List of German monarchs in 1918

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Greater imperial arms of Germany

This is a list of German monarchs of all ranks in 1918, the final year of the First World War and the year in which monarchy in Germany was abolished. The term German Empire (German: Deutsches Kaiserreich) commonly refers to Germany, from its foundation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of its last Kaiser, Wilhelm II, on November 9, 1918. The defeat of Kaiser Wilhelm II in World War I also brought about the depositions or abdications of the majority of European crowned heads from rule of the states within the German Empire. These included the German Emperor, and German kings, princes, grand dukes and dukes. These events brought an end to monarchy in Germany. Germans, when referring to the Reich in this period under the Kaisers, 1871 to 1918, typically use the term Kaiserreich.

Emperor of Germany (1918)[edit]

Emperor Styles Empress Symbols German Empire 1871 – 1918
Kaiser Guglielmo II.jpg

1859 – 1941
His Imperial and Royal Majesty
The German Emperor, King of Prussia
Wilhelm II

Her Imperial and Royal Majesty
The German Empress, Queen of Prussia
Augusta Victoria
Philip Alexius de Laszlo - Auguste Viktoria, Deutsche Kaiserin, 1908.jpg

1858 – 1921
House of Hohenzollern
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichsadler 1889.svg

Flag of the German Empire.svg

1871 – 1918
Prussia. Bavaria. Saxony. Württemberg.
Grand Duchies
Baden. Hesse. Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Oldenburg. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Anhalt. Brunswick. Saxe-Altenburg. Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Saxe-Meiningen.
Lippe. Reuss, junior line. Reuss, senior line. Schaumburg-Lippe. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. Waldeck-Pyrmont.
Free Hanseatic cities
Bremen. Hamburg. Lübeck.
Imperial territory (Reichsland)

Commanded by Emperor: During times of war in Germany, all military forces came under the direct command of the German Emperor, via Article 60 of the Constitution of the German Reich (1871). From 1871 to 1918, the forces of the Emperor included those of the kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and Wurttemberg, with all other states commanded by, or merged with his Prussian army.

Kings and Kingdoms (1918)[edit]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
Keisari vihelm II.jpg Kaiser
Wilhelm II

1859 – 1941
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichsadler 1889.svg
Flag of Prussia 1892-1918.svg
House of Hohenzollern
C.11th – 1918

Kingdom of Prussia
1701 – 1918
Map-DR-Prussia.svg Spouse:
(1) Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein
(2) Hermine Reuss of Greiz

(1) William, German Crown Prince, (2) Eitel Friedrich, (3) Prince Adalbert, (4) Prince August Wilhelm, (5) Prince Oskar, (6) Prince Joachim, (7) Princess Viktoria Luise

LodewijkIIIBeieren.jpg King
Ludwig III

1845 – 1921
Wittelsbach Arms.svg
Flag of Bavaria (striped).svg
House of Wittelsbach

Kingdom of Bavaria
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Bavaria.svg Spouse:
(1) Maria Theresia of Austria-Este

(1) Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, (2) Adelgunde of Hohenzollern, (3) Maria, Duchess of Calabria, (4) Karl of Bavaria, (5) Franz of Bavaria, (6) Mathilde Ludwig of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary (7) Wolfgang of Bavaria (8) Hildegarde of Bavaria, (9) Notburga of Bavaria, (10) Wiltrud, Duchess of Urach, (11) Helmtrud of Bavaria, (12) Dietlinde of Bavaria, (13) Gundelinde of Bavaria

FA3 of Saxony.png King
Frederick Augustus III

1865 – 1932
Coat of arms of Saxony.svg
Flagge Königreich Sachsen (1815-1918).svg
House of Wettin
900 – 1918

Kingdom of Saxony
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Saxony.svg Spouse:
(1) Archduchess Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany

(1) Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony, (2) Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen, (3) Ernst Heinrich of Saxony, (4) Maria Alix Karola of Saxony, (5) Margarete Karola of Saxony, (6) Maria Alix (Luitpolda) of Saxony, (7) Princess Anna of Saxony

König Wilhelm II.jpg King
Wilhelm II

1848 – 1921
Wappen Herzogtum Württemberg.svg
Flagge Königreich Württemberg.svg
House of Württemberg
1081 – 1918

Kingdom of Württemberg
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Wuerttemberg.svg Spouse:
(1) Marie of Waldeck and Pyrmont
(2) Charlotte of Schaumburg-Lippe

(1) Pauline, Princess of Wied, (2) Prince Ulrich

Grand Dukes and Grand Duchies (1918)[edit]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
GrandDukeFriedrichII.jpg Grand Duke
Friedrich II

1857 – 1928
Wappen Zaehringer.png
Flagge Großherzogtum Baden (1891–1918).svg
House of Zähringen
C.10th – 1918

Grand Duchy of Baden
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Baden.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Hilda of Nassau
ErnstLouisHesse.jpg Grand Duke
Ernest Louis

