14.6 72.8 66.3 0.0 30.8 27.7 0.0 58.0 0 10
Vietnam 58.8 52.6 40.1 33.8 79.5 75.9 58.0 65.6 62.5 68.2 79.6 40 50
Yemen N/A 22.5 20.1 21.9 N/A 96.5 60.1 43.9 43.8 42.6 70 50 N/A
Zambia 53.5 45.2 31.3 28.4 73.2 81.7 18.4 66.4 47.0 72.2 72.6 55 50
Zimbabwe 43.1 33.7 28.3 18.9 62.3 88.0 36.2 39.1 43.1 62.8 70.0 25 10

Historical Index[edit]

Country/Region 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995
 Hong Kong[a] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Ireland 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 10 11 11 13 27 20
 Australia 4 4 7 9 8 10 11 8 5 5 7 9 10 8
 United States 5 6 5 5 7 7 8 6 8 7 8 8 5 4
 New Zealand 6 5 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3
 Canada 7 10 10 12 12 13 14 21 20 25 27 26 20 18
 Chile 8 8 8 8 11 12 9 12 12 12 9 7 13 14
  Switzerland 9 9 9 6 5 6 6 10 6 4 4 4 4
 United Kingdom 10 7 6 7 9 9 7 7 4 6 5 5 7 3
 Denmark 11 12 13 13 17 20 23 33 33 32 34 30 31
 Estonia 12 11 15 14 10 8 10 9 24 13 15 24 38 26
 Netherlands 13 15 16 18 14 14 14 16 21 57 24 20 23
 Iceland 14 13 11 10 19 16 19 15 15 19 18 19
 Luxembourg 15 14 12 11 6 5 5 5 7 15 13 12 15
 Finland 16 16 17 21 16 15 16 27 50 54 55 39 47
 Japan 17 18 18 36 50 34 39 23 19 27 21 21 14 6
 Mauritius 18 32 35 35 51 52 33 45 36 20
 Bahrain 19 24 23 22 13 11 12 11 11 8 6 6 6 5
 Belgium 20 17 24 30 30 33 34 57 55 60 48 44 36
 Barbados 21 27 20 24 28 23 17 20 27 37 33 46 53
 Cyprus 22 20 21 20 15 19 20 22 35 33 29 27 30
 Germany 23 22 25 28 27 26 25 29 43 40 52 29 25 17
 The Bahamas 24 19 19 15 20 17 15 14 16 10 10 10 11 11
 Taiwan 25 25 29 19 26 21 22 18 17 18 20 22 9 7
 Lithuania 26 21 22 23 18 27 43 53 67 67 74 78 104
 Sweden 27 33 27 27 24 24 24 43 47 51 53 53 55 41
 Armenia 28 30 14 25 23 37 32 46 62 96 117 123 125
 Trinidad and Tobago 29 23 26 17 21 29 26 19 13 16 17 16 24
 Austria 30 26 30 34 32 35 36 37 31 53 43 40 26 16
 Spain 31 28 32 31 29 28 29 36 41 45 62 68 65 34
 Georgia 32 31 54 93 78 84 104 87 107 114 122 125 123
 El Salvador 33 29 28 16 22 22 21 17 9 9 22 18 21 19
 Norway 34 37 34 45 42 39 37 41 22 29 31 41 39
 Slovakia 35 36 33 42 48 77 76 85 108 105 85 85 75 46
 Botswana 36 35 31 26 25 30 42 42 42 59 60 72 56 57
 Czech Republic 37 39 40 47 35 36 40 26 30 23 28 54 29 23
 Latvia 38 38 37 39 33 44 52 44 57 50 56 57 86
 Kuwait 39 41 41 48 55 43 46 35 25 24 38 42 35
 Uruguay 40 34 43 33 37 25 30 24 28 30 26 31 46 37
  1. ^ Special administrative region (SAR) of China since 1997

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Executive Summary" (PDF). Index of Economic Freedom. 15 January 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
  2. ^ a b William Beach, Time Kane (15 January 2008). "Methodology; Measuring the 10 Economic Freedoms" (PDF). Index of Economic Freedom. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
  3. ^ "Heritage Foundation / About".
  4. ^ Mary Anastasia O'Grady (15 January 2008). "The Real Key to Development". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
  5. ^ Carl J. Schramm (15 January 2008). "Chapter 1 Economic Fluidity: A Crucial Dimension of Economic Freedom" (PDF). The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
  6. ^ "In Pursuit of Happiness Research: Is It Reliable? What Does It Imply for Policy?", Will Wilkinson, The Cato institute, Policy Analysis No. 590, 11 April 2007
  7. ^ Ovaska Tomi, Takashima Ryo (2006). "Economic policy and the level of self-perceived well-being: An international comparison". The Journal of Socio-Economics. 35 (2): 308–325. doi:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.054.
  8. ^ More Freedom = More Happiness Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Public Issues, Libertad Desarrollo, No. 750, 23 January 2006, ISSN 0717-1528
  9. ^ "Chapter2: Economic Freedom and Peace" Archived 16 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Erik Gartzke, in Economic Freedom of the World: 2005 Annual Report, James Gwartney and Robert Lawson, Fraser Institute, 30 August 2005
  10. ^ Barry Wood (15 January 2008). "Economic Freedom Holding Steady, 14th Index of Economic Freedom Shows". PR Newswire. Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
  11. ^ a b c d "Executive Highlights" (PDF). The Heritage Foundation. The Heritage Foundation. 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
  12. ^ Ed Feulner (22 January 2008). "Football and economic freedom". IndyStar. Archived from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
  13. ^ Miller, Terry (2011). "The Limits of Government" (PDF). Heritage.org. The Heritage Foundation. p. 13. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
  14. ^ a b "Global economic freedom dipped last year, annual survey says; Hong Kong remains world's freest". Washington Post. Associated Press. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  15. ^ Edwin Feulner (17 January 2012). "Still in top 10, but falling fast". The Washington Times. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  16. ^ Edwin J. Feulner (12 January 2012). "A Step Backward for Economic Freedom in 2012". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  17. ^ Adrian Karatnycky. Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. Transaction Publishers. 2001. ISBN 978-0-7658-0101-2. p. 11
  18. ^ "Report on the Criteria and Methodology for Determining the Eligibility of Candidate Countries for Millennium Challenge Account Assistance during Fiscal Year 2008" (PDF). Millennium Challenge Corporation. 1 September 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
  19. ^ The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for our Time, Jeffrey Sachs, Penguin Books, 2005, ISBN 1-59420-045-9, pp. 320–321.
  20. ^ "UAE challenges its economic freedom ranking in paper by Heritage Foundation". Business Intelligence Middle East. 31 January 2008. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
  21. ^ Stefan Karlsson (21 January 2005). "The Failings of the Economic Freedom Index". Mises Daily. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  22. ^ "Free, Free at Last", John Miller, Dollars and Sense, No. 258, March/April 2005
  23. ^ "Laissez-faire Olympics, an LBO special report", Left Business Observer, 26 March 2005
  24. ^ Methodology | 2018 Index of Economic Freedom Book
  25. ^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions". Index of Economic Freedom. 15 January 2008. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
  26. ^ Heritage - Country Rankings
  27. ^ "2017 IEF (XLS) table download". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  28. ^ "2016 IEF (XLS) table download". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  29. ^ "2015 IEF (XLS) table download". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  30. ^ "2014 IEF (XLS) table download". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2 February 2014.

External links[edit]