List of ancient tribes in Illyria

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Illyrian tribes in the 7th–4th centuries BCE.

This is a list of ancient tribes in the ancient territory of Illyria (Greek: Ἰλλυρία; Latin: Illyria). The name Illyrians seems to be the name of a single Illyrian tribe that was the first to come into contact with the ancient Greeks, causing the name Illyrians to be applied to all people of similar language and customs.[1] The locations of Illyrian tribes/peoples prior to the Roman conquest are approximate, as sometimes many wholly different locations are given by ancient writers and modern authors (as in the case of the Enchelei).

After the Great Illyrian Revolt, the Romans deported,[2] split,[3] and resettled Illyrian tribes within Illyria itself and to Dacia, sometimes causing whole tribes to vanish and new ones to be formed from their remains, such as the Deraemestae and the Docleatae, some of them mixed with Celtic tribes (see Celticization). Many tribal names are known from Roman civitates and the number of their decuriae,[4] formed of the dispersed tribes in Illyria.

Illyrian[edit]

Illyrian tribes in the 1st-2nd centuries CE.

Albani[edit]

The Albani (Latinized form of Ancient Greek: Ἀλβανοί, Albanoi) were an Illyrian tribe whose first historical account appears in a work of Ptolemy.[5] They were the citizens of Albanopolis (Ἀλβανόπολις), located in the center of modern Albania, in the Zgërdhesh hill fort, near the city of Krujë. The national ethnonym of the Albanians is derived from this tribe.[6][7][8]

Amantes[edit]

The Amantes lived in present-day southwestern Albania.[9] The site of Amantia has been identified with the location of their territory.[10] The toponym has a connection with the modern Albanian term amë/ãmë ("river-bed, fountain, spring")[11]

Ardiaei[edit]

The Ardiaei or Ouardaioi (Ancient Greek: Ἀρδιαῖοι, Οὐαρδαῖοι; Latin: Vardiaei, Vardaei)[12] were an Illyrian people, originally residing inland,[13] and eventually settling on the Adriatic coast. Strabo describes them as one of the three strongest Illyrian peoples, the other two being the Autariatae and Dardani. The political entity of the Ardiaei, which expanded in the south-eastern Adriatic, came to be identified with the Illyrian kingdom in the 3rd century BC. Under the Ardiaean king Agron and his wife Teuta, the Illyrian kingdom reached its apex. It became a formidable power both on land and sea by assembling a great army and fleet, and directly ruling over a large area made up of different Illyrian tribes and cities that stretched from the Neretva River in the north to the borders of Epirus in the south, while its influence extended throughout Epirus and down into Acarnania. The Ardiaean realm became one of Rome's major enemies, and its primary threat in the Adriatic Sea. The dominant power of the Illyrian kingdom in the region ceased after its defeat in the Illyro-Roman Wars (229–168 BC). In Roman times the Ardiaei had 20 decuriae

Autariatae[edit]

The Autariatae or Autariates (Ancient Greek: Αὐταριᾶται) were an Illyrian tribe that became prominent between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. Strabo describes them as one of the three strongest Illyrian peoples, the other two being the Ardiaei and Dardani. After their defeat during the Celtic invasions of the Balkans in the 4th century, a part of the Autariatae who remained in Bosnia gradually adopted Celtic culture, while another part moved southwards and after an agreement with the Kingdom of Macedonia, 20,000 settled in the Parorbelian mountain range, in an area between modern southeastern North Macedonia, northern Greece and southwestern Bulgaria.

Balaites[edit]

The Balaites were an Illyrian tribe known from epigraphical findings only who were organizing themselves in a koinon, and it is likely that they lived in the vicinity of Apollonia.[14][15]

Bathiatae[edit]

The Bathiatae[16] were an Illyrian tribe.

Bylliones[edit]

The Bylliones (Βυλλίονες) were an Illyrian tribe.[17][18] They were affected by a partial cultural Hellenisation.[19] They constituted one of the most notable Illyrian koina of the Hellenistic period, with their territory featuring a network of several settlements. Byllis and Nikaia were their chief centres.

Cavii[edit]

The Cavii were an Illyrian tribe.[20] They lived close to Lake Shkodër. Their main settlement was Epicaria.[21] They are mentioned rarely by ancient writers.[22]

Daorsi[edit]

The Daorsi or Duersi or Daorsii or Daorsei (Ancient Greek: Δαόριζοι, Δαούρσιοι) were an Illyrian tribe.[23] Another name of the tribe was Daversi.[24] The Daorsi had suffered attacks[25] from the Delmatae that made them along with Issa[26] seek the aid of the Roman state. The Daorsi fought on the Roman side, providing them with their strong navy abandoning Caravantius. After the Illyrian Wars, the Daorsi were given immunity. Their most important city was Daorson. They had 17 decuriae.