1868 – 1937
Hesse Darmstadt coat of armes (1736).gif
Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg
House of Hesse-Darmstadt
1806 – 1918

Grand Duchy of Hesse by Rhine
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Hesse.svg Spouse:
(1) Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(2) Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich

(1) Princess Elisabeth, (2) Hereditary Grand Duke George Donatus, (3) Prince Louis

Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.jpg Grand Duke
Friedrich Franz IV

1882 – 1945
Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg
House of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1131 – 1918

Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1815 – 1918
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Karte-Mecklenburg.png Spouse:
(1) Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland

(1) Hereditary Grand Duke Friedrich Franz, (2) Duke Christian Ludwig, (3) Duchess Olga, (4) Duchess Thyra, (5) Anastasia, Princess Friedrich Ferdinand of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

HL Damals – Ghz v Oldenburg.jpg Grand Duke
Friedrich Augustus

1852 – 1931
Blason Adolphe de Holstein-Gottorp.svg
House of Holstein-Gottorp

1544 – 1918

Grand Duchy of Oldenburg
1814 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Oldenburg.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Elisabeth Anna of Prussia, (2) Duchess Elisabeth Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

(1) Sophia Charlotte, Princess Eitel Friedrich of Prussia, (2) Duchess Margaret, (3) Nikolaus, Hereditary Grand Duke (4) Duchess Alexandrine, (5) Ingeborg Alix, Princess Stephan of Schaumburg-Lippe, (6) Altburg, Hereditary Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont

GrandDukeWILHELM.jpg Grand Duke
Wilhelm Ernest

1876 – 1923
Blason Grand-Duché de Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.svg
Flagge Großherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1897-1920).svg
House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
1741 – 1918

1809 – 1920
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Caroline Reuss of Greiz, (2) Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen

(1) Sophie, Princess of Schwarzburg,
(2) Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach,
(3) Prince Bernhard, (4) Prince Georg

Dukes and Duchies (1918)[edit]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
Joachim Ernst

1901 – 1947
Blason Duché d'Anhalt.svg
Flagge Herzogtum Anhalt.svg
House of Ascania
1036 – 1918

Duchy of Anhalt
1863 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Anhalt.svg Spouse:
(1) Elisabeth Strickrodt, (2) Editha Marwitz

(1) Princess Alexandra, (2) Princess Anna Luise,
(3) Prince Friedrich, (4) Princess Edda, (5) Prince Eduard

ERNSTAUGUSTofHannover1.jpg Duke
Ernest Augustus

1845 – 1923
Flagge Herzogtum Braunschweig.svg
House of Hanover
1635 – 1918

Duchy of Brunswick
1815 – 1918
Map-DR-Brunswick.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Thyra of Denmark

(1) Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden,
(2) Prince George William of Hanover and Cumberland,
(3) Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin,
(4) Princess Olga of Hanover and Cumberland, (5) Prince Christian of Hanover and Cumberland, (6) Ernest Augustus III, Duke of Brunswick

Ernstii.jpg Duke
Ernst II

1871 – 1955
Altenburg coa.svg
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg.png
House of Wettin
900 – 1918

Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg
1826 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Sachsen-Altenburg.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Adelaide of Schaumburg-Lippe, (2) Maria Triebel (morganatic)

(1) Charlotte Agnes, Princess Sigismund of Prussia,
(2) Georg Moritz, Hereditary Prince,
(3) Princess Elisabeth Karola, (4) Prince Frederick Ernst

Carl Eduard Sachsen Coburg und Gotha.jpg Duke
Charles Edward

1884 – 1954
Duchy of Saxe Coburg Gotha.png
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1911-1920).svg
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1826 – 1918

Duchy of Saxe-Coburg Gotha
1826 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein

(1) Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha,
(2) Princess Sibylla, Duchess of Västerbotten,
(3) Prince Hubertus, (4) Princess Caroline Mathilde, (5) Prince Friedrich Josias

Bernhard III (Saxe-Meiningen).jpg Duke
Bernhard III

1851 – 1928
Blason Duché de Saxe-Meiningen.svg
Saxe- Meiningen.png
House of Saxe-Meiningen
1680 – 1918

Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen
1680 – 1918
Map-DR-Saxe-Meiningen.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Charlotte of Prussia

(1) Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen

Princes and Principalities (1918)[edit]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
LeopoldIVofLippe.jpg Prince
Leopold IV

1871 – 1949
Flag Schaumburg-Lippe.png
House of Lippe
1123 – 1918

Principality of Lippe
1123 – 1918
Map-DB-Lippe.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Bertha of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld
(2) Princess Anna of Ysenburg and Büdingen
AdolfSchaumburgLippe.jpg Prince
Adolph II

1883 – 1936
Flagge Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe.svg
House of Lippe
1123 – 1918

Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe
1643 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Schaumburg-Lippe.svg Spouse:
(1) Ellen Bischoff-Korthaus (1894–1936)