List of settlements in Illyria

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This is a list of settlements in Illyria inhabited by a variety of peoples, including the Illyrians (Dardanians, Liburni and Pannonians), Veneti, Romans, Celts, Thracians, Dacians or Ancient Greeks located in or near Illyrian lands. A number of cities in Illyria and later Illyricum were built on the sites or close to the sites of pre-existing Illyrian settlements, though that was not always the case. Some settlements may have a double entry, for example the Ancient Greek Pola, Roman Pietas Julia, and some toponyms are reconstructed.

Albania[edit]

Identified sites[edit]

# Settlement[note 1] Habitation Location Geographic coordinates Ref.
1 Ad Acroceraunia Near Llogara Pass 40°16′52″N 19°27′20″E / 40.28111°N 19.45556°E / 40.28111; 19.45556 (Ad Acroceraunia) [1]
2 Ad Quintum Bradashesh 41°05′38″N 20°00′54″E / 41.09389°N 20.01500°E / 41.09389; 20.01500 (Ad Acroceraunia) [2]
3 Akrolissos, Lissus Lezhë 41°46′58″N 19°38′38″E / 41.78278°N 19.64389°E / 41.78278; 19.64389 (Acrolissus) [3]
4 Amantia Ploç 40°22′37″N 19°42′0″E / 40.37694°N 19.70000°E / 40.37694; 19.70000 (Amantia) [1]
5 Apollonia Pojan 40°44′2″N 19°27′46″E / 40.73389°N 19.46278°E / 40.73389; 19.46278 (Apollonia) [1]
6 Aulon Cape of Triport, Vlorë 40°28′0″N 19°29′0″E / 40.46667°N 19.48333°E / 40.46667; 19.48333 (Aulon) [4]
7 Berat Berat 40°42′0″N 19°57′0″E / 40.70000°N 19.95000°E / 40.70000; 19.95000 (Berat) [5]
8 Bushat Bushat 41°58′1″N 19°31′59″E / 41.96694°N 19.53306°E / 41.96694; 19.53306 (Bushat) [6]
9 Byllis Hekal 40°32′25″N 19°44′15″E / 40.54028°N 19.73750°E / 40.54028; 19.73750 (Byllis) [7]
10 Dimale Krotinë 40°42′59″N 19°47′49″E / 40.71639°N 19.79694°E / 40.71639; 19.79694 (Dimale) [8]
11 Epidamnos Durrës 41°18′40″N 19°26′21″E / 41.31111°N 19.43917°E / 41.31111; 19.43917 (Epidamnos) [9]
12 Gajtan Gajtan 42°3′23″N 19°34′20″E / 42.05639°N 19.57222°E / 42.05639; 19.57222 (Gajtan) [10]
13 Kaninë Kaninë 40°26′23″N 19°31′8″E / 40.43972°N 19.51889°E / 40.43972; 19.51889 (Kaninë) [11]
14 Kratul Kratul 42°7′22″N 19°34′30″E / 42.12278°N 19.57500°E / 42.12278; 19.57500 (Kratul) [10]
15 Kukës Kukës 42°4′51″N 20°25′12″E / 42.08083°N 20.42000°E / 42.08083; 20.42000 (Kukës)
16 Lofkënd Lofkënd 40°38′28″N 19°44′45″E / 40.64111°N 19.74583°E / 40.64111; 19.74583 (Hija e Korbit) [12]
17 Hija e Korbit Maliq 40°42′30″N 20°42′0″E / 40.70833°N 20.70000°E / 40.70833; 20.70000 (Hija e Korbit) [13]
18 Margëlliç Margëlliç 40°40′19″N 19°39′40″E / 40.67194°N 19.66111°E / 40.67194; 19.66111 (Margëlliç) [11]
19 Mat Mat 41°37′1″N 20°0′0″E / 41.61694°N 20.00000°E / 41.61694; 20.00000 (Mat)
20 Matohasanaj Matohasanaj 40°21′14″N 19°49′59″E / 40.35389°N 19.83306°E / 40.35389; 19.83306 (Matohasanaj) [14]
21 Nikaia Klos 40°31′44″N 19°45′7″E / 40.52889°N 19.75194°E / 40.52889; 19.75194 (Nikaia) [15]
22 Nymphaion (sanctuary) Selenicë 40°31′59″N 19°37′59″E / 40.53306°N 19.63306°E / 40.53306; 19.63306 (Nymphaion (sanctuary)) [16]
23 Nymphaion (harbour) Shëngjin 41°48′50″N 19°35′39″E / 41.81389°N 19.59417°E / 41.81389; 19.59417 (Nymphaion (harbour)) [15]
24 Olympe Mavrovë 40°24′32″N 19°35′28″E / 40.40889°N 19.59111°E / 40.40889; 19.59111 (Olympe)
25 Orikon Orikum 40°19′23″N 19°27′7″E / 40.32306°N 19.45194°E / 40.32306; 19.45194 (Orikon) [17]
26 Palaeste Palasë 40°9′54″N 19°37′30″E / 40.16500°N 19.62500°E / 40.16500; 19.62500 (Palaeste) [18]
27 Persqopi Tirana 41°19′44″N 19°49′4″E / 41.32889°N 19.81778°E / 41.32889; 19.81778 (Persqopi)
28 Pogradec Pogradec 40°54′0″N 20°39′0″E / 40.90000°N 20.65000°E / 40.90000; 20.65000 (Pogradec)
29 Rabije Rabije 40°28′55″N 19°56′21″E / 40.48194°N 19.93917°E / 40.48194; 19.93917 (Rabije) [19]
30 Redon Cape of Rodon 41°35′2″N 19°27′0″E / 41.58389°N 19.45000°E / 41.58389; 19.45000 (Redon)
31 Scampa Elbasan 41°6′40″N 20°4′51″E / 41.11111°N 20.08083°E / 41.11111; 20.08083 (Scampa)
32 Selcë e Poshtme Selcë e Poshtme 40°58′59″N 20°31′1″E / 40.98306°N 20.51694°E / 40.98306; 20.51694 (Selcë e Poshtme) [20]
33 Scodra Shkodër 42°4′1″N 19°30′0″E / 42.06694°N 19.50000°E / 42.06694; 19.50000 (Scodra) [21]
34 Tren Tren 40°39′58″N 21°0′0″E / 40.66611°N 21.00000°E / 40.66611; 21.00000 (Tren) [22]
35 Zgërdhesh Zgërdhesh 41°28′23″N 19°48′54″E / 41.47306°N 19.81500°E / 41.47306; 19.81500 (Zgërdhesh) [6]