Dardani[edit]

The Dardani or Dardanians were a central Balkan people, among the oldest in the region. They were the most stable and conservative ethnic element among the peoples of the central Balkans, retaining an enduring presence in the region for several centuries. Ancient tradition considered the Dardani as an Illyrian people, and Strabo, in particular describes them as one of the three strongest Illyrian peoples, the other two being the Ardiaei and Autariatae. Their name is traditionally connected to the same root as dardhë, the Albanian word for 'pear', as well as Alb. dardhán, dardán, 'farmer'. The ethnonym Pirustae, which is attested since Roman times for a tribe close to the Dardani or living in Dardania, is considered to be the Latin translation of Dardani (cf. Latin pirus "pear"). Subgroups of the Dardani included the Galabri and the Thunatae, whose tribal names have been respectively connected to the Messapic Kalabroi/Calabri and Daunioi/Daunii in Apulia (south-eastern Italy), of Palaeo-Balkan provenance. In pre-Roman times the Dardani constituted their own Kingdom, often in conflict with their south-eastern neighbor – Macedon.

Dassaretii[edit]

The Dassaretii (Ancient Greek: Δασσαρῆται, Δασσαρήτιοι) were an Illyrian people who lived in the inlands of southern Illyria, between present-day south-eastern Albania and south-western North Macedonia. They were directly in contact with the regions of Orestis and Lynkestis of Upper Macedonia. The Dassaretii were one of the most prominent peoples of southern Illyria, forming an ethnic state. They made up the ancient Illyrian kingdom that was established in this region. Most scholars hold that the early 4th century BC Illyrian realm of Bardylis – the first attested Illyrian king – was centered along Lake Ohrid and east to the Prespa Lakes in Dassaretan territory, located on the border between Macedon and Epirus.

Deretini[edit]

The Deretini or Derriopes (Ancient Greek: Δερρίοπες) were an Illyrian tribe[27] in Narona conventus with 14 decuriae.

Deuri[edit]

The Deuri or Derbanoi (Ancient Greek: Δερβανοί)[28] were an Illyrian tribe.[29] Other possible names are Derrioi.[30] In a conventus held in Salona after the Roman conquest the Deuri had 25 decuriae.[31]

Dyestes[edit]

The Dyestes or Dyestae (Ancient Greek: Δυέσται)[32] were an Illyrian tribe[33] located around the silver mines of Damastion. Only Strabo passingly mentions this tribe.

Enchelei[edit]

The Enchelei or Sesarethii[34] (Ancient Greek: Ἐγχελεῖς, Σεσαρηθίους, accusative of *Σεσαρήθιοι)[35] were an Illyrian tribe.[36] Their name, given by the Greeks, meant "eel-men". In Greek mythology. According to E. Hamp, a connection with Albanian ngjalë makes it possible that the name Enchele was derived from the Illyrian term for eels[37] Cadmus and Harmonia ruled over them. Several locations are hypothesized for the Encheleans: around Lake Ohrid;[38] above Lake Ohrid, or in the region of Lynkestis south of the Taulantii.[39]

Kinambroi[edit]

The Kinambroi (Ancient Greek: Κίναμβροι) were an Illyrian tribe. They surrendered to Octavian in 33 BC.[30]

Labeatae[edit]

The Labeates or Labeatae (Ancient Greek: Λαβεᾶται) were an Illyrian people that lived on the Adriatic coast of southern Illyria, around Lake Scodra (the ancient Lacus Labeatis). The dynasty of the last Illyrian kings (Scerdilaidas, Pleuratus, Gentius) was Labeatan. It is possible that the decline of the Ardiaean dynasty after Queen Teuta's defeat in the First Illyrian War against Rome caused the emergence of the Labeatan dynasty on the political scene. The last known Illyrian king, Gentius, was defeated in the Third Illyro-Roman war in 168. In Roman times the Labeatae minted coins bearing the inscription of their ethnicon.

Mazaei[edit]

The Mazaei or Maezaei (Ancient Greek: Μαζαῖοι, Μαιζαῖοι) were a tribal group, including 269 decuriae.[40][41]

Melcumani[edit]

The Melcumani or Merromenoi or Melkomenioi (Ancient Greek: Μελκομένιοι) were an Illyrian tribe.[42] The Melcumani had 24 decuriae.

Narensi[edit]

Narensi or Narensii or Narensioi (Ancient Greek: Ναρήνσιοι)[43] or Naresioi or Naresii (Ancient Greek: Ναρήσιοι) was the name of a newly formed[44] Illyrian tribe[45] from various peoples living around the River Naron or Neretva, mostly in its Lower course. The Narensi had 102 decuriae.

Parthini[edit]

Penestae[edit]

Penestae (Ancient Greek: Πενέσται) was the name of an Illyrian tribe.[46] Their chief town was Uscana.

Selepitani[edit]

The Selepitani (Latin: Selepitani) were an Illyrian tribe located below the Lake Scutari.

Siculotae[edit]

The Siculotae or Sikoulotai were an Illyrian tribe.[47] The Siculotae were part of the Pirustae.[44] The Siculotae had 24 decuriae.

Dalmatae[edit]

The Dalmatae were an ancient Illyrian tribe. It is considered to be connected to the Albanian dele and its variants which include the Gheg form delmë, meaning "sheep", and to the Albanian term delmer, "shepherd". They were later Celticized.[48][49] The Delmatae had 342 decuriae.

Iapydes[edit]

The Iapydes or Japodes (Ancient Greek: Ἰάποδες, romanized: Iapodes) were an ancient people who dwelt north of and inland from the Liburnians, off the Adriatic coast and eastwards of the Istrian peninsula. The first written mention of an Illyrian tribe known as "Iapydes" is by Hecataeus of Miletus.

