Irreligion in India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Atheism has a long history in India and flourished within Sramana movement. Indian religions like Jainism, Buddhism and some schools of Hinduism consider atheism to be acceptable.[1][2] India has produced some notable atheist politicians and social reformers.[3]

According to the 2012 WIN-Gallup Global Index of Religion and Atheism report, 81% of Indians were religious, 13% were not religious, 3% were convinced atheists, and 3% were unsure or did not respond.[4]

History[edit]

Ancient India[edit]

See also: Śramaṇa

Schools of Philosophy[edit]

In Hinduism, the religion of majority of Indians, atheism is considered to be a valid path to spirituality, as it can be argued that God can manifest in several forms with "no form" being one of them. But, the path is considered difficult to follow.[1] The belief in a personal creator God is not required in Jainism and Buddhism, both of which also originated in the Indian subcontinent. Atheistic schools are also found in Hinduism.[2]

Hindu philosophy is divided into schools (darśanam). These schools can be categorised as āstika (orthodox), schools which conforms to the Vedas, and nāstika (heterodox), schools reject the Vedas. The six schools, Sāṃkhya, Yoga, Nyāya, Vaiśeṣika, Mimāṃsā, and Vedānta, are considered āstika (orthodox) while, Jainism, Buddhism, Cārvāka and Ājīvika are considered nāstika(heterodox).[5]

Cārvāka[edit]
Main article: Cārvāka

The Cārvāka school originated in India around the 6th century BCE.[8] It is classified as a nāstika school. It is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement in ancient India.[9] Followers of this school only accepted pratyakşa (perception) as a valid pramāna (evidence). They considered other pramāna like sabda (testimony), upamāna (analogy), and anumāna (inference) as unreliable.[10] Thus, the existence of a soul (ātman) and God were rejected, because they could not be proved by perception. They also considered everything to be made of four elements: earth, water, air and fire. The Cārvāka pursued elimination of physical pain and enjoyment of life. So, they can be considered hedonistic.[11] All of the original Cārvāka texts are considered lost.[12] A much quoted sūtra (Barhaspatya sutras) by Brhaspati, who is considered the founder of the school, is thought to be lost.[13] The Tattvopaplavasimha by Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa (8th century CE) and the Sarvadarśanasaṅ̇graha by Madhavacarya (14th century) are considered important secondary Cārvāka texts.[11]

Sāṃkhya[edit]
Main article: Sāṃkhya

Sāṃkhya is an āstika school, but has some atheistic elements. Sāṃkhya is a radically dualist philosophy.[14] They believed that the two ontological principles, puruṣa (consciousness) and prakriti (matter), to be the underlying foundation of the universe.[14][15] The objective of life is considered the achievement of separation of pure consciousness from matter (kaivalya).[14] The reasoning within this system led to the Nir-isvara Sāṃkhya (Sāṃkhya without God) philosophy, which deemed the existence of God as unnecessary.[16] There is the opposing reasoning which accepts God, called Sesvara Sankhya (Sāṃkhya with God).[17] Samkhya Karika (c. 350 CE) is the earliest known systematic text of this philosophy.[14]

Mīmāṃsā[edit]
Main article: Mīmāṃsā

Mīmāṃsā (meaning exegesis)[14] is also an astika school. They believed the Vedas to be author-less and self-authenticating. They did not accept the Vedas as being composed by any ṛishi (saint), they considered them to not be authored by anyone (apauruṣeya). They accepted the minor deities of the Vedas but resisted any notion of a Supreme Creator. They only concentrated on upholding the ṛta (order) by following the duties of the Vedas. The foundational text of this school is the Mīmāṃsā Sutra by Jaimini (c. 200 BCE - 200 CE).[14]

Ājīvika[edit]
Main article: Ājīvika

Ājīvika is yet another astika school with an atheistic outlook. None of their scriptures survive and there is some question as to whether or not the accounts of them in secondary sources (often hostile) are accurate. They believed in a naturalistic atomic theory and held that the consequence of natural laws led to a deterministic universe. They denied karma, but upheld the atman. They lived in ascetic communities and existed in southern India until at least the 14th century.

Buddhism and Jainism[edit]

Gautama Buddha rejected the existence of a creator deity,[18][19] refused to endorse many views on creation[20] and stated that questions on the origin of the world are not ultimately useful for ending suffering.[21][22] Buddhism instead emphasises the system of causal relationships underlying the universe, pratītyasamutpāda, which constitute the dharma and source of enlightenment. No dependence of phenomena on a supernatural reality is asserted in order to explain the behaviour of matter.

Jainism rejects the idea of a creator deity responsible for the manifestation, creation, or maintenance of this universe. According to Jain doctrine, the universe and its constituents (soul, matter, space, time, and principles of motion) have always existed. All the constituents and actions are governed by universal natural laws and an immaterial entity like God cannot create a material entity like the universe. Jainism offers an elaborate cosmology, including heavenly beings (devas), but these beings are not viewed as creators; they are subject to suffering and change like all other living beings, and must eventually die. Jains define godliness as the inherent quality of any soul characterising infinite bliss, infinite power, Kevala Jnana (pure infinite knowledge)[23] and Perfect peace. However, these qualities of a soul are subdued due to karmas of the soul. One who achieves this state of soul through right belief, right knowledge and right conduct can be termed a god. This perfection of soul is called kevalin or bodhi. A god thus becomes a liberated soul – liberated of miseries, cycles of rebirth, world, karmas and finally liberated of body as well. This is called moksha.