Unidentified sites[edit]

Settlement Description Proposed location Ref.
Albanopolis Zgërdhesh [23]
Antipatrea Berat [24]
Bargulum Berat [25]
Bassania Pedhanë or Bushat [26]
Boioi On the shore of Ohrid [27]
Chrysondyon [28]
Creonion [28]
Damastion [29]
Enchelanae On the shore of Ohrid [30]
Gertous [28]
Kerax On the shore of Ohrid [27]
Parthus Berat [31]
Pelion Near Ohrid and Prespa [32]
Sation On the shore of Ohrid [27]
Sesarethus Near Ohrid and Prespa [33]
Thronion Kaninë [34]
Uscana

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Identified sites[edit]

Identified places and settlements in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
# Settlement[note 2] Description Location Geographic coordinates Ref.
1 Arduba Vranduk 44°17′34″N 17°54′14″E / 44.29278°N 17.90389°E / 44.29278; 17.90389 (Arduba) [35]
2 Daorson Near Stolac 43°4′59″N 17°58′0″E / 43.08306°N 17.96667°E / 43.08306; 17.96667 (Daorson) [36]
3 Delminium Tomislavgrad 43°43′0″N 17°14′0″E / 43.71667°N 17.23333°E / 43.71667; 17.23333 (Delminium) [37]
4 Hedum Kastelum Breza 44°1′11″N 18°15′53″E / 44.01972°N 18.26472°E / 44.01972; 18.26472 (Hedum Kastelum)
5 Ošanjići Ošanjići, Stolac 43°5′24″N 17°56′24″E / 43.09000°N 17.94000°E / 43.09000; 17.94000 (Ošanjići) [38]

Unidentified sites[edit]

Settlement Description Proposed location Ref.
Salvia Near Bosansko Grahovo [39]

Croatia[edit]

Identified sites[edit]

