Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.

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Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.
Lt. Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Navy.JPG
Joseph P. Kennedy Jr., U.S. Navy (c. 1942)
Joseph Patrick Kennedy Jr.

(1915-07-25)July 25, 1915
DiedAugust 12, 1944(1944-08-12) (aged 29)
Over Blythburgh, East Suffolk, United Kingdom (remains never recovered)
Cause of deathNaval airplane explosion during Operation Aphrodite
EducationHarvard College (BA)
London School of Economics
Harvard Law School
OccupationU.S. Naval aviator
Political partyDemocratic
RelativesSee Kennedy family
Military career
Memorial – Wall of the Missing
Allegiance United States
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service1941–1944
RankUS-O3 insignia.svg lieutenent
UnitPatrol Squadron 203
Bombing Squadron 110, Special Air Unit 1
Battles/warsWorld War II
AwardsNavycross.jpg Dfc-usa.jpg Air Medal front.jpg
Navy Cross, Distinguished Flying Cross, Purple Heart Medal, Air Medal

Joseph Patrick Kennedy Jr. (July 25, 1915 – August 12, 1944) was a United States Navy lieutenant. He was killed in action during World War II while serving as a land-based patrol bomber pilot, and was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross. He was the eldest of nine children born to Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. (1888–1969) and Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy (1890–1995).

Joe Sr. had aspirations for Joe Jr. to become president.[1] Joe Jr. was a delegate to the 1940 Democratic National Convention and planned to run for a seat in the United States House of Representatives after his military service as the first stepping stone on the path to the White House.[1] His death while participating in a top-secret mission in 1944 caused Joe Sr. to transfer his aspirations to his next-oldest son, John F. Kennedy.[1] John Kennedy followed the path first planned for Joe Jr., advancing from the US House to the United States Senate to the presidency.[1]

Early life and education[edit]

Kennedy was born on July 25, 1915, in Hull, Massachusetts. He first attended the Dexter School in Brookline, Massachusetts, with his brother, Jack. In 1933, he graduated from the Choate School in Wallingford, Connecticut. He then entered Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, graduating in 1938 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in government. Kennedy participated in football, rugby, and crew, and he served on the student council. Kennedy then spent a year studying under the tutelage of Harold Laski at the London School of Economics before enrolling in Harvard Law School.

Joseph Patrick Kennedy Jr. in the Harvard College Class of 1938 yearbook

Political ambitions and views[edit]

From a very young age, Kennedy was groomed by his father and predicted to be the first Roman Catholic president of the United States. When he was born, his grandfather John F. Fitzgerald, then Mayor of Boston, told the news, "This child is the future president of the nation."[2] He often boasted that he would be president even without help from his father. Kennedy was a Massachusetts delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1940. He planned to run for the U.S. House from Massachusetts's 11th congressional district in 1946.

Kennedy expressed approval of Adolf Hitler before his conquest of Europe began. His father sent him to visit Nazi Germany in 1934. He wrote to his father, praising Hitler's sterilization policy as "a great thing" that "will do away with many of the disgusting specimens of men."[3] He explained that "Hitler is building a spirit in his men that could be envied in any country."[4][5]

U.S. Navy (1941–1944)[edit]

Kennedy left before his final year of law school at Harvard to enlist in the U.S. Naval Reserve on June 24, 1941.[6] He entered flight training to be a naval aviator, and after training, he received his wings and was commissioned an ensign on May 5, 1942.[6] He was assigned to Patrol Squadron 203 and then Bombing Squadron 110.[6] In September 1943, he was sent to Britain and became a member of Bomber Squadron 110, Special Air Unit ONE, in 1944. He piloted land-based PB4Y Liberator patrol bombers on anti-submarine details during two tours of duty in the winter of 1943–1944. Kennedy had completed 25 combat missions and was eligible to return home. He instead volunteered for an Operation Aphrodite mission.[7]

Operations Aphrodite and Anvil[edit]

Operation Aphrodite made use of unmanned, explosive-laden Army Air Corps Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and Navy Consolidated PB4Y-1 Liberator bombers that were deliberately crashed into their targets under radio control.[7] These aircraft could not take off safely on their own, so a crew of two would take off and fly to 2,000 feet (610 m) before activating the remote control system, arming the detonators, and parachuting from the aircraft. The Navy also participated in Operation Aphrodite, with its portion referred to as Operation Anvil.[8]

Kennedy was appointed a lieutenant on July 1, 1944.[6] After the U.S. Army Air Corps operation missions were drawn up on July 23, 1944, Lieutenants Wilford John Willy[9] and Kennedy were designated as the Navy's first Anvil flight crew.[10] Willy, who was the executive officer of Special Air Unit 1, had also volunteered for the mission and "pulled rank" over Ensign James Simpson, who was Kennedy's regular co-pilot. Kennedy and Willy (co-pilot) flew a BQ-8 "robot" aircraft (drone; a converted B-24 Liberator) for the U.S. Navy's first Aphrodite mission. Two Lockheed Ventura mother planes and a Boeing B-17 navigation plane took off from RAF Fersfield at 1800 on Saturday, August 12, 1944. Then the BQ-8 aircraft, loaded with 21,170 lb (9,600 kg) of Torpex, took off. It was to be used against the U-boat pens at Heligoland in the North Sea.[11][12]

Last photograph of Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. on day of flight, August 12, 1944.
Commemorative headstone of Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. at Arlington National Cemetery.