Philosophers and ancient texts[edit]

Ajita Kesakambali was a materialist philosopher. He is mentioned in the Samaññaphala Sutta. He rejected gods, an afterlife and karma.[24] Payasi is a character, referred to as a prince, who appears in the Buddhist text Digha Nikaya in the Payasi Sutta. He didn't believe in rebirth or karma. He debated Kassapa, a disciple of Buddha, and lost, then converted to Buddhism.[25][26]

Jabali's speech from the Ramayana[edit]
See also: Jabali

In the Hindu epic Ramayana (Ayodhya Khanda), when Bharata goes to the forest to convince Rama to return home, he was accompanied by a sophist[27] called Jabali ("जाबालिः"). Jabali uses nihilistic[28] reasoning to convince Rama. He also says that rituals are a waste of food and scriptures were written by smart men so that people will give alms. But Rama calls him a deviant from the path of dharma ("धर्मपथात्"), refuses to accept his "nastika" views and blame his own father for taking Jabali into service.[29] He also equates the Buddha to a thief.[29] On hearing Rama's retort, Jabali retracts his statements, saying that he was merely arguing like a nihilist.[28] However, these verses referring to the Buddha[30] are considered a later interpolation, as those verses use a different metre.[30][31]

The Carvaka incident in the Mahabharata[edit]

A character described as a Carvaka briefly appears in the Mahabharata (in the Shanti Parva). As Yudhishthira enters the city of Hastinapur, a brahmin, referred to as Carvaka, accuses him of killing his own kinsmen and says that he would suffer for it. The accuser is revealed to a rakshasa in disguise, who was a friend of Duryodhana. He had existed since the Krita Yuga by virtue of a boon from the god Brahma, that he could only be killed when he is showing contempt towards brahmins. He was promptly killed by other brahmins by the chanting of sacred hymns and Yudhishthira was assured that his actions were the within the kshatriya code.[32] This event may be a possible denigration of the Carvaka philosophy.[33]

Medieval India[edit]

In the 9th century CE, Jain philosopher Jinasena wrote the Mahapurana. The book contains the following often quoted words,[34]

This quote was also featured later in Carl Sagan's book, Cosmos.[35] In the 14th century, philosopher Madhavacarya wrote the Sarvadarśanasaṅ̇graha, which is a compilation of all Indian philosophies, including Carvaka, which is described in the first chapter.[7]

Modern India[edit]

19th century[edit]

Between 1882 and 1888, the Madras Secular Society published a magazine called The Thinker (Tattuvavivesini in Tamil) from Madras. The magazine carried articles written by anonymous writers and republished articles from the journal of the London Secular Society, which the Madras Secular Society considered itself affiliated to.[36]

20th century[edit]

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (1883 –1966) was an eminent Hindu nationalist leader of the Indian independence movement. He was also an atheist and a staunch rationalist[37] who disapproved of orthodox Hindu belief, dismissing cow worship as superstitious.[38] Being Hindu, for him, was a cultural and political identity.

Satyendra Nath Bose (1894 – 1974) was an atheist physicist specialising in mathematical physics. He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation for Bose–Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose–Einstein condensate.

Meghnad Saha (1893 – 1956) was an atheist astrophysicist best known for his development of the Saha equation, used to describe chemical and physical conditions in stars.

Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964), India's first Prime Minister was agnostic.[39] He wrote in his autobiography, Toward Freedom (1936), about his views on religion and superstition.[40]

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910–1995), atheist astrophysicist known for his theoretical work on the structure and evolution of stars. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983.

Goparaju Ramachandra Rao (1902-1975), better known by his nickname "Gora", was a social reformer, anti-caste activist and atheist. He and his wife, Saraswathi Gora (1912-2007) who was also an atheist and social reformer, founded the Atheist Centre in 1940.[41] The Atheist Centre is an institute working for social change.[42] Gora expounded his philosophy of positive atheism as a way of life.[41] He later wrote more about positive atheism in his 1972 book, "Positive Atheism".[43] Gora also organised the first World Atheist Conference in 1972. Subsequently, the Atheist Centre has organised several World Atheist Conferences in Vijayawada and other locations.[42]

In 1997, the Federation of Indian Rationalist Associations was founded.[44]

21st century[edit]

Prof. Amartya Sen (1933-), an Indian economist, philosopher and noble laureate, is an atheist[45] and he holds that this can be associated with one of the atheist schools in Hinduism, the Lokayata.[46][47][48]

In 2008, the website Nirmukta was founded. It later became an organisation aiming to promote free thought and secular humanism in India.[49]

In 2009, historian Meera Nanda published a book entitled the "The God Market". It examines how Hindu religiosity is gaining more popularity in the rising middle class, as India is liberalising the economy and adopting globalisation.[50]

In March 2009, in Kerala, a pastoral letter addressing the laity was issued by the Kerala Catholic Bishops' Council urging the members to not vote for political parties which advocate atheism.[51][52] In July 2010, another similar letter was issued.[53]