Baridustae[edit]

The Baridustae were an Illyrian tribe that was later settled in Dacia[50] along with Pirustae and Sardeates. The Baridustae were a Dalmatian tribe.[51]

Tariotes[edit]

The Tariotes were a subtribe of the Dalmatae that lived on the eastern Adriatic coast.[52]

Sardiatae[edit]

The Sardeates or Sardiotai were an Illyrian tribe close to Jajce.[29] Sardeates were later settled in Dacia.[50] The Sardeates had 52 decuriae.

Docleatae[edit]

The Docleatae (Ancient Greek: Δοκλεᾶται, romanized: Dokleatai) were an Illyrian tribe that lived in what is now Montenegro. Their capital was Doclea[53] (or Dioclea), and they are called after the town. They had settled west of the Morača river, up to Montenegro's present-day borders with Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Docleatae were prominent for their cheese, which was exported to various Roman provinces within the Roman Empire.[54] They were composed of parts of the Taulantii, the Pleraei or Pyraei, Endirudini, Sasaei, Grabaei, Labeatae[30] that came together after the Great Illyrian revolt. The Docleatae had 33 decuriae.

Pleraei[edit]

Pleraei, Plarioi, Pyraei, Pleraioi, Plaraioi or Palarioi (Ancient Greek: Παλάριοι) was the name of an Illyrian tribe.[55]

Endirudini[edit]

Endirudini or Interphrourinoi (Ancient Greek: Ἰντερφρουρῖνοι)[56] was the name of an Illyrian tribe that became part of the Docleatae.[30]

Sasaei[edit]

Sasaei was the name of an Illyrian tribe that became part of the Docleatae.[30]

Grabaei[edit]

The Grabaei or Kambaioi (Ancient Greek: Καμβαῖοι)[56] were a minor Illyrian group that lived around Lake Scutari.[57]

Deraemestae[edit]

Deraemestae or Deraemistae was the name of an Illyrian tribe.[58] The Deraemestae were composed of parts[59] of several other tribes such as the Ozuaei, Taulantii, Partheni, Hemasini, Arthitae and Armistae. The Deramestae had 30 decuriae.

Oxyaei[edit]

Ozuaei or Ozuaioi or Oxuaioi (Ancient Greek: Ὀξυαῖοι)[56] was the name of one of the tribes comprising the Deramestae.[59]

Hemasini[edit]

Hemasini or Hippasinoi (Ancient Greek: Ἱππασῖνοι)[60] was the name of one of the tribes comprising the Deramestae.[59]

Arthitae[edit]

Arthitae was the name of one of the tribes comprising the Deramestae.[59]

Armistae[edit]

Armistae was the name of one of the tribes comprising the Deramestae.[59]

Taulantii[edit]

Taulantii (Ancient Greek: Ταυλάντιοι) was the name of a cluster[61] of Illyrian tribes. The term taulantii is connected with the Albanian word dallëndyshe, or tallandushe, meaning 'swallow'. The ethnonym Chelidonioi also reported by Hecateus as the name of a tribe neighboring the Taulantii is the translation of the name Taulantii as khelīdṓn (χελιδών) means "swallow" in Ancient Greek. According to Greek mythology Taulas (Tαύλας), one of the six sons of Illyrius, was the eponymous ancestor of the Taulantii.[62] The Taulantii dominated at various times much of the plain between the rivers Drin (Drilon) and Vjosa (Aoös). Their central area was the hinterland of Epidamnos-Dyrrhachion, corresponding to present-day Tirana and the region between the valleys of Mat and Shkumbin (Genusus). This tribe played an important role in Illyrian history of the 4th-3rd centuries BC, when King Glaukias (ruled 335 – c. 302 BC) ruled over them. Glaukias offered asylum to the infant Pyrrhus of Epirus and mantained ties with him after he became king of Epirus. The Abroi, a northern subgroup of the Taulantii, were known to the ancient Greek writers for their technique of preparing mead from honey.[63]

Chelidonioi[edit]

Abroi[edit]

Pannonian tribes[edit]

Dalmatians, Liburni, Venetic groups, Pannonian groups and Celts in Pannonia

The name Pannonians (Ancient Greek: Παννόνιοι, romanized: Pannonii) refers to Illyrian tribes, who originally inhabited the southern part of what was later known as Roman province of Pannonia, south of the river Drava (Dravus), and the northern part of the future Roman province of Dalmatia. In the Roman era, Pannonians settled in Dacia, the northern Pannonian plain and the eastern Alps.[64] Some Pannonian tribes appear to have been Celticized.[65][66]

Julius Pokorny believed the name Pannonia is derived from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, water, wet" (cf. English fen, "marsh"; Hindi pani, "water").[67]

The Pannonian tribes inhabited the area between the river Drava and the Dalmatian coast. Early archaeology and onomastics show that they were culturally different from southern Illyrians, Iapodes, and the La Tène peoples commonly known as the Celts, though they were later Celticized. However, there are some cultural similarities between the Pannonians and Dalmatians. Many of the Pannonians lived in areas with rich iron ore deposits, so that iron mining and production was an important part of their economy before and after the Roman conquest. Apart from Segestica, the Pannonians did not have settlements of importance in pre-Roman times[68] that were actually Celtic. Ancient sources (Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Appian of Alexandria) mention few of the Pannonian[69] tribes by name, and historians and archaeologists have located some of them.