Following them in a USAAF F-8 Mosquito to film the mission were pilot Lt. Robert A. Tunnel and combat camera man Lt. David J. McCarthy, who filmed the event from the perspex nose of the aircraft.[13] As planned, Kennedy and Willy remained aboard as the BQ-8 completed its first remote-controlled turn at 2,000 ft (610 m) near the North Sea coast. Kennedy and Willy removed the safety pin, arming the explosive package, and Kennedy radioed the agreed code Spade Flush, his last known words. Two minutes later (and well before the planned crew bailout, near RAF Manston), the Torpex explosive detonated prematurely and destroyed the Liberator, killing Kennedy and Willy instantly. Wreckage landed near the village of Blythburgh in Suffolk, England, causing widespread damage and small fires, but there were no injuries on the ground. According to one report, a total of 59 buildings were damaged in a nearby coastal town.

Attempted first Aphrodite attack Twelve August with robot taking off from Fersfield at One Eight Zero Five Hours. Robot exploded in the air at approximately two thousand feet eight miles southeast of Halesworth at One Eight Two Zero hours. Wilford J. Willy Sr Grade Lieutenant and Joseph P. Kennedy Sr Grade Lieutenant, both USNR, were killed. Commander Smith, in command of this unit, is making full report TO US Naval Operations. A more detailed report will be forwarded to you when interrogation is completed

— Top Secret telegram to General Carl Andrew Spaatz from General Jimmy Doolittle, August 1944[14]

According to USAAF records, the trailing Mosquito "was flying 300 feet above and about 300 yards to the rear of the robot. Engineer photographer on this ship was injured, and the ship was damaged slightly by the explosion."[15] The Mosquito, which made an immediate emergency landing at RAF Halesworth, belonged to the 325th Reconnaissance Wing, a unit under the command of the son of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, then Colonel Elliott Roosevelt. Years later, Roosevelt claimed to have been aboard this trailing aircraft, and his version of the event has gained wide currency.[16] However, Air Force records cannot substantiate this. Instead, an after-action account by the 8th Combat Camera Unit (CCU) noted that:

Memorial for Joseph Kennedy Jr. inside the fortress of Mimoyecques (France)

... the Baby just exploded in mid-air as we neared it and I was knocked halfway back to the cockpit. A few pieces of the Baby came through the plexiglass nose and I got hit in the head and caught a lot of fragments in my right arm. I crawled back to the cockpit and lowered the wheels so that Bob could make a quick emergency landing, ...

— Lt. McCarthy reporting from his hospital bed.[17]

The 8th CCU film of the event, has, so far as is known, not been found.[18]

The 20th Fighter Group out of King's Cliffe was tasked with providing escort to the Aphrodite mission. Escort consisted of P-51s out of the 55th and 79th Fighter Squadrons, each squadron provided two aircraft. VIII FC, Field Order 509 stated "20 GP (P-51's, 4 A/C) will proceed to Fersfield and land coordinating with operations where to provide close escort support to one B-34 special Operation."

Lt John E. Klink reported in this mission summary report "Took off to excort BXXX, 1 B24, 1 B17, 2 B34s, and 3 photo Recons (2 Mosq. -1 P38). When specially loaded B24 was at approx.. 2000 ft. NE of Ipswich it exploded and crashed near small lake. No one got out of the plane. Rest of ships OK in spite of terrific concussion from explosion. All returned to base." [sic]

The Navy's informal board of review, discussing a number of theories, discounted the possibility of the crew making a mistake or that suspected jamming or a stray signal could have armed and detonated the explosives. An electronics officer, Earl Olsen, who believed the wiring harness had a design defect, had warned Kennedy of this possibility the day before the mission, but he was ignored.[14] Kennedy and Willy were both posthumously awarded the Navy Cross, the Air Medal, and the Purple Heart Medal.