On 10 March 2012, Sanal Edamaruku investigated a so-called miracle in Vile Parle, where a Jesus statue had started weeping and concluded that the problem was caused by faulty drainage. Later that day, during a TV discussion with some church members, Edamaruku accused the Catholic Church of miracle-mongering. On 10 April, Angelo Fernandes, President of the Maharashtra Christian Youth Forum, filed a police complaint against Edamaruku under the Indian Penal Code Section 295A.[54] In July while on a tour in Finland, Edamaruku was informed by a friend that his house was visited by the police. Since the offence is not bailable, Edamaruku stayed in Finland.[55]

On Friday 7 July 2013, the first "Hug an Atheist Day" was organised in India by Nirmukta. The event aimed to spread awareness and reduce the stigma associated with being an atheist.[56][57]

On 20 August 2013, Narendra Dabholkar, a rationalist and anti-superstition campaigner, was shot dead by two unknown assailants, while he was out on a morning walk.[58]

Legal status, rights and laws[edit]

Atheism and irreligion are not officially recognised in India. Apostasy is allowed under the right to freedom of religion in the Constitution, and the Special Marriage Act, 1954 allows the marriage of people with no religious beliefs, as well as non-religious and non-ritualistic marriages. However, there are no specific laws catering to atheists and they are considered as belonging to the religion of their birth for administrative purposes.[49]

Hate speech laws and irreligion[edit]

Notable verdicts[edit]

On 29 October 2013, the Bombay High Court judged in favour of an atheist school teacher from Nashik.[59] Sanjay Salve had been employed by the state-funded Savitribai Phule Secondary School since 1996. In June 2007, during a prayer session, Salve didn't fold his hands during the pledge or prayer. The school management called this indiscipline and refused him a higher pay grade in 2008 when Salve became eligible for it. Salve sought legal recourse citing the Section 28 (a) of the Constitution which states "no person attending any educational institution recognised by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution".[60][61] The court ruled in Salve's favour and directed the school to release his dues by 31 January 2013.[62]

On 23 September 2014, the Bombay High Court declared that the government cannot force a person to state a religion on any document or form. The court also stated any citizen has the right to declare that he/she doesn't belong to any religion. The decision came in response to a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) filed by Ranjit Mohite, Kishore Nazare and Subhash Ranware, representing an organisation called Full Gospel Church of God, after the Maharashtra state printing press refused to issue them a gazette notification stating that they belonged to no religion. The petitioners stated that the organisation had 4000 members, and that they believe in Jesus Christ but they do not follow Christianity or any religion. Responding to the petition, the Maharashtra and the central governments had stated that "no religion" cannot be treated as a religion on official forms. The court cited the Article 25 of the Constitution, which guarantees right to freedom of conscience, while passing the verdict.[63][64]

Persecution and attacks[edit]

Narendra Nayak has claimed to have been attacked thrice and twice had his scooter damaged, one of the attacks leaving him with head injuries. This compelled him to take self-defence lessons and carry a nunchaku.[65] Megh Raj Mitter's house was surrounded a mob after he debunked the Hindu milk miracle, forcing him to call the police.[66]

On 15 March 2007, a bounty of 7 lakh was announced on atheist[67] Bangladeshi author Taslima Nasrin, while living in India, by a Muslim cleric named Maulana Tauqeer Raza Khan for allegedly writing derogatory statements about Mohammad in her work.[68] In December 2013, a FIR was filed against Nasrin in Bareilly by a cleric named Hasan Raza Khan, for hurting religious sentiments. Nasrin had allegedly tweeted on Twitter that "In India, criminals who issue fatwas against women don't get punished." Raza Khan said that by accusing clerics of being criminals, Nasrin had hurt religious sentiments.[69]

On 2 July 2011, the house of U. Kalanathan, secretary of the Kerala Yukthivadi Sangham, was attacked in Vallikunnu after he suggested on television that the temple treasures of Padmanabhaswamy Temple should be used for public welfare.[70] On 20 August 2013, Narendra Dabholkar, a rationalist and anti-superstition campaigner, was assassinated.[58]

On 16 February 2015, rationalist Govind Pansare and his wife were attacked by unknown gunmen. He later died from the wounds on 20 February.[71] On 30 August 2015, M. M. Kalburgi, a scholar and rationalist, was shot dead at his home. He was known for his criticism of superstition and idol worship.[72][73] Soon afterwards, another rationalist and author, K. S. Bhagwan, received a threatening letter. He had offended religious groups by criticising the Gita.[74][75]

Demographics[edit]

Census[edit]

The Indian census does not explicitly count atheists.[3] In the 2011 Census of India, the response form required the respondent to choose from six options under religion. The "Others" option was meant for minor or tribal religions as well as atheists and agnostics.[49]

The religion data from 2011 Census of India was released in August 2015. It revealed that about 2,870,000 people had stated no religion in their response, about 0.27% of the nation's population. However, the number included atheists, rationalists and also those who believed in a higher power. K. Veeramani, a Dravidar Kazhagam leader, said that it was the first time the number of non-religious people was recorded in the census. However, he added that he believed that the number of atheists in India was actually higher as many people don't reveal their atheism out of fear.[76]

Surveys[edit]

World Values Survey (2006)[edit]

According to the 2006 World Values Survey, conducted by the Dentsu Communication Institute Inc, Japan Research Center (2006), 6.6% of Indians stated that they had no religion.[77]

WIN-Gallup Global Index of Religion and Atheism[edit]

According to the 2005 Global Index of Religion and Atheism report from WIN-Gallup, 87% of Indians were religious and 4% called themselves atheists.[78] According to the 2012 report by the same organisation, 81% of Indians were religious, 13% were not religious, 3% were convinced atheists and 3% were unsure or did not respond.[4]