The Pannonians were not definitely subdued within the province of Illyricum until the Great Illyrian Revolt, which started in 6 AD when the Pannonians, together with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, revolted, and engaged the Roman Empire in a hard-fought campaign that lasted for three years, when they were finally overcome by the future emperor Tiberius and Germanicus in 9 AD. At that point, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south.

Amantini[edit]

Amantini (Ancient Greek: Ἄμαντες) was the name of a Pannonian[70] Illyrian tribe.[71] They greatly resisted the Romans but were sold as slaves after their defeat.[72] The Amantini were close to Sirmium.[73]

Breuci[edit]

The Breuci (Ancient Greek: Βρεῦκοι, romanized: Breukoi) were a Pannonian Illyrian tribe.[69] They greatly resisted the Romans and some were sold as slaves after their defeat.[72] They received Roman citizenship during Trajan's rule. It is likely that the name of the northern Bosnian city Brčko is derived from the name of this tribe.[74] A number of Breuci settled in Dacia.[75]

Bato the Breucian of the Breuci tribe and Pinnes from Pannonia were among the leaders of the Great Illyrian Revolt, together with Bato the Daesitiate of the Daesitiates from Dalmatia.[76]

Colapiani[edit]

Colapiani was the name of an Illyrian tribe.[77] The Colapiani were created from the Pannonian Breuci[78] along with the Osseriates and the Celtic Varciani.[citation needed] They lived in the central and southern White Carniola, along the Kupa river, and were mentioned by Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy.[79] The archeologists Jaro Šašel and Dragan Božič have attributed the Vinica material culture to Colapiani,[80] but opinions are divided.[81]

Daesitiates[edit]

The Daesitiates were an Illyrian tribe that lived in what is today central Bosnia and Herzegovina[82] during the time of the Roman Republic. Along with the Maezaei, the Daesitiates were part of the western group of Pannonians in Roman Dalmatia.[83] They were prominent from the end of the 4th century BC up until the beginning of the 3rd century AD. Evidence of their daily activities can be found in literary sources, as well as in the rich material finds that belong to the Central Bosnian cultural group. After nearly three centuries of political independence, the Daesitiates (and their polity) were conquered by Roman Emperor Augustus. Afterwards, the Daesitiates were incorporated into the province of Illyricum with a low total of 103 decuriae.[84]

Pirustae[edit]

The Pirustae or Pyrissaei[85] (Ancient Greek: Πειροῦσται[86] or Πυρισσαῖοι)[56] were a Pannonian Illyrian[87] tribe that lived in modern Montenegro. According to some sources, they had also lived in territories outside of modern-day Montenegro, but the majority of archaeologists, including the famous British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans, say that the Pirustae had lived in northern Montenegro, around present-day Pljevlja and that they were prominent miners. Their prominence in mining has been seen in epigraphic monuments from Dacia's mining regions.[88] Pirustae along with other Pannonians and Illyrians like the Sardeates were later settled in Dacia (modern-day Romania).[50][89]

Scirtari[edit]

The Scirtari or Scirtones were an Illyrian tribe.[47] The Scirtari were part of the Pirustae.[44] The Scirtari had 72 decuriae.

Glintidiones[edit]

The Glintidiones (Ancient Greek: Γλιντιδίωνες) were an Illyrian[90] tribe. The Glintidiones may have been part of the Pirustae.[44] The Glintidiones had 44 decuriae.

Ceraunii[edit]

Ceraunii (Ancient Greek: Κεραύνιοι, romanized: Keraunioi) was the name of an Illyrian tribe that lived close to the Pirustae[91] in modern Montenegro. The Ceraunii were part of the Pirustae.[44] They had 24 decuriae.[92] Their name seems to derive from the Greek word for 'thunderbolt'.[93]

Segestani[edit]

The Segestani (Ancient Greek: Σεγεστανοί, romanized: Segestanoi) were a Pannonian Illyrian tribe who inhabited the area around Segestica, later known as Siscia (modern-day Sisak in Croatia).[94]

In the 2nd century BC, the Segestani were attacked without lasting success by consuls Lucius Aurelius Cotta and an unidentified Cornelius.

In 35 BC, the Segestani were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia.

Maezaei[edit]

Maezaei or Maizaioi or Mazaioi (Ancient Greek: Μαζαῖοι) were a Pannonian Illyrian tribe.[95] The Maezaei had 269 decuriae.