Identified places and settlements in Croatia.
# Settlement Description Location Geographic coordinates Ref.
1 Aenona Nin 44°14′0″N 15°11′0″E / 44.23333°N 15.18333°E / 44.23333; 15.18333 (Aenona) [40]
2 Aequum Near Čitluk 43°45′0″N 16°38′0″E / 43.75000°N 16.63333°E / 43.75000; 16.63333 (Aequum) [41]
3 Alvona Labin 45°5′0″N 14°7′0″E / 45.08333°N 14.11667°E / 45.08333; 14.11667 (Alvona) [42]
4 Andetrium Muć 43°41′26″N 16°29′2″E / 43.69056°N 16.48389°E / 43.69056; 16.48389 (Andetrium) [43]
5 Apsorus Osor 44°42′0″N 14°24′0″E / 44.70000°N 14.40000°E / 44.70000; 14.40000 (Apsorus)
6 Arba Rab 44°45′22″N 14°45′40″E / 44.75611°N 14.76111°E / 44.75611; 14.76111 (Arba)
7 Argyruntum Starigrad 44°17′43″N 15°26′17″E / 44.29528°N 15.43806°E / 44.29528; 15.43806 (Argyruntum)
8 Aspálathos Split 43°30′36″N 16°27′0″E / 43.51000°N 16.45000°E / 43.51000; 16.45000 (Aspálathos) [44]
9 Asseria Near Podgrađe 44°0′36″N 15°40′4″E / 44.01000°N 15.66778°E / 44.01000; 15.66778 (Asseria)
10 Burnum Near Kistanje 44°1′5″N 16°1′33″E / 44.01806°N 16.02583°E / 44.01806; 16.02583 (Burnum) [45]
11 Colentum Near Betina 43°49′22″N 15°36′17″E / 43.82278°N 15.60472°E / 43.82278; 15.60472 (Colentum)
12 Corinium Near Benkovac 44°06′16″N 15°38′01″E / 44.10444°N 15.63361°E / 44.10444; 15.63361 (Corinium) [46]
13 Crepsa Cres 44°57′36″N 14°24′29″E / 44.96000°N 14.40806°E / 44.96000; 14.40806 (Crepsa)
14 Curicum Krk 45°1′0″N 14°34′0″E / 45.01667°N 14.56667°E / 45.01667; 14.56667 (Curicum)
15 Epetium Stobreč 43°29′58″N 16°31′20″E / 43.49944°N 16.52222°E / 43.49944; 16.52222 (Epetium)
16 Epidaurum Cavtat 42°34′46″N 18°13′15″E / 42.57944°N 18.22083°E / 42.57944; 18.22083 (Epetium) [47]
17 Flanona Plomin 45°8′16″N 14°10′51″E / 45.13778°N 14.18083°E / 45.13778; 14.18083 (Flanona) [48]
18 Fulfinum Near Omišalj 45°12′42″N 14°33′15″E / 45.21167°N 14.55417°E / 45.21167; 14.55417 (Corinium) [49]
19 Iader or Idassa Zadar 44°7′10″N 15°13′55″E / 44.11944°N 15.23194°E / 44.11944; 15.23194 (Iader)
20 Issa Vis 43°4′0″N 16°11′0″E / 43.06667°N 16.18333°E / 43.06667; 16.18333 (Issa) [50]
21 Lopsica Sveti Juraj 44°55′32″N 14°55′8″E / 44.92556°N 14.91889°E / 44.92556; 14.91889 (Lopsica)
22 Lumbarda Lumbarda 42°55′19″N 17°10′12″E / 42.92194°N 17.17000°E / 42.92194; 17.17000 (Lumbarda)
23 Melaina Korkyra Korčula 42°57′0″N 17°7′0″E / 42.95000°N 17.11667°E / 42.95000; 17.11667 (Melaina Korkyra) [50]
24 Mursa Osijek 45°33′20″N 18°41′40″E / 45.55556°N 18.69444°E / 45.55556; 18.69444 (Mursa)
25 Narona Momići 43°2′47″N 17°35′55″E / 43.04639°N 17.59861°E / 43.04639; 17.59861 (Narona) [51][52]
26 Nedinum Nadin 44°4′27″N 15°29′53″E / 44.07417°N 15.49806°E / 44.07417; 15.49806 (Nedinum)
27 Nesactium Nesactium 44°55′0″N 13°58′11″E / 44.91667°N 13.96972°E / 44.91667; 13.96972 (Nesactium) [53]
28 Pharos Hvar 43°8′0″N 16°44′0″E / 43.13333°N 16.73333°E / 43.13333; 16.73333 (Pharos) [54]
29 Pola Pula 44°52′0″N 13°51′0″E / 44.86667°N 13.85000°E / 44.86667; 13.85000 (Pola) [50]
30 Portunata Novalja 44°33′0″N 14°53′0″E / 44.55000°N 14.88333°E / 44.55000; 14.88333 (Portunata)
31 Promona Tepljuh 43°54′0″N 16°12′0″E / 43.90000°N 16.20000°E / 43.90000; 16.20000 (Promona) [55]
32 Salona Solin 43°32′22″N 16°28′59″E / 43.53944°N 16.48306°E / 43.53944; 16.48306 (Salona) [56][57]
33 Senia Senj 44°59′25″N 14°54′11″E / 44.99028°N 14.90306°E / 44.99028; 14.90306 (Senia)
34 Tilurium Near Trilj 43°36′41″N 16°42′57″E / 43.61139°N 16.71583°E / 43.61139; 16.71583 (Tilurium) [39]
35 Tragurion or Tragorium Trogir 43°31′1″N 16°15′5″E / 43.51694°N 16.25139°E / 43.51694; 16.25139 (Tragurion) [58]
36 Varvaria Bribir 43°44′0″N 15°51′0″E / 43.73333°N 15.85000°E / 43.73333; 15.85000 (Varvaria)