Worldviews and Opinions of Scientists in India (2007)[edit]

In 2007, a survey was conducted by the Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture of the Trinity College with the help of Center for Inquiry (India) called Worldviews and Opinions of Scientists in India. 1100 scientists surveyed from 130 institutes. Most of them identified themselves as secular (59%) or somewhat secular (16%) but refused to be labelled irreligious. 83% defined secularism, as it appears in the Indian constitutions, as the separation of state and religion. But, 93% also defined it as tolerance of other religious philosophies. 20% equated secularism to atheism. Only 11% called themselves completely not spiritual. However, only 8% reportedly said they would refuse to do stem cell research based on religious or moral convictions.[79] Y. S. Rajan commented on this saying that most Indians don't feel there is a conflict between science and religion.[80] Other the hand, Innaiah Narisetti, chairman of Center for Inquiry (India) and Pushpa Bhargava, the former director of the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, pointed out the lack of scientific temper among Indian scientists.[81]

Religion Among Scientists in an International Context (2014)[edit]

In a survey conducted by Elaine Howard Ecklund of Rice University, it was found that:

India United Kingdom
Scientists who identified as nonreligious 6% 65%
Scientists who attend religious services on a regular basis (once a month or more) 32% 12%
Scientists who never attend religious services 19% 68%
Scientists who believe that there are basic truths in many religions 73% 49%
Scientists who believe in God 27% 11%
Scientists who believe in a higher power of some kind 38% 8%

The ongoing study has surveyed 1,581 scientists from UK and 1,763 from India.[82]

Rationalism and atheism by region[edit]

The Yukthivadi was the first atheist/rationalist magazine published in Malayalam.

Kerala[edit]

There is a sub-group of atheists in Kerala who are members of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). There are others who support atheism because of rationalist ideals: these include supporters of the Indian Rationalist Association. The Kerala Yukthivadi Sangham is an organisation that supports atheism and rationalism in the Malayali community throughout Kerala. The Yukthivadi was the first atheist/rationalist magazine published in Malayalam.

Some notable atheists from Kerala include Sahodaran Ayyappan, V. S. Achuthanandan, A.K. Antony, Sreeni Pattathanam, Abu Abraham, A. K. Gopalan, Mookencheril Cherian Joseph, Joseph Edamaruku, Sanal Edamaruku and others. Sanal Edamaruku is the founder-president of Rationalist International and the president of the Indian Rationalist Association.

Notable irreligious Indians[edit]