Andizetes[edit]

The Andizetes, also referred to as Andisetes (Ancient Greek: Ἀνδιζήτιοι), were a small Pannonian[96][97] tribe that lived in the territory of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Not much is known about this tribe except that it is found on the list of Illyrian tribes that rose against the Roman Empire during the Great Illyrian Revolt. The personal name of 'Andes', a variant of the name 'Andis' popular among the Illyrians of southern Pannonia and much of northern Dalmatia (corresponding roughly with modern Bosnia and Herzegovina), may be derived from the name of this tribe. Alternatively, it is related to the Albanian word dizet/dyzet meaning 'forty' with 'an' as prefix as article; thus, their name would mean "the forties".[98] They started receiving Roman citizenship during Trajan's rule.[74]

Azali[edit]

The Azali (Ancient Greek: Ἄζαλοι) were a tribe that inhabited Brigetio (now Szőny) in Noricum, transported there during the Roman conquest from southern Pannonia.[99] They had been deported after the 6–9 AD rebellion.[100] They, along with the Eravisci, inhabited the Fejér County during the Marcomannic Wars (166–180).[101] The civitas azaliorum included the Brigetio legionary fortress and surrounding settlements.[102]

Ditiones[edit]

The Ditiones (Ancient Greek: Διτίωνες) were a Pannonian Illyrian tribe.[69] The Ditiones had 239 decuriae.

Jasi[edit]

Jasi was the name of a Pannonian Illyrian tribe.[71][103]

Osseriates[edit]

The Osseriates[104] (also Oseriates), along with the Celtic Varciani and the Colapiani, were created from the Pannonian Breuci.

Illyrii proprie dicti[edit]

Illyrii proprie dicti[105] were the Illyrians proper, so called by Pliny (23–79 AD) in his Natural History. They later formed the Docleatae. They were the Taulantii, the Pleraei or Pyraei, the Endirudini, Sasaei, Grabaei, Labeatae.[citation needed] Illyrians proper were also some of the native communities of Roman Dalmatia.[106]

Atintani[edit]

Atintani were a tribe in Illyria, north of Via Egnatia. Appian (95 – 165 AD) mentions them close to Epidamnus.[107] During the Illyrian Wars, the Atintani went over to the Romans and, according to Appian, Demetrius of Pharos tried to detach them from Roman authority. The Atintani seem to have originated from the obscure, perhaps Thracian Tynteni, only attested in coins.[108] The Atintani were ruled by the Thracian dynasty of the Peresadyes.[109]

Greek[edit]

Liburnians[edit]

In the early historical sources from the 8th century BC, the Liburnians were recorded by name or as separate ethnic groups; and as early as the 6th century BC, Hecateus noted that the Liburnians were also composed of Caulici, Mentores, Syopii and Hythmitae, probably narrow tribal communities. Later, in the 3rd century BC, Callimachus mentioned Mentores, Hymanes, Enchealae and Peucetias as those who once had been a part of them, Ismeni were also recorded as one of their communities.[110]

Iapygians/Messapians[edit]

Iapygians and Messapians did not dwell in Illyria, but in the heel of southern Italy. They could have had Illyrian origins[112] or some sort of link with Illyria.

