List of German monarchs in 1918

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Prussian Empire
Royal Standard of the King of Prussia (1871–1918).svg
Royal Standard: King of Prussia (1871–1918)
Preceded by Kingdom of Prussia
Followed by Abolished 1918

The term German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich) commonly refers to Germany, from its foundation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of its last Kaiser, Wilhelm II, on November 9, 1918. Germans, when referring to the Reich in this period under the Kaisers, 1871 to 1918, typically use the term Kaiserreich. [1]

Federal prince (Bundesfürst) was the generic term for the royal heads of state (monarchs) of the various states making up the German Empire. The empire was a federal state, with its constituent states remaining sovereign states. In total, there were 22 federal princes of the German Empire and additionally three republican heads of state and the steward of the imperial territory ruled by Alsace-Lorraine. The states became part of the Kaiserreich by an 1871 treaty. The Kaiser as head of the empire was granted the title German Emperor (the style "Emperor of Germany" being deliberately avoided), and was simultaneously a federal prince as King of Prussia, the sovereign of its largest federal state. Of the princely heads of state, 4 held the title King (König) (the Kings of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, and Württemberg), 6 held the title Grand Duke (Großherzog), 5 held the title Duke (Herzog), and 7 held the title Prince (i.e. Sovereign Prince, Fürst).

Following the abdication of Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918 and German Revolution of 1918–19, the German nobility as a legally defined class was abolished on August 11, 1919 with the promulgation of the Weimar Constitution, under which all Germans were made equal before the law, and the legal rights and privileges, and all following German Houses, titles, insignia and ranks of nobility were abolished.

Emperor of Germany (1918)[edit]

Emperor Styles Empress Symbols German Empire 1871 – 1918
Kaiser Guglielmo II.jpg

1859 – 1941
His Imperial and Royal Majesty
The German Emperor, King of Prussia
Wilhelm II

Her Imperial and Royal Majesty
The German Empress, Queen of Prussia
Augusta Victoria
Philip Alexius de Laszlo - Auguste Viktoria, Deutsche Kaiserin, 1908.jpg

1858 – 1921
House of Hohenzollern
Imperial arms of the Kaiserreich

Flag of the German Empire.svg

1871 – 1918
Prussia. Bavaria. Saxony. Württemberg.
Grand Duchies
Baden. Hesse. Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Oldenburg. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Anhalt. Brunswick. Saxe-Altenburg. Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Saxe-Meiningen.
Lippe. Reuss, junior line. Reuss, senior line. Schaumburg-Lippe. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. Waldeck-Pyrmont.
Free Hanseatic cities
Bremen. Hamburg. Lübeck.
Imperial territory (Reichsland)

Statement of Abdication (1918)[edit]

I herewith renounce for all time claims to the throne of Prussia and to the German Imperial throne connected therewith. At the same time I release all officials of the German Empire and of Prussia, as well as all officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the navy and of the Prussian army, as well as the troops of the federated states of Germany, from the oath of fidelity which they tendered to me as their Emperor, King and Commander-in-Chief. I expect of them that until the re-establishment of order in the German Empire they shall render assistance to those in actual power in Germany, in protecting the German people from the threatening dangers of anarchy, famine, and foreign rule. Proclaimed under our own hand and with the imperial seal attached. Amerongen, 28 November, 1918. Signed WILLIAM. [2]

Kings and Kingdoms (1918)[edit]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
Keisari vihelm II.jpg Kaiser
Wilhelm II

1859 – 1941
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Reichsadler 1889.svg
Flag of Prussia (1892-1918).svg
House of Hohenzollern
C.11th – 1918

Kingdom of Prussia
1701 – 1918
Map-DR-Prussia.svg Spouse:
(1) Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein
(2) Hermine Reuss of Greiz

(1) William, German Crown Prince, (2) Eitel Friedrich, (3) Prince Adalbert, (4) Prince August Wilhelm, (5) Prince Oskar, (6) Prince Joachim, (7) Princess Viktoria Luise