Name Dates About References
A. K. Antony 1940- Former Defence Minister and former Chief Minister of Kerala [83]
John Abraham 1972- Actor "I consider myself a spiritual person but I don’t follow any particular religion. From the age of four, my father always told me that 'to be a good man, you don't need to go to a temple, church or a mosque. You just need to do good'. This is very true. So, while I believe in the presence of a supreme being, I am agnostic."[84]
Anurag Kashyap 1972- Director, Producer and Screenwriter "I am an atheist. Cinema is the only religion I believe in."[85]
Anand Gandhi 1980- Director, Producer and Screenwriter At 13, I had a serious moment of epiphany. On a walk to school one day, a lot of things suddenly occurred to me. It suddenly occurred to me that religions are made by people. And that the principle of a creator suffers from an infinite regress problem. I turned atheist overnight. I had discovered logic. It was so pure and pristine and clear that it shines in your mind. That was one of the biggest paradigm shifts of my life.[86]
Amartya Sen 1933- Economist and Nobel laureate "If you ask me whether I believe in god, my answer is No. But that does not compromise the profundity of my respect for the self-sacrifice of those who do so for the people as a result of their faith like Mother Teresa."[87]
Amol Palekar 1944- Bollywood and Marathi film actor "Personally, I am an atheist and have no faith or belief in supernatural forces."[88]
Ajita Kesakambali 6th century BCE Ancient Indian materialist philosopher "Fools and wise alike, on the dissolution of the body, are off, annihilated, and after death they are not."[89]
Ashok Vajpeyi 1941- Hindi poet and recipient of Sahitya Akademi Award "I am a non-believer; I don’t have the gift of belief. But I read the two epics (Ramayana and Mahabharata) as great literary epics. I am not concerned with the divinity of it, and there are many others who aren’t either."[90]
Baba Amte 1914-2008 Social activist [91]
Baichung Bhutia 1976- Football player "I am neither religious nor spiritual. But my being an atheist is more a matter of chance. I have been away from my family ever since I was a child and never really got a chance to imbibe the religious values of my parents. Usually, it is the family that teaches a child about religion."[92]
Bhagat Singh 1907-1931 A well-known figure in the Indian independence movement "As regard the origin of God, my thought is that man created God in his imagination when he realized his weaknesses, limitations and shortcomings."[93]
C. P. Joshi 1950- Former minister of Road Transport and Highways and former Railway Minister [83]
E. M. S. Namboodiripad 1909-1998 First Chief Minister of Kerala [83]
E. K. Nayanar 1918-2004 Former Chief Minister of Kerala [83]
Goparaju Ramachandra Rao 1902-1975 Atheist activist, participant in the Indian independence movement and founder of Atheist Centre "Religious belief prevented the growth of a sense of realism. But atheism at once makes man realistic and alive to the needs of morality."[94]
Har Dayal 1884-1939 Indian nationalist revolutionary, polymath and founder of the Ghadar Party "If God loves virtue, why has he not made Man wholly virtuous?"[95]
Innaiah Narisetti 1937- Journalist, translator, president of Center for Inquiry, India and author of the book "Forced into Faith" "Scientific temper demands proof and evidence. The god proposition came from religious persons. The burden of proof lies with the proposer."[96]
Irfan Habib 1931- Marxist historian "No. I have not found any reasonable argument for the existence of any supernatural power. I came to this conscious realisation in my student days in the late 1940s, through the influence of Marxist literature."[97]
J. B. S. Haldane 1892-1964 British born biologist who took Indian citizenship "My practice as a scientist is atheistic. That is to say, when I set up an experiment I assume that no god, angel, or devil is going to interfere with its course; and this assumption has been justified by such success as I have achieved in my professional career. I should therefore be intellectually dishonest if I were not also atheistic in the affairs of the world."[98]
Jagadish Shettar 1955- Bharatiya Janata Party politician, 21st Chief Minister of Karnataka [99]
James Michael Lyngdoh 1939- Former Chief Election Commissioner of India "I have no religion, I am an atheist.”[100]
Javed Akhtar 1945- Poet, lyricist and scriptwriter "Religion is based on faith - you aren't allowed to question or discuss it, and there is no logic or reason behind it. What is the difference between faith and stupidity?"[101]
Jawaharlal Nehru 1889-1964 First Prime Minister of India "What the mysterious is I do not know. I do not call it God because God has come to mean much that I do not believe in."[102]
Jyoti Basu 1914-2010 Former Chief Minister of West Bengal [103]
K. Siddaramaiah 1948- Current Chief Minister of Karnataka [83]
K. Shivaram Karanth 1902-1997 Jnanpith awardee Kannada novelist, considered himself a nontheist [104]
K. Veeramani 1933- He is the President of the Dravidar Kazhagam, an Indian organisation centred in Tamil Nadu, opposed to the caste system and dedicated to the welfare of socially disadvantaged. He is the third President of the Dravidar Kazhagam and Chancellor of Periyar Maniammai University [105]
Kamal Haasan 1954- Filmmaker and actor, known for making films having themes of both atheism and Brahminical Hinduism. "Every religion has a podium, atheists do not have one. My films are my podium."[106]
Khushwant Singh 1915-2014 Journalist and author of books such as Train to Pakistan, considers himself an agnostic "I gave up religion nearly 40 years ago. I studied religion and realised it is all trash."[107]
Lavanam Gora 1930- Social reformer "To be good and to do good, God is not necessary."[108]
M. Karunanidhi 1924- Former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu [109][110][111]
M. N. Roy 1887-1954 Indian nationalist revolutionary, radical activist and political theorist [112]
Mani Shankar Aiyar 1941- Diplomat and politician "I am an atheist. A somewhat reluctant one because I have seen the comfort that religious conviction brings to many."[113]
Meera Nanda 1954- Writer and historian [114]
Meghnad Saha 1893-1956 Astrophysicist [115]
Motilal Nehru 1861-1931 an activist of the Indian National Movement, father of Jawaharlal Nehru [116]
Narendra Dabholkar 1945-2013 Rationalist, anti-superstition activist, founder and president of Maharashtra Andhashraddha Nirmoolan Samiti [117]
Narendra Nayak 1951- President of Federation of Indian Rationalist Associations [118]
P. Chidambaram 1945- Politician and former Finance Minister [83]
Dr. P. M. Bhargava 19??- Biotechnologist and founder of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology "A scientist can say without any feeling of guilt or shame, "I don’t know." Religious leaders would not be leaders if they did not claim to know everything and have answers to every question."[119]
Payasi c. 4th century BCE Materialist philosopher "Neither is there any other world, nor are there beings reborn otherwise than from parents, nor is there fruit or results of deeds, well done or ill done."[26]