Unidentified sites[edit]

Settlement Description Proposed location Ref.
Nareste Near Omiš [59]
Oneum Omiš [59]
Pituntium Podstrana [59]
Saloniana Imotski
Setovia Sinj [39]
Tariona [60]

Kosovo[edit]

Identified sites[edit]

Identified places and settlements in Kosovo.
# Settlement[note 3] Description Location Geographic coordinates Ref.
1 Municipium Dardanorum Soqanicë 43°3′17″N 20°48′36″E / 43.05472°N 20.81000°E / 43.05472; 20.81000 (Municipium Dardanorum) [61]
2 Romajë Romajë 42°17′31″N 20°35′34″E / 42.29194°N 20.59278°E / 42.29194; 20.59278 (Romajë) [62]
3 Busavatë Busavatë 42°34′49″N 21°32′36″E / 42.58028°N 21.54333°E / 42.58028; 21.54333 (Busavatë) [63]
4 Ulpiana Ulpiana 42°35′47″N 21°10′31″E / 42.59639°N 21.17528°E / 42.59639; 21.17528 (Municipium Dardanorum) [64]
5 Vindenis Gllamnik 42°51′58″N 21°10′59″E / 42.86611°N 21.18306°E / 42.86611; 21.18306 (Vindenis) [65]
6 Vlashnjë Vlashnjë 42°12′09″N 20°39′45″E / 42.20250°N 20.66250°E / 42.20250; 20.66250 (Vlashnjë)
7 Topanicë Topanicë 42°31′25″N 21°38′23″E / 42.52361°N 21.63972°E / 42.52361; 21.63972 (Topanicë) [66]
8 Dubovc Dubovc 42°46′37″N 20°54′37″E / 42.77694°N 20.91028°E / 42.77694; 20.91028 (Dubovc) [67]
9 Dardana Fortress Kamenica 42°35′33″N 21°33′49″E / 42.59250°N 21.56361°E / 42.59250; 21.56361 (Dardana Fortress) [68]

Unidentified sites[edit]

Settlement Description Proposed location Ref.
Theranda Suhareka or Prizren

Montenegro[edit]

Identified sites[edit]