Adriatic Veneti[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 92
  2. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 217
  3. ^ Alan Bowman, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC – AD 69, ISBN 0-521-26430-8, 1996, p. 579.
  4. ^ 'Decuriae' was a Roman term used by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History completed in 70 AD based on official registers. Each civitas had a number of decuriae assigned to it as an indication of its size. A Roman division of native peoples. Wilkes 1992, p. 215)
  5. ^ William Smith, LLD, Ed., Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, 1854
  6. ^ History of the Byzantine Empire, 324–1453 By Alexander A. Vasiliev Edition: 2, illustrated. Published by Univ of Wisconsin Press, 1958 ISBN 0-299-80926-9, ISBN 978-0-299-80926-3 (page 613)
  7. ^ History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by Barbara Jelavich Edition: reprint, illustrated. Published by Cambridge University Press, 1983 ISBN 0-521-27458-3, ISBN 978-0-521-27458-6 (page 25)
  8. ^ The Indo-European languages By Anna Giacalone Ramat, Paolo Ramat Edition: illustrated. Published by Taylor & Francis, 1998 ISBN 0-415-06449-X, 9780415064491 (page 481)
  9. ^ Galaty, Michael L. (2002). "Modeling the Formation and Evolution of an Illyrian Tribal System: Ethnographic and Archaeological Analogs". In William A. Parkinson (ed.). The Archaeology of Tribal Societies. Berghahn Books. p. 119. ISBN 1789201713.
  10. ^ Hansen, Mogens Herman; Nielsen, Thomas Heine (2004). An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis (PDF). Oxford University Press. p. 342. ISBN 0-19-814099-1.
  11. ^ Çabej, Eqrem (1996). Studime etimologjike në fushë të shqipes (in Albanian). Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë.
  12. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 216: "The Ardiaei, or Vardaei as they were known to the Romans, 'once the ravagers of Italy' and now reduced to a mere"
  13. ^ Appian and Illyricum by Marjeta Šašel Kos, " The Ardiaei were certainly also settled in the hinterland, along the Naro River at least as far as the Konjic region ..."
  14. ^ Pierre Cabanes: Les illyriens de Bardulis à Genthios (IVe–IIe siècles avant J.-C.). Paris: SEDES. 1988. p. 301.
  15. ^ Neritan Ceka: The Illyrians to the Albanians. Tirana: Migjeni. 2013. pp. 229, 422.
  16. ^ Appian: Roman History, Vol. IV, The Civil Wars, Books 3.27-5 (Loeb Classical Library No. 5) by Appian and Horace White, 1979, Index: 69, 71; IL 4, 22. Bastitani, Spanish tribe, Sp. Mi. Bathiatae, Illyrian tribe
  17. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 97: "Beginning in the south the first Illyrians near the coast were the Bylliones beyond the river Aous in the hinterland of Apollonia. Their hill-settlement developed later into the town of Byllis ..."
  18. ^ Elsie, Robert. "Early History of Albania" (PDF). www.albanianhistory.net. Robert Elsie.
  19. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 6: The Fourth Century BC by D. M. Lewis (Editor), John Boardman (Editor), Simon Hornblower (Editor), M. Ostwald (Editor), ISBN 0-521-23348-8, 1994, page 423, "Through contact with their Greek neighbors some Illyrian tribe became bilingual (Strabo Vii.7.8.Diglottoi) in particular the Bylliones and the Taulantian tribes close to Epidamnus ..."
  20. ^ The central Balkan tribes in pre-Roman times: Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians by Fanula Papazoglu, 1978, ISBN 90-256-0793-4, page 247, "... which appears in the name of the Illyrian tribe of the Cavii ..."
  21. ^ The classical gazetteer: a dictionary of ancient geography, sacred and profane by William Hazlitt, 1851, "Epicaria a town of the Cavii in Illyria ..."
  22. ^ Rome and the Mediterranean: books XXXI-XLV of The history of Rome from its foundation by Livy, Henry Bettenson, ISBN 0-14-044318-5, 1976, page 580
  23. ^ Wilkes 1992 From back matter: "Surveys of ships on coins of the Daors tribe ..."
  24. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 216: "... to the Romans, 'once the ravagers of Italy' and now reduced to a mere 20 decuriae, and the Daorsi or Daversi ..."
  25. ^ I greci in Adriatico, Volume 2 by Lorenzo Braccesi, Mario Luni, page 152, "The Daorsi suffered directly from the attacks of the Delmatae and were understandably one of the first peoples to have left Gentius' half brother Caravantius and sought protection from the Roman state, placing their armed forces at the disposal of the Romans. After the war, they were rewarded by having been given immunity ..."
  26. ^ The magistrates of the Roman Republic. Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton, 1960:446, "Head of a commission sent, after the receipt of complaints from Issa and the Daorsi, to observe conditions in Illyria and Dalmatia ..."
  27. ^ J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1969, page 157
  28. ^ Appianus, Illyrica, "... και Δερβανοί προσιόντα τον Καίσαρα συγγνώμην ..."
  29. ^ a b Wilkes 1992, p. 216: "... of southwest Bosnia, the Maezaei (269) of the Sana and Vrbas valleys, and the Sardeates (52) around Jajce and the Deuri (25) around Bugojno, both in the Vrbas valley."
  30. ^ a b c d e The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, 1996, page 577
  31. ^ Neritan Ceka: The Illyrians to the Albanians. Tirana: Migjeni. 2005. p. 148: "Salona was the center of a conventus made up of the Dalmatians, with 342 decuriae; the Deuri, with 25; the Ditiones, with 239; the Mezei, with 60; and the Sardeates with 53."
  32. ^ VII.7.5, "... περί α Δυέσται συνεστήσαντο την δυναστείαν και Εγχέλειοι ους και Σεσαρέθιους καλούσι ..."
  33. ^ Macedonia, Thrace and Illyria: their relations to Greece from the earliest... by Stanley Casson, page 321
  34. ^ Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), book 7, chapter 7: "... had established their sway, and Enchelii, who are also called Sesarethii. Then come the Lyncestæ, the territory Deuriopus, Pelagonia-Tripolitis ..."
  35. ^ Strabo Geography, Book 7.7
  36. ^ John J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1996, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 96: "The Enchelei are an Illyrian people, who inhabit the land after Rhizon. From Bouthoe to Epidamnus, a Greek city ...".