Periyar E. V. Ramasamy 1879-1973 Businessman, politician, Indian independence and social activist, started the Self respect movement and founder of the socio-cultural organisation, Dravidar Kazhagam. "There is no god, there is no god, there is no god at all. He who invented god is a fool. He who propagates god is a scoundrel. He who worships god is a barbarian."[120]
Prabir Ghosh 1946- President of Science and Rationalists' Association Of India [44][121]
R. P. Paranjpe 1876-1966 Founding president of Indian Rationalist Association, and later High Commissioner of India in Australia and vice-chancellor of Bombay University [122][123]
Rajat Kapoor 1961- Actor, writer and director "I think God is a totally man-made concept that has been more harmful than beneficial to mankind. Man has waged war and hurt and killed each other for thousands of years in the name of a God he created. I believe there is no God, no heaven and no hell."[124]
Rajeev Khandelwal 1975- Actor "I love to call myself an atheist. By atheist, I don't mean i would stand up and start delivering speeches on the non-existence of God. I am the kind of person who doesn't like wasting time on visiting religious places or performing rituals."[125]
Rahul Bose 1967- Actor "I am an atheist, but being so doesn't stop me from respecting those who believe in religion."[126]
Ram Gopal Varma 1962- Film director "I have always been an atheist ever since I can remember. Being an atheist, I believe there is a rational and scientific explanation to everything."[127]
Ram Manohar Lohia 1910-1967 participant in the Indian independence movement [83]
S. Nijalingappa 1902- Former Chief Minister of Karnataka [83]
Sadanand Dhume Journalist and writer [128]
Salman Rushdie 1947- Indian-born British Booker prize-winning novelist and knighted by Queen Elizabeth II "I'm a hard-line atheist I have to say."[129]
Sathyaraj 1954- Actor [130]
Satish Gujral 1925 Painter, writer and recipient of Padma Vibhushan award [131]
Satyajit Ray 1921-1991 Filmmaker and author [132]
Sreeni Pattathanam 19??- Rationalist and atheist activist [3]
Shriram Lagoo 1927- Actor and rationalist activist "Believing existence of the God is itself a kind of superstition. Young people should not waste power of reasoning and thinking under such belief."[133]
Siddaramaiah 1948- Chief Minister of Karnataka (elected in 2013) "I have not totally rejected God, I do visit temples but I have not made it a habit. My conscience is God to me. I believe in truth. I believe in the power of people. I don’t believe in superstition."[134]
Sitaram Yechury 1952- Member of the politburo of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) [135]
Subhash Kapoor 19??- Film director, producer and screenwriter [136]
Subhashini Ali 19??- Politician, member of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) and President of the All India Democratic Women's Association "I have always been an atheist. My parents were atheists. It doesn't bother me if somebody is religious. My problem is when religion is used to institutionalise other things."[137]
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar 1910-1995 Indian-American astrophysicist who, with William A. Fowler, won the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics [138]
Suhasini Maniratnam 1961- Actress "I don't believe in God, in prayer, in going to temples begging God to give me and my family happiness. I am not asking everyone to be an atheist, but good thoughts are not spent in a temple."[139]
Sushilkumar Shinde 1941- Former Union Home Minister [83]
Teesta Setalvad 1962- Civil rights activist and journalist "I'm agnostic. You can insult a man's wife, his mother, and get away with it. But you can't insult his God without repercussions."[140]
Thilakan 1935-2012 Malayalam film actor “As an atheist, I feel I am better off than the believers. At least I act and speak according to my conscience.”[141][142]
V. S. Achuthanandan 1923- Former Chief Minister of Kerala [83]
Verghese Kurien 1921-2012 Father of the White Revolution [143]
Vijay Tendulkar 1928-2008 Marathi writer and dramatist [144]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chakravarti, Sitansu (1991). Hinduism, a way of life. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 71. ISBN 978-81-208-0899-7. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  2. ^ a b Joshi, L.R. (1966). "A New Interpretation of Indian Atheism". Philosophy East and West (University of Hawai'i Press) 16 (3/4): 189–206. doi:10.2307/1397540. JSTOR 1397540. 
  3. ^ a b c Phil Zuckerman (21 December 2009). "Chapeter 7: Atheism and Secularity in India". Atheism and Secularity. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35182-2. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Global Index Of Religion And Atheism" (PDF). WIN-Gallup. Retrieved 3 September 2013. 
  5. ^ Y. Masih (1 January 2000). A Comparative Study of Religions. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 157. ISBN 978-81-208-0815-7. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  6. ^ Ramkrishna Bhattacharya (2011). Studies on the Carvaka/Lokayata. Anthem Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-85728-433-4. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Mādhava (1908). The Sarva-darśana-saṃgraha. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  8. ^ "Not scared of God, but man". 
  9. ^ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan; Charles A. Moore (1957). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy (Twelfth Princeton Paperback printing 1989 ed.). Princeton University Press. pp. 227–249. ISBN 0-691-01958-4. 
  10. ^ Deepak Sarma (2011). Classical Indian Philosophy: A Reader. Columbia University Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-0-231-13399-9. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Eugene F. Bales (1987). A Ready Reference to Philosophy East and West. University Press of America. pp. 211–. ISBN 978-0-8191-6640-1. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  12. ^ William M. Indich (1 January 2000). Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-81-208-1251-2. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  13. ^ Eugene F. Bales (1987). A Ready Reference to Philosophy East and West. University Press of America. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8191-6640-1. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f Richard King (1999). Indian Philosophy: An Introduction to Hindu and Buddhist Thought. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 52, 63. ISBN 978-0-7486-0954-3. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  15. ^ Surendranath Dasgupta (1992). A History of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 238. ISBN 978-81-208-0412-8. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  16. ^ Dale Maurice Riepe (1 December 1996). Naturalistic Tradition in Indian Thought. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 210. ISBN 978-81-208-1293-2. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  17. ^ Andrew J. Nicholson. Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History. Columbia University Press. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-0-231-52642-5. 
