List of countries by irreligion

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World non-religious population by percentage, Dentsu Institute (2006) and Zuckerman (2005)[1]

Irreligion, which may include deism, agnosticism, ignosticism, anti-religion, atheism, skepticism, ietsism, spiritual but not religious, freethought, anti-theism, apatheism, non-belief, pandeism, secular humanism, non-religious theism, pantheism and panentheism, varies in the different countries around the world. According to reports from the Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association's (WIN/GIA) four global polls: in 2005, 77% were a religious person and 4% were "convinced atheists" while in 2012, 23% were not a religious person and an additional 13% were "convinced atheists"[2]; in 2015, 22% were not a religious person and an additional 11% were "convinced atheists"[3]; and in 2017, 25% were not a religious person and an additional 9% were "convinced atheists".[4]

According to sociologist Phil Zuckerman, broad estimates of those who have an absence of belief in a God range from 500 to 750 million people worldwide.[5] According to sociologists Ariela Keysar and Juhem Navarro-Rivera's review of numerous global studies on atheism, there are 450 to 500 million positive atheists and agnostics worldwide (7% of the world's population), with China having the most atheists in the world (200 million convinced atheists).[6]

Methods[edit]

Each poll uses different questions and methods:-

The numbers come from different years, and might not be accurate for countries with governments that require or urge religion or secularism.

Countries and regions[edit]

The WIN-Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) poll results below are the totals for "not a religious person" and "a convinced atheist" combined. Researchers have advised caution with WIN/Gallup International figures since more extensive surveys which have used the same wording for decades and have bigger sample sizes, have consistently reached lower figures.[6]

Country or Region WIN/GIA

(2017)[7]

WIN/GIA[3]
(2015)
WIN/GIA[8][9]
(2012)
Dentsu[10]
(2006)
Zuckerman[5]
 Afghanistan (details) 9% 15%
 Albania (details) 39% 8%
 Argentina 20% 20% 26% 13% 4–8%
 Armenia 6% 5% 5% 34%
 Australia (details) 63% 58% 58% 24–25%
 Austria 53% 54% 53% 12% 18–26%
 Azerbaijan (details) 64% 54% 51%
 Bangladesh (details) 19% 5%
 Belarus 48% 17%
 Belgium (details) 64% 48% 34% 35% 42–43%
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 22% 32% 29%
 Brazil (details) 17% 18% 14%
 Bulgaria (details) 39% 39% 30% 30% 34–40%
 Cameroon 17%
 Canada (details) 57% 53% 49% 26% 19–30%
 Chile 34%
 China (details) 90% 90% 77% 93% 8–14%
 Colombia 14% 17% 15%
 DR Congo 17%
 Croatia 13% 7%
 Cuba 7%
 Czech Republic (details) 72% 75% 78% 64% 54–61%
 Denmark (details) 61% 52% 10% 43–80%
 Dominican Republic 7%
 Ecuador 18% 28% 29%
 Estonia (details) 60% 76% 49%
 Fiji 8% 7% 6%
 Finland (details) 55% 42% 44% 12% 28–60%
 France (details) 50% 53% 63% 43% 43–54%
 Georgia (details) 7% 13%
 Germany (details) 60% 59% 48% 25% 41–49%
 Ghana (details) 1% 2%
 Greece 22% 21% 4% 16%
 Hong Kong 63% 70% 60%
 Hungary 43% 32–46%
 Iceland (details) 49% 44% 41% 4% 16–23%
 India (details) 5% 23% 16% 7%
 Indonesia (details) 30% 15%
 Iran (details) 20% 1%
 Iraq (details) 34% 9%
 Ireland (details) 56% 51% 54% 7%
 Israel (details) 58% 65% 15–37%
 Italy (details) 26% 24% 23% 18% 6–15%
 Japan (details) 60% 62% 62% 52% 64–65%
 Kazakhstan (details) 11–12%
 Kenya (details) 9% 11%
 Kosovo 3% 8%
 Kyrgyzstan 7%
 Latvia 52% 50% 41% 20–29%
 Lebanon (details) 28% 18% 35%
 Lithuania 40% 23% 19% 13%
 Luxembourg 30%
 Macedonia 11% 10% 9%
 Malaysia 23% 13%
 Malta 1%
 Mexico (details) 36% 28%
 Moldova 10%
 Mongolia 29% 9%
 Morocco (details) 5%
 Netherlands (details) 66% 56% 55% 39–44%
 New Zealand (details) 20–22%
 Nigeria (details) 2% 16% 5% 1%
 North Korea 15%
 Norway (details) 62% 31–72%
 Pakistan (details) 6% 11% 10%
 Palestinian territories 35% 19% 33%
 Panama 13%
 Papua New Guinea 5% 4%
 Peru 23% 13% 11% 5%
 Philippines (details) 9% 22% 11%
 Poland (details) 10% 12% 14% 5%
 Portugal 38% 37% 11% 4–9%
 Puerto Rico 11%
 Romania (details) 9% 17% 7% 2%
 Russia (details) 30% 23% 32% 48% 24–48%
 Saudi Arabia (details) 24%
 Serbia 21% 21% 19%
 Singapore (details) 13%
 Slovakia 23% 10–28%
 Slovenia 53% 30% 35–38%
 South Africa (details) 32% 11%
 South Korea (details) 60% 55% 46% 37% 30–52%
 South Sudan 16%
 Spain (details) 57% 55% 47% 16% 15–24%
 Sweden (details) 73% 76% 58% 25% 46–85%
  Switzerland (details) 58% 47% 17–27%
 Taiwan 24%
 Tanzania 2%
 Thailand 2% 2%
 Tunisia 22%
 Turkey (details) 15% 75% 3%
 Uganda (details) 1%
 Ukraine 42% 24% 23% 42% 20%
 United Kingdom (details) 69% 66% 31–44%
 United States (details) 39% 39% 35% 20% 3–9%
 Uruguay (details) 12%
 Uzbekistan 18%
 Venezuela 2% 27%
 Vietnam 63% 54% 65% 46% 81%