LodewijkIIIBeieren.jpg King
Ludwig III

1845 – 1921
Wittelsbach Arms.svg
Flag of Bavaria (striped).svg
House of Wittelsbach

Kingdom of Bavaria
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Bavaria.svg Spouse:
(1) Maria Theresia of Austria-Este

(1) Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria, (2) Adelgunde of Hohenzollern, (3) Maria, Duchess of Calabria, (4) Karl of Bavaria, (5) Franz of Bavaria, (6) Mathilde Ludwig of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary (7) Wolfgang of Bavaria (8) Hildegarde of Bavaria, (9) Notburga of Bavaria, (10) Wiltrud, Duchess of Urach, (11) Helmtrud of Bavaria, (12) Dietlinde of Bavaria, (13) Gundelinde of Bavaria

FA3 of Saxony.png King
Frederick Augustus III

1865 – 1932
Coat of arms of Saxony.svg
Flagge Königreich Sachsen (1815-1918).svg
House of Wettin
900 – 1918

Kingdom of Saxony
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Saxony.svg Spouse:
(1) Archduchess Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany

(1) Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony, (2) Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen, (3) Ernst Heinrich of Saxony, (4) Maria Alix Karola of Saxony, (5) Margarete Karola of Saxony, (6) Maria Alix (Luitpolda) of Saxony, (7) Princess Anna of Saxony

König Wilhelm II.jpg King
Wilhelm II

1848 – 1921
Wappen Herzogtum Württemberg.svg
Flagge Königreich Württemberg.svg
House of Württemberg
1081 – 1918

Kingdom of Württemberg
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Wuerttemberg.svg Spouse:
(1) Marie of Waldeck and Pyrmont
(2) Charlotte of Schaumburg-Lippe

(1) Pauline, Princess of Wied, (2) Prince Ulrich

Grand Dukes and Grand Duchies (1918)[edit]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
GrandDukeFriedrichII.jpg Grand Duke
Friedrich II

1857 – 1928
Wappen Zaehringer.png
Flagge Großherzogtum Baden (1891–1918).svg
House of Zähringen
C.10th – 1918

Grand Duchy of Baden
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Baden.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Hilda of Nassau
ErnstLouisHesse.jpg Grand Duke
Ernest Louis

1868 – 1937
Hesse Darmstadt coat of armes (1736).gif
Flagge Großherzogtum Hessen ohne Wappen.svg
House of Hesse-Darmstadt
1806 – 1918

Grand Duchy of Hesse
1806 – 1918
Map-DR-Hesse.svg Spouse:
(1) Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(2) Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich

(1) Princess Elisabeth, (2) Hereditary Grand Duke George Donatus, (3) Prince Louis

Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.jpg Grand Duke
Friedrich Franz IV

1882 – 1945
Flagge Großherzogtümer Mecklenburg.svg
House of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1131 – 1918

Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1815 – 1918
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Karte-Mecklenburg.png Spouse:
(1) Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland

(1) Hereditary Grand Duke Friedrich Franz, (2) Duke Christian Ludwig, (3) Duchess Olga, (4) Duchess Thyra, (5) Anastasia, Princess Friedrich Ferdinand of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

HL Damals – Ghz v Oldenburg.jpg Grand Duke
Friedrich Augustus

1852 – 1931
Blason Adolphe de Holstein-Gottorp.svg
House of Holstein-Gottorp

1544 – 1918

Grand Duchy of Oldenburg
1814 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Oldenburg.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Elisabeth Anna of Prussia, (2) Duchess Elisabeth Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

(1) Sophia Charlotte, Princess Eitel Friedrich of Prussia, (2) Duchess Margaret, (3) Nikolaus, Hereditary Grand Duke (4) Duchess Alexandrine, (5) Ingeborg Alix, Princess Stephan of Schaumburg-Lippe, (6) Altburg, Hereditary Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont

GrandDukeWILHELM.jpg Grand Duke
Wilhelm Ernest

1876 – 1923
Blason Grand-Duché de Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.svg
Flagge Großherzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1897-1920).svg
House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
1741 – 1918

Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
1809 – 1920
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Caroline Reuss of Greiz, (2) Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen

(1) Sophie, Princess of Schwarzburg,
(2) Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach,
(3) Prince Bernhard, (4) Prince Georg

Dukes and Duchies (1918)[edit]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
Joachim Ernst

1901 – 1947
Blason Duché d'Anhalt.svg
Flagge Herzogtum Anhalt.svg
House of Ascania
1036 – 1918

Duchy of Anhalt
1863 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Anhalt.svg Spouse:
(1) Elisabeth Strickrodt, (2) Editha Marwitz

(1) Princess Alexandra, (2) Princess Anna Luise,
(3) Prince Friedrich, (4) Princess Edda, (5) Prince Eduard

Ernest Augustus

1887 – 1953
Flagge Herzogtum Braunschweig.svg
House of Hanover
1635 – 1918

Duchy of Brunswick
1815 – 1918
Map-DR-Brunswick.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia

(1) Ernst August,
(2) Georg Wilhelm,
(3) Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes,
(4) Christian Oskar, (5) Welf Heinrich

Ernstii.jpg Duke
Ernst II

1871 – 1955
Wappen Altenburg.svg
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg.png
House of Wettin
900 – 1918

Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg
1826 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Sachsen-Altenburg.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Adelaide of Schaumburg-Lippe, (2) Maria Triebel (morganatic)

(1) Charlotte Agnes, Princess Sigismund of Prussia,
(2) Georg Moritz, Hereditary Prince,
(3) Princess Elisabeth Karola, (4) Prince Frederick Ernst

Carl Eduard Sachsen Coburg und Gotha.jpg Duke
Charles Edward

1884 – 1954
Duchy of Saxe Coburg Gotha.png
Flagge Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha (1911-1920).svg
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1826 – 1918

Duchy of Saxe-Coburg Gotha
1826 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Victoria Adelaide of Schleswig-Holstein

(1) Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha,
(2) Princess Sibylla, Duchess of Västerbotten,
(3) Prince Hubertus, (4) Princess Caroline Mathilde, (5) Prince Friedrich Josias

Bernhard III (Saxe-Meiningen).jpg Duke
Bernhard III

1851 – 1928
Blason Duché de Saxe-Meiningen.svg
Saxe- Meiningen.png
House of Saxe-Meiningen
1680 – 1918

Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen
1680 – 1918
Map-DR-Saxe-Meiningen.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Charlotte of Prussia

(1) Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen

Princes and Principalities (1918)[edit]

Ruler Title Arms – Flag House – State Location Spouse – Children
LeopoldIVofLippe.jpg Prince
Leopold IV

1871 – 1949
Flag Schaumburg-Lippe.png
House of Lippe
1123 – 1918

Principality of Lippe
1123 – 1918
Map-DB-Lippe.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Bertha of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld
(2) Princess Anna of Ysenburg and Büdingen
Adolf II, Prince of Schaumburg-Lippe c1917.jpg Prince
Adolph II

1883 – 1936
Flagge Fürstentum Schaumburg-Lippe.svg
House of Lippe
1123 – 1918

Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe
1643 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Schaumburg-Lippe.svg Spouse:
(1) Ellen Bischoff-Korthaus (1894–1936)
Gunther of Schwarzburg.jpg Prince
Victor Gunther

1852 – 1925
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Fürstentum Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.jpg
Flagge Fürstentümer Schwarzburg.svg
House of Schwarzburg
11?? – 1918

Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
1599 – 1919
Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
SBRU.png Spouse

(1) Princess Anna Louise of Schönburg-Waldenburg

PrinceFRIEDRICHPyrmont.jpg Prince

1865 – 1946
Wappen Deutsches Reich - Fürstentum Waldeck und Pyrmont.png
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
House of Waldeck and Pyrmont
1815 – 1918

Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont
1180 – 1918
Deutsches Reich (Karte) Waldeck.svg Spouse:
(1) Princess Bathildis of Schaumburg-Lippe

(1) Josias, Hereditary Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont, (2) Prince Maximilian, (3) Helena, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Oldenburg, (4) Prince Georg