  18. ^ Thera, Nyanaponika. "Buddhism and the God-idea". The Vision of the Dhamma. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. In Buddhist literature, the belief in a creator god (issara-nimmana-vada) is frequently mentioned and rejected, along with other causes wrongly adduced to explain the origin of the world; as, for instance, world-soul, time, nature, etc. God-belief, however, is placed in the same category as those morally destructive wrong views which deny the kammic results of action, assume a fortuitous origin of man and nature, or teach absolute determinism. These views are said to be altogether pernicious, having definite bad results due to their effect on ethical conduct. 
  19. ^ Approaching the Dhamma: Buddhist Texts and Practices in South and Southeast Asia by Anne M. Blackburn (editor), Jeffrey Samuels (editor). Pariyatti Publishing: 2003 ISBN 1-928706-19-3 pg 129
  20. ^ Bhikku Bodhi (2007). "III.1, III.2, III.5". In Access To Insight. The All Embracing Net of Views: Brahmajala Sutta. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. 
  21. ^ Thanissaro Bhikku (1997). "Acintita Sutta: Unconjecturable". AN 4.77. Access To Insight. Conjecture about [the origin, etc., of] the world is an unconjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness & vexation to anyone who conjectured about it. 
  22. ^ Thanissaro Bhikku (1998). "Cula-Malunkyovada Sutta: The Shorter Instructions to Malunkya". Access To Insight. It's just as if a man were wounded with an arrow thickly smeared with poison. His friends & companions, kinsmen & relatives would provide him with a surgeon, and the man would say, 'I won't have this arrow removed until I know whether the man who wounded me was a noble warrior, a priest, a merchant, or a worker.' He would say, 'I won't have this arrow removed until I know the given name & clan name of the man who wounded me... until I know whether he was tall, medium, or short... The man would die and those things would still remain unknown to him. In the same way, if anyone were to say, 'I won't live the holy life under the Blessed One as long as he does not declare to me that 'The cosmos is eternal,'... or that 'After death a Tathagata neither exists nor does not exist,' the man would die and those things would still remain undeclared by the Tathagata. 
  23. ^ Sangave 2001, p. 164.
  24. ^ David J. Kalupahana (1 January 2008). Ethics in Early Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-81-208-3280-0. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  25. ^ K. R. Norman (1983). Pāli Literature: Including the Canonical Literature in Prakrit and Sanskrit of All the Hīnayāna Schools of Buddhism. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 40. ISBN 978-3-447-02285-9. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  26. ^ a b Surendranath Dasgupta (1992). A History of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 106. ISBN 978-81-208-0412-8. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  27. ^ A Comparative History of Ideas. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 1992. p. 152. ISBN 978-81-208-1004-4. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  28. ^ a b Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press for the Royal Asiatic Society. 1862. p. 307. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  29. ^ a b Valmiki. "Ayodhya Kanda". Ramayana. p. Sarga 108–109. 
  30. ^ a b Mahadev Moreshwar Kunte (1880). The Vicissitudes of Âryan Civilization in India: An Essay, which Treats of the History of the Vedic and Buddhistic Polities, Explaining Their Origin, Prosperity, and Decline. printed at the Oriental Printing Press by N. W. Ghumre. p. 449. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  31. ^ Sanujit Ghose (1 January 2004). Legend of Ram: Antiquity to Janmabhumi Debate. Bibliophile South Asia. p. 140. ISBN 978-81-85002-33-0. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  32. ^ James L. Fitzgerald (15 February 2003). The Mahabharata, Volume 7: Book 11: The Book of the Women Book 12: The Book of Peace. University of Chicago Press. pp. 255–258. ISBN 978-0-226-25250-6. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  33. ^ Arvind Sharma (1 January 2007). Essays on the Mahābhārata. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. pp. 309–. ISBN 978-81-208-2738-7. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  34. ^ Warren Matthews (22 December 2011). World Religions, 7th ed. Cengage Learning. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-111-83472-2. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  35. ^ Carl Sagan (1985). "Chapter 10". Cosmos. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-33135-9. 
  36. ^ "Tracing the history of an unknown radical group". The Hindu. 5 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  37. ^ Kumar, Pramod (1992-01-01). Towards Understanding Communalism. Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development. ISBN 9788185835174. 
  38. ^ "The man who thought Gandhi a sissy". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-01-23. 
  39. ^ Sankar Ghose (1993). Jawaharlal Nehru, a Biography. Allied Publishers. p. 332. ISBN 978-81-7023-369-5. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  40. ^ Dale McGowan (7 September 2012). Voices of Unbelief: Documents from Atheists and Agnostics. ABC-CLIO. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-59884-978-3. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  41. ^ a b Wiel Veugelers (16 November 2011). Education and Humanism: Linking Autonomy and Humanity. Springer. p. 114. ISBN 978-94-6091-577-2. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  42. ^ a b Johannes Quack (22 November 2011). Disenchanting India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India. Oxford University Press. pp. 89, 338. ISBN 978-0-19-981260-8. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  43. ^ Robyn E. Lebron (January 2012). Searching for Spiritual Unity...Can There Be Common Ground?. CrossBooks. p. 532. ISBN 978-1-4627-1262-5. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  44. ^ a b "In India, atheism finds its voice". DNA India. 13 October 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  45. ^ "The Arguing Indian". Cal Alumni Association. Retrieved 2016-01-23. 
  46. ^ Sen, Amartya (2001-11-23). "A World Not Neatly Divided". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-01-23. 
  47. ^ "News & Broadcast - Amartya Sen Speaks on Culture at World Bank". web.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-01-23. 
  48. ^ "Rediff On The NeT Business News: Market economy not the panacea, says Sen". www.rediff.com. Retrieved 2016-01-23. 
  49. ^ a b c "Indian atheists seek recognition in the land of a million gods". The Times of India. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  50. ^ William Dalrymple (18 January 2010). "The Glitter In The Godliness". Outlook India. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  51. ^ "Don’t vote for those who preach atheism: Kerala church body". The Indian Express. 24 March 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  52. ^ "Kerala Church makes a poll sermon". The Hindu Business Line. 12 April 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  53. ^ "Church blow to ‘atheist’ parties". The Telegraph (India). 26 July 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  54. ^ "FIR against rationalist for questioning ‘miracle’". Mumbai Mirror. 17 April 2012. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012. 
  55. ^ "Jesus wept … oh, it's bad plumbing. Indian rationalist targets 'miracles'". The Guardian. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  56. ^ "Think free and hug an atheist this Friday". DNA India. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  57. ^ "Give the atheist closest to you a hug". The New Indian Express. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  58. ^ a b "Rationalist Dabholkar shot dead". The Hindu. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  59. ^ "Teacher cannot be forced to fold hands in school prayers: Bombay high court". The Times of India. 2 November 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  60. ^ Constitution of India, Section 28 (a), 1950
  61. ^ "Pray, what wrong did I do, asks atheist teacher". The Hindu. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  62. ^ "Bombay High Court answers atheist teacher's prayer; asks school to pay dues". DNA India. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013. 
  63. ^ "Citizen can declare that he does not belong to any religion: Bombay High Court". India Today. 26 Sep 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  64. ^ "Citizen can declare that he does not belong to any religion: Bombay High Court". The Indian Express. 24 Sep 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  65. ^ "Rationalists fight superstition with dignity and nunchakus". The Times of India. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  66. ^ "Confrontation in the Twilight zone". Business Standard. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  67. ^ "Taslima on IBNLive chat: 'India is not a theocracy'". IBNLive. 18 January 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  68. ^ "Muslim body announces Rs 5 lakh for Taslima's head". DNA India. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  69. ^ "Cleric files FIR against Taslima Nasreen's anti-fatwa tweet". The Times of India. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  70. ^ "Rationalist leader's house attacked". The Hindu. 4 July 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  71. ^ "Rationalist Pansare is dead". Deccan Herald. 21 February 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 
  72. ^ "Rationalist Kalburgi Shot Dead in Dharwad". The New Indian Express. 31 August 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 
  73. ^ "Indian Scholar Who Spoke Out Against Idol Worship Is Shot Dead". Time (magazine). 31 August 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 
  74. ^ "Writer Bhagwan receives threat letter". The Hindu. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 
  75. ^ "In Karnataka, Another Writer Gets Threat Letter After Scholar MM Kalburgi's Murder". NDTV. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 
  76. ^ "2.87 million Indians have no faith, census reveals for first time". The Times of India. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015. 
  77. ^ "World Values Survey (2006) English source requested" (in Japanese). Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  78. ^ "More Indians have stopped believing in God: Survey". The Times of India. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  79. ^ "Indian scientists are secular, but religious: Survey". MSN. 16 May 2008. Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  80. ^ "Worldviews and Opinions of Scientists India 2007-08". Trinity College. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  81. ^ "God save Indian science". Telegraph India. 10 June 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  82. ^ "Indian scientists significantly more religious than UK scientists". (e)Science News. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Atheist Siddaramaiah and God's changing role in politics". Rediff.com. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  84. ^ John Abraham. "John Abraham - FAQs". Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  85. ^ Anurag Kashyap. "Anurag Kashyap - FAQs". Reddit. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 
  86. ^ Pronoti Datta (15 July 2013). "Naval Gazing". Mumbai Boss. Retrieved 5 October 2015. 
  87. ^ "I don't believe in God: Amartya". The Indian Express. 27 December 2007. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  88. ^ "Supernatural syndrome is catching up". The Times of India. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  89. ^ Geerpuram Nadadur Srinivasa Raghavan (2009). Discovering the Rigveda. Gyan Publishing House. p. 118. ISBN 978-81-7835-778-2. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  90. ^ "Elements In Each Religion Nourish Violence’". Tehelka. 16 February 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  91. ^ "Murlidhar Devidas ("Baba") Amte, champion of India's lepers and outcastes, died on February 9th, aged 93". The Economist. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2013. Atheist though he was, he saw the Narmada as a goddess whose beauty should be decorated only with micro-dams on a human scale. 
  92. ^ "I Am: Baichung Bhutia". The Times of India. 10 June 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  93. ^ Bhagat Singh; Bhupendra Hooja (2007). Bhagat Singh, on the Path of Liberation. Bharathi Puthakalayam. p. 127. ISBN 978-81-89909-05-5. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  94. ^ Goparaju Ramachandra Rao. Atheism: Questions and Answers. Vijayawada. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  95. ^ Lala Har Dayal (1 January 1977). Hints For Self Culture. Jaico Publishing House. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-81-7224-283-1. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  96. ^ "Parents impose their belief system on children". 29 July 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  97. ^ "Great values come from secular thought: Irfan Habib". The Times of India. 25 June 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  98. ^ John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (1934). Fact and Faith. Watts & Company. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  99. ^ "Atheist Shettar to be sworn in minister today". DNA India. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2013. 
  100. ^ "Cast In A Completely Different Mould". The Indian Express. 29 December 2002. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  101. ^ "Panel charts our religious journey". DNA India. 12 August 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  102. ^ S. P. Agrawal; J. C. Aggarwal (1 January 1989). Nehru on Social Issues. Concept Publishing Company. p. 12. ISBN 978-81-7022-207-1. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  103. ^ "An unusual friendship". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 September 2013. During the course of writing a biography on Mother Teresa, I asked Chief Minister Jyoti Basu what he, a Communist and atheist, could possibly have in common with Mother Teresa for whom God was everything. With a smile that reached his