Identified places and settlements in Montenegro.
# Settlement[note 4] Description Location Geographic coordinates Ref.
1 Acruvium Kotor 42°25′48″N 18°46′12″E / 42.43000°N 18.77000°E / 42.43000; 18.77000 (Acruvium) [69]
2 Anderba, Enderon Nikšić 42°46′40″N 18°57′00″E / 42.77778°N 18.95000°E / 42.77778; 18.95000 (Anderba) [70]
3 Buthoe Budva 42°17′16″N 18°50′35″E / 42.28778°N 18.84306°E / 42.28778; 18.84306 (Buthoe) [6]
4 Doclea Podgorica 42°28′5″N 19°15′54″E / 42.46806°N 19.26500°E / 42.46806; 19.26500 (Doclea) [6]
5 Gostilj Gostilj 42°29′13″N 18°41′56″E / 42.48694°N 18.69889°E / 42.48694; 18.69889 (Gostilj)
6 Meteon Medun 42°28′23″N 19°21′43″E / 42.47306°N 19.36194°E / 42.47306; 19.36194 (Meteon) [6]
7 Oblun Oblun 42°22′59″N 19°08′13″E / 42.38306°N 19.13694°E / 42.38306; 19.13694 [6]
8 Perast Perast 42°29′13″N 18°41′56″E / 42.48694°N 18.69889°E / 42.48694; 18.69889 (Perast)
9 Rhizon Risan 42°30′54″N 18°41′21″E / 42.51500°N 18.68917°E / 42.51500; 18.68917 (Rhizon) [6]
10 Samobor Samobor 42°18′44″N 19°21′53″E / 42.31222°N 19.36472°E / 42.31222; 19.36472 [6]
11 Stara Gradina Stara Gradina 42°49′41″N 19°17′13″E / 42.82806°N 19.28694°E / 42.82806; 19.28694 [6]
12 Ulkinion Ulcinj 41°55′12″N 19°12′0″E / 41.92000°N 19.20000°E / 41.92000; 19.20000 (Ulkinion) [6]

Unidentified sites[edit]

Settlement Description Proposed location Ref.
Kinna Along the Cem River [70]

North Macedonia[edit]

Identified sites[edit]

Identified places and settlements in North Macedonia.
# Settlement[note 5] Description Location Geographic coordinates Ref.
1 Lychnidos Ohrid 41°7′0″N 20°48′0″E / 41.11667°N 20.80000°E / 41.11667; 20.80000 (Lychnidos)
2 Oaeneon, Oaeneum Tetovo 42°0′0″N 20°58′0″E / 42.00000°N 20.96667°E / 42.00000; 20.96667 (Oaeneon)
3 Scupi Skopje 42°0′59″N 21°23′31″E / 42.01639°N 21.39194°E / 42.01639; 21.39194 (Scupi) [71]

Unidentified sites[edit]

Settlement Description Proposed location Ref.
Damastion

Serbia[edit]

Identified sites[edit]

# Settlement[note 6] Description Location Geographic coordinates Ref.
1 Navissos, Naissus Niš 43°19′16″N 21°53′44″E / 43.32111°N 21.89556°E / 43.32111; 21.89556 (Navissos) [72][73]

Unidentified sites[edit]

Settlement Description Proposed location Ref.
Damastion

Illyrian settlements[edit]

Liburnian cities[edit]

Venetic cities[edit]

Roman cities[edit]

A very small part of the Roman province of Italia included Istria.

Mislocated[edit]