By population as of 2004[edit]

Countries with the greatest number of people without religion (atheists and agnostics), based on the total population of each country as of 2004 and the percentage of non-religious people according to Zuckerman:[5]

Country People without religion
 China 103,907,840 – 181,838,720
 Japan 81,493,120 – 82,766,450
 Vietnam 66,978,900
 Russia 34,507,680 – 69,015,360
 Germany 33,794,250 – 40,388,250
 France 25,982,320 – 32,628,960
 United Kingdom 18,684,010 – 26,519,240
 South Korea 14,579,400 – 25,270,960
 Ukraine 9,546,400
 United States 8,790,840 – 26,822,520
 Netherlands 6,364,020 – 7,179,920
 Canada 6,176,520 – 9,752,400
 Spain 6,042,150 – 9,667,440
 Taiwan 5,460,000
 Hong Kong 5,240,000
 Czech Republic 5,328,940 – 6,250,121
 Australia 4,779,120 – 4,978,250
 Belgium 4,346,160 – 4,449,640
 Sweden 4,133,560 – 7,638,100
 Italy 3,483,420 – 8,708,550
 North Korea 3,404,700
 Hungary 3,210,240 – 4,614,720
 Bulgaria 2,556,120 – 3,007,200
 Denmark 2,327,590 – 4,330,400
 Belarus 1,752,870
 Greece 1,703,680
 Kazakhstan 1,665,840 – 1,817,280
 Argentina 1,565,800 – 3,131,600
 Austria 1,471,500 – 2,125,500
 Finland 1,460,200 – 3,129,000
 Norway 1,418,250 – 3,294,000
  Switzerland 1,266,670 – 2,011,770
 Israel 929,850 – 2,293,630
 New Zealand 798,800 – 878,680
 Cuba 791,630
 Slovenia 703,850 – 764,180
 Estonia 657,580
 Dominican Republic 618,380
 Singapore 566,020
 Slovakia 542,400 – 1,518,720
 Lithuania 469,040
 Latvia 461,200 – 668,740
 Portugal 420,960 – 947,160
 Armenia 118,740
 Uruguay 407,880
 Kyrgyzstan 355,670
 Croatia 314,790
 Albania 283,600
 Mongolia 247,590
 Iceland 47,040 – 67,620
 India 2,870,000

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Based on the data of the Dentsu Communication Institute and the data of Zuckerman. Largest values taken.
  2. ^ "Global Index of Religion and Atheism" (PDF). WIN/Gallup International. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "Losing our Religion? Two Thirds of People Still Claim to be Religious" (PDF). WIN/Gallup International. WIN/Gallup International. April 13, 2015. 
  4. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 2017-11-14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-11-14. Retrieved 2018-02-27. 
  5. ^ a b c Zuckerman, Phil (2006). "Atheism: Contemporary Numbers and Patterns". In Martin, Michael. The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–66. ISBN 9780521842709. 
  6. ^ a b Keysar, Ariela; Navarro-Rivera, Juhem (2017). "36. A World of Atheism: Global Demographics". In Bullivant, Stephen; Ruse, Michael. The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199644659. 
  7. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 2017-11-14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-11-14. Retrieved 2018-02-27. 
  8. ^ "WIN-Gallup International 'Religiosity and Atheism Index' reveals atheists are a small minority in the early years of 21st century". WIN-Gallup International. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  9. ^ "GLOBAL INDEX OF RELIGIOSITY AND ATHEISM – 2012" (PDF). WIN-Gallup International. 27 July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  10. ^ Dentsu Communication Institute 電通総研・日本リサーチセンター編「世界60カ国価値観データブック (in Japanese)