The names of both men are listed on the Tablets of the Missing at the Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial, a cemetery and chapel near the village of Madingley in Cambridgeshire, Britain, that commemorates American servicemen who died in World War II.[19][20] Later reports that Kennedy's final mission were kept top secret until many years later[21] are negated by a detailed public account of the operation and Kennedy's death released in 1945.[22]

Military awards[edit]

Kennedy's military decorations and awards include:

Bronze star
Bronze star

Navy Cross citation[edit]

The President of the United States of America takes pride in presenting the Navy Cross (Posthumously) to Lieutenant Joseph Patrick Kennedy, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in operations against the enemy while serving as Commander of a Navy Liberator Patrol Plane in Bombing Squadron ONE HUNDRED TEN (VB-110), Special Air Unit ONE (Europe), during a special air mission directed at Mimoyecques, France, on August 12, 1944. Well knowing the extreme dangers involved and totally unconcerned for his own safety, Lieutenant Kennedy unhesitatingly volunteered to conduct an exceptionally hazardous and special operational mission. Intrepid and daring in his tactics and with unwavering confidence in the vital importance of his task, he willingly risked his life in the supreme measure of service, and, by his great personal valor and fortitude in carrying out a perilous undertaking, sustained and enhanced the finest traditions of the United States Naval Service.[23]


In 1946, the Navy named a destroyer for Kennedy, the USS Joseph P. Kennedy Jr., aboard which his younger brother, (future U.S. Senator) Robert F. Kennedy, briefly served. Among the highlights of its service are the blockade of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 and the afloat recovery teams for Gemini 6 and Gemini 7, both 1965 manned spaceflights in NASA's Gemini program. It is now a floating museum in Battleship Cove, Fall River, Massachusetts.

In 1947, the Kennedys established the Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Foundation and funded the construction of the Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Memorial Hall at Boston College, now a part of Campion Hall and home to the college's Lynch School of Education. The foundation was led by his youngest brother, U.S. Senator Ted Kennedy, until his death in August 2009. In 1957, the Lieutenant Joseph Patrick Kennedy Junior Memorial Skating Rink was opened in Hyannis, Massachusetts, with funds from the Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Foundation.

In 1969, Hank Searls wrote a biography of Joe Jr., entitled The Lost Prince: Young Joe, the Forgotten Kennedy. A television movie based on Searls' book won a primetime Emmy in 1977.[24]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d MacIntyre, Ben (August 2, 2014). "How Joseph Kennedy's death changed US history". The Australian. Surry Hills, New South Wales, Australia.
  2. ^ Sarmiento, Kimberly (2017). People That Changed the Course of History: The Story of John F. Kennedy 100 Years After His Birth. Atlantic Publishing Company. ISBN 9781620231555.
  3. ^ Gordon, Meryl (October 6, 2015). "'Rosemary: The Hidden Kennedy Daughter,' by Kate Clifford Larson". New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
  4. ^ Honig, Sarah (February 28, 2015). "Another Tack:Movie Musings". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
  5. ^ Beauchamp, Cari (December 2004). "Two Sons, One Destiny". Vanity Fair. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d "Destroyer Photo Index DD-850 USS Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr". Retrieved October 2, 2017.
  7. ^ a b Sorensen, Theodore (1966) [1965]. Kennedy (paperback). New York: Bantam. p. 37. OCLC 2746832.
  8. ^ Yenne, Bill; Yenne, William (2005). Secret Gear, Gadgets, and Gizmos. Saint Paul, MN: Zenith Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-6106-0744-5.
  9. ^ "Wilford John Willy". Hall of Valor Project. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  10. ^ Monroe, Alexander G. (November–December 1984). "Drone Bombers of WW II". Naval Aviation News. Washington, DC: US Navy Air Systems Command. pp. 13–14.
  11. ^ Freeman, Roger A. (1970) [1970]. The Mighty Eighth, A History of the U.S. 8th Army Air Force (Hardback). London: Macdonald. ISBN 0-385-01168-7.
  12. ^ "US Navy and US Marine Corps Bureau Numbers, Third Series (30147 to 839998)". Joseph F. Baugher. Archived from the original on September 8, 2009. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
  13. ^ Hansen, Chris (2012) [2012]. Enfant Terrible: The Times and Schemes of General Elliott Roosevelt. Tucson: Able Baker. ISBN 978-0-615-66892-5.
  14. ^ a b Renehan, Edward J. Jr. (2002). The Kennedys at War, 1937–1945. New York: Doubleday. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-385-50165-1.
  15. ^ Telegram to AWW, cipher, Top Secret, August 17, 1944, Project Aphrodite box, Air Force Historical Research Agency.
  16. ^ Searls, Hank (1977) [1969]. Young Joe, the Forgotten Kennedy (paperback). New York: Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-27395-8.
  17. ^ 8th AAF CCU unit history for August 1944, 25-GP-HI (Recon), AFHRA
  18. ^ NARA College Park MD 20 FG Mission Reports.
  19. ^ Fold3 entry for Wilford J Willy
  20. ^ American Battle Monuments Commission
  21. ^ Olsen, Jack (2004) [1970]. Aphrodite: Desperate Mission. ISBN 978-0-7434-8670-5.
  22. ^ New York Times, August 15 and 17, 1944 (announcement of Kennedy's death) and October 25, 1945 (detailed account of the mission)
  23. ^ "Valor awards for Joseph Patrick Kennedy". Retrieved October 2, 2017.
  24. ^ "Young Joe, the Forgotten Kennedy". September 18, 1977. Retrieved October 2, 2017.

External links[edit]