  • Thermidava, placed by Ptolemy on the Lissus-Naissus route. The toponym is most probably a misreading of a settlement which most scholars in contemporary research locate near present-day Banat, Serbia.[86]
  • Quemedava mentioned by Procopius in Dardania.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Italics: the ancient names are unattested.
  2. ^ Italics: the ancient names are unattested.
  3. ^ Italics: the ancient names are unattested.
  4. ^ Italics: the ancient names are unattested.
  5. ^ Italics: the ancient names are unattested.
  6. ^ Italics: the ancient names are unattested.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Wilkes 2000, p. 750.
  2. ^ de Matteis 2017, p. 12
  3. ^ Wilkes 2000, pp. 750, 753; Shpuza 2014, p. 106.
  4. ^ Wilkes 2000, p. 751; Papadopoulos 2016, p. 437.
  5. ^ Zindel et al. 2018, pp. 278, 280.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shpuza 2017, p. 42.
  7. ^ Wilkes 2000, p. 751.
  8. ^ Wilkes 2000, p. 752; Muka & Heinzelmann 2014, p. 223.
  9. ^ Wilkes 2000, p. 752.
  10. ^ a b Shpuza 2014, p. 106.
  11. ^ a b Ceka & Ceka 2017, p. 492.
  12. ^ Bejko et al. 2015, p. 4; Zindel et al. 2018, pp. 375–376.
  13. ^ Zindel et al. 2018, pp. 375–376.
  14. ^ Ceka & Ceka 2017, p. 490.
  15. ^ a b Wilkes 2000, p. 754.
  16. ^ Wilkes 2000, p. 754; Bejko et al. 2015, p. 4; Papadopoulos 2016, p. 440; Larson 2001, p. 162.
  17. ^ Wilkes 2000, p. 754; Papadopoulos 2016, p. 437.
  18. ^ Ceka 2011, pp. 100–101; Wilkes 2012, "Places: 481942 (Palaeste)".
  19. ^ Ceka 2012, pp. 59–60.
  20. ^ Wilkes 2000, p. 755.
  21. ^ Wilkes 2000, p. 755; Shpuza 2017, p. 42.
  22. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 18.
  23. ^ Wilkes 2000, p. 750; Shpuza 2017, p. 42.
  24. ^ Cabanes 2002, p. 35; Mesihović & Šačić 2015, p. 47; Zindel et al. 2018, pp. 278, 280.
  25. ^ Ceka 2009, p. 17
  26. ^ Šašel Kos 2005, p. 286; Nauka W Polsce 2018.
  27. ^ a b c Jaupaj 2019, p. 75.
  28. ^ a b c Cabanes 2002, p. 35; Mesihović & Šačić 2015, p. 47.
  29. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 223; Wilkes & Fischer-Hansen 2004.
  30. ^ Jaupaj 2019, pp. 74–75.
  31. ^ Ceka 2009, p. 7; Šašel Kos 2005, p. 282.
  32. ^ Winnifrith 2002, p. 282; Cabanes 2002, p. 35; Mesihović & Šačić 2015, p. 47.
  33. ^ Ujes 2002, p. 106.
  34. ^ Wilkes 2000, p. 758; Papadopoulos 2016, p. 439.
  35. ^ Stipčević, Aleksandar, The Illyrians-History and Culture, 1974, Noyess Press
  36. ^ Dalmatia: research in the Roman province 1970-2001: papers in honour of J. J. Wilkes by David Davison, Vincent L. Gaffney, Emilio Marin, 2006, page 21, "completely Hellenised town."
  37. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 188
  38. ^ Boško 2011, p. 177.
  39. ^ a b c Wilkes 1992, p. 190.
  40. ^ S. Čače, Broj liburnskih općina i vjerodostojnost Plinija(Nat. hist. 3, 130; 139–141), Radovi Filozofskog fakulteta u Zadru, 32, Zadar 1993., pages 1–36
  41. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (eds. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister), " AEQUUM (Čitluk) Croatia, Yugoslavia. The Roman Colonia Claudia Aequum was situated 6 km N of Sinj. It was founded by the emperor Claudius sometime after AD 45 and settled with the veterans of Legio VII when they left the neighboring camp at Tilurium for Moesia."
  42. ^ Dalmatia by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 194, "By the early years of Augustus the inhabitants of Alvona the Alutrenses..."
  43. ^ Šašel Kos & Kos 2020: "Andetrium".
  44. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 100.
  45. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (eds. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister), "BURNUM (Ivoševci by Kistanje) Croatia, Yugoslavia.The military camp of Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis situated over the gorge of the Krka (Titius) river just opposite the Dalmatian hill fort on the E river bank..."
  46. ^ Šašel Kos & Kos 2017, Places: 197225 (Corinium); Bagendon: a Belgic oppidum: a record of the excavations of 1954–56 – page 1 by Elsie M. Clifford – 1961 – "Chapter I the Bagendon Site the Identification of Corinium ... and was therefore called by the Roman Corinium"
  47. ^ Wilkes 1992, p. 216
  48. ^ Dalmatia by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 195, "At Flavona the native population was well established and stood up better to the effects of italian settlement in the first century..."
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  84. ^ Roman life and manners under the early Empire – page 302 – by Ludwig Friedlaender – 1965, "Claudius settled veterans at Cumae, Cologne, Sicum in Dalmatia, Camulodunum in Britain, ..."
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  86. ^ Lepper 1988, p. 138:Stuart Jones noted the Dacian - sounding place - name ' Thermidava ' on the Lissus Naissus road : but see Miller col . 557, for the evidence on this. The place was most probably called ' Theranda ' and there is no evidence for any settlement there of pro-Roman Dacians now, nor is it very likely. (..) Most scholars, however, have supposed, as did Cichorius, that we are now north of the Danube, somewhere in the Banat area where the local inhabitants are frightened that they may lose their recently acquired 'liberty'.

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