  37. ^ Cadmus: "After having many children, Cadmus and Harmonia left Thebes in order to defend the Encheleans, a people living in southern Illyria, which is the region north of Epirus, and there defeated the Illyrian intruders ..."
  38. ^ John J. Wilkes, The Illyrians; 1996, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 98.
  39. ^ John J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1996, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 99.
  40. ^ Benac A., Ed. (1986): Bosna i Herzegovina / Bosnia and Herzegovia / Bosnien und Herzegowina. Svjetlost, Sarajevo.
  41. ^ Šentija J., Ed. (1977): Opća enciklopedija Jugoslavenskog leksikografskog zavoda, 3: Foc-Iw. Jugoslavenski leksikografski zavod, Zagreb.
  42. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History by John Boardman, ISBN 0-521-26430-8, 1923, page 578, "Since they are listed among those peoples who submitted in 33 B.C. the Melcumani (24) are not likely to have lived any great distance from the coast. It has been suggested that they may ..."
  43. ^ Gaius Plinius Secundus' Historiae naturalis, Liber 3
  44. ^ a b c d e The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, 1996, page 578
  45. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 216: "... destination of one of the military roads constructed from Salona after the end of the war in AD 9. The Narensi (102) of the same conventus are likely to be named from the river Naron/Narenta ..."
  46. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 172
  47. ^ a b Wilkes 1992, p. 217: "... whose name deriving from the Greek for 'thunderbolt' links them with high mountains, Siculotae (24), Glintidiones (44) and Scirtari, who dwelt along the border with Macedonia. In northeast Bosnia the Dindari are located by the record of one of ..."
  48. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, 2003, page 426
  49. ^ A dictionary of the Roman Empire Oxford paperback reference, ISBN 0-19-510233-9, 1995, page 202, "... contact with the peoples of the Illyrian kingdom and at the Celticized tribes of the Delmatae ..."
  50. ^ a b c ALBURNUS MAIOR (Roşia Montană) Alba, Romania., "An important settlement, center of gold mining in Roman Dacia Superior, in the Apuseni mountains. In the hills of Cetatea Mare and Cetatea Mică, traces are preserved of ancient Roman mines. Under Trajan, Dalinatian colonists (Pirustae, Baridustae, Sardeates) settled here, each tribe dwelling in a separate village or quarter."
  51. ^ Roman Dacia: the making of a provincial society by W. S. Hanson, Ian Haynes, 2004, page 22, "Outside the main urban centres, the best attested group of civilian immigrants is members of the Dalmatian tribes such as the Baridustae ..."
  52. ^ A. Mayer, Die Sprache der alten Illyrier I (Schriften der Balkankommission, Linguistiche Abteilung XV), VÖAW, 1957, p. 329.
  53. ^ DOCLEA (Duklja) Crna Gora, Yugoslavia.
  54. ^ Istorijski leksion Crne Gore: Č-J ISBN 86-7706-167-3
  55. ^ Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the provinces of the Roman Empire by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 32
  56. ^ a b c d Appianus, Illyrica, "Οξυαίους μεν δη και Περθεηνάτας, και Βαθιάτας και Ταυλαντίους, και Καμβαίους, και Κινάμβρους, και Μερρομένους, και Πυρισσαίους, είλε δι' όλης πείρας, έργω δε μείζονι ελήφθησαν, και φόρους όσους εξέλιπον ηναγκάσθησαν αποδουναι, Δοκλεᾶται τε και Κάρνοι και Ιντερεφρουρίνοι και Ναρήσιοι και Γλιντιδίωνες και Ταυρίσκοι."
  57. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 121.
  58. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 257: "In Popovopolje the Deraemestae may have been incorporated within the new municipium at Diluntum (Ljubinje). Several cities were created in the more remote regions"
  59. ^ a b c d e Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC – AD 69, 1996, p. 577: "... figure in the warfare of the second century B.C. The Deraemestae (30) were a new formation from several smaller peoples in the hinterland of Epidaurum including the Ozuaei, Partheni, Hemasini, Arthitae and Armistae."
  60. ^ J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1969, p. 482.
  61. ^ The Cambridge ancient history, Tome 6 by John Boardman, ISBN 0-521-85073-8, 1994, page 423
  62. ^ Appian, The Foreign Wars, III, 1.2
  63. ^ Food in the Ancient World (Food Through History) by Joan P. Alcock, ISBN 0-313-33003-4, 2005, page 91, "Aristotle described the process of making it by the Taulantii of Illyria, and Pliny commented on hydromeli made in Phrygia."
  64. ^ Ion Grumeza, Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe, ISBN 0-7618-4465-1, 2009, p. 51: "In a short time the Dacians imposed their conditions on the Anerati, Boii, Eravisci, Pannoni, Scordisci ..."
  65. ^ Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth, The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 2003, p. 1106.
  66. ^ A. Mocsy, S. Frere, "Pannonia and Upper Moesia", A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire, p. 152: "As already seen on Chapter 3 the Celtic and Celticized natives of Pannonia."
  67. ^ [1]J. Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, No. 1481 Archived 2011-06-12 at the Wayback Machine
  68. ^ John T. Koch (2006). Celtic Culture. p. 1662. ISBN 1-85109-440-7.
  69. ^ a b c Wilkes 1992, p. 203: "Papirius Carbo. Strabo (7.5, 3) identifies the Pannonian peoples as Breuci, Andizetes, Ditiones, Pirustae, Maezaei and Daesitiates."
  70. ^ J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1969, page 534
  71. ^ a b Wilkes 1992, p. 218: "Except for the Latobici and Varciani, whose names are Celtic, the civitates of Colapiani, Jasi, Breuci, Amantini and Scordisci were Illyrian."
  72. ^ a b Wilkes 1992, p. 207: "The war was a savage affair and the main resistance to the Romans came from the Breuci and Amantini in the Sava valley. The young males were rounded up and sold as slaves in Italy, a quite exceptional action"
  73. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 81: "the Breuci with Scilus Bato, Blaedarus, Dasmenus, Dasius, Surco, Sassaius, Liccaius and Lensus, and the Amantini and Scordisci around Sirmium with Terco and Precio, Dases and Dasmenus"
  74. ^ a b Wilkes 1992, p. 256: "... reign of Trajan (AD 98-117), does the Roman citizenship begin to appear among the Illyrian communities of southeast Pannonia, the Andizetes, Scordisci and Breuci."
  75. ^ Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe by Ion Grumeza, ISBN 0-7618-4465-1, 2009, page 51, "Many Scordisci and Breuci settled in Dacia nevertheless and were eventually absorbed into the local population."
  76. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, 1996, page 176, "Daesitiates was soon matched by rebellion of the Breuci in Pannonia, headed by Pinnes and another Bato."
  77. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 81: "In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of the Colapis (Kulpa) valley were Illyrians ..."
  78. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, ISBN 0-521-26430-8, 1996, page 579
  79. ^ Oto Luthar (2008). "Prehistory: History Created by Archaeology". The Land Between: A History of Slovenia. Peter Lang. p. 36. ISBN 978-3-631-57011-1.
  80. ^ "Ljudje ob Krki in Kolpi v latenski dobi" [People Along Krka and Kolpa in the La Tène Period]. Arheološki vestnik (in Slovenian, German, and English). Institute of Archaeology, Slovenian Academy of Arts and Sciences. 52: 181–198. 2001.
  81. ^ Weiss, Janez (2007). "Sprehod po zgodovini Črnomlja od konca bronaste dobe do novega veka" [The Walk Through the History of Črnomelj from the End of the Bronze Age to the Modern Era]. Črnomelj.si (in Slovenian). Municipality of Črnomelj. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013.
  82. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 207.
  83. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 80.
  84. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 216.
  85. ^ J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1969, page 155
  86. ^ Strabo's Geography 4.3
  87. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 207: "... the imperial triumphs over individual peoples. Among the several Illyrian groups singled out were Japodes, Dardanians, Pannonian Andizetes and Pirustae."
  88. ^ Istorijski Leksilon Crne Gore: Č-J ISBN 86-7706-167-3
  89. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Part 1, The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC, 2nd Edition, by John Boardman ISBN 978-0-521-22496-3 | ISBN 0-521-22496-9
  90. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 217: "... with high mountains, Siculotae (24), Glintidiones (44) and Scirtari, who dwelt along the border with Macedonia. In northeast Bosnia the Dindari are located by the record of one of their chiefs (principes) in the Drina valley ..."
  91. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 217: "Pirustae, who inhabited the high valleys of southeast Bosnia and northern Montenegro, seem to have been divided between the Ceraunii (24 decuriae) ..."
  92. ^ J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1969, page 485
  93. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 217: "Pirustae, who inhabited the high valleys of southeast Bosnia and northern Montenegro, seem to have been divided between the Ceraunii (24 decuriae), whose name deriving from the Greek for 'thunderbolt' ..."
  94. ^ Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B.C. – A.D. 400 by Thomas S. Burns, ISBN 0-8018-7306-1, 2003, page 200, "... Appian's account depicts a situation in which the inhabitants of Siscia (Σεγεστική, Segestike, therefore 'the Segestani') appealed in vain for aid from fellow Pannonians in their vicinity, but these people were reluctant to get involved, preferring ..."
  95. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 80: "Among the Pannonians within Roman Dalmatia the western groups, including the Maezaei and Daesitiates, exhibit few outside connections, and those are with Delmatae immediately to the south, though in Alföldy's view the two groups ..."
  96. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 207
  97. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 203: "... Papirius Carbo. Strabo (7.5, 3) identifies the Pannonian peoples as Breuci, Andizetes, Ditiones, Pirustae, Maezaei and Daesitiates"
  98. ^ Wilkes 1992
  99. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 81.
  100. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 217.
  101. ^ András Mócsy (1959). Die Bevölkerung von Pannonien: bis zu den Markomannenkriegen. Verlag der Ungarischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. pp. 54–.
  102. ^ Jane Fejfer; Mette Moltesen; Annette Rathje (9 April 2015). Tradition: Transmission of Culture in the Ancient World. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-87-635-4258-6.
  103. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 257: "Pannonian Illyrians include that of the Jasi ..."
  104. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69 (Volume 10) by Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, 1996, page 579,
  105. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 216
  106. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 92
  107. ^ Appian, Illyrian Wars, App. Ill. 2.
  108. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History: Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean... by John Boardman, 1988, ISBN 0-521-22804-2, page 496, "The issuing authorities were tribes as far afield as the 'Tynteni' (later Atintani) ..."
  109. ^ A History of Macedonia: 550-336 B.C
  110. ^ Š. Batović, Liburnska kultura, Matica Hrvatska i Arheološki muzej Zadar, Zadar, 2005, UDK: 904 (398 Liburnija), ISBN 953-6419-50-5, pages 64-66
  111. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History by Alan K. Bowman, ISBN 0-521-26430-8, page 575
  112. ^ The Oxford Classical Dictionary by Simon Hornblower, ISBN 0-19-860641-9, 2003, page 431
  113. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 183: "We may begin with the Venetic peoples, Veneti, Carni, Histri and Liburni, whose language set them apart from the rest of the Illyrians ..."
  114. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 81: "In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of the Colapis (Kulpa) valley were Illyrians ..."
  115. ^ The classical gazetteer: a dictionary of ancient geography, sacred and profane by William Hazlitt, 1851, page 311, "SECUSSES, a people of Histria"

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Falileyev, Alexander and Radman-Livaja, Ivan. "More Celtic names from Roman Pannonia". In: Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 63, no. 1 (2016): 49–68. https://doi.org/10.1515/zcph-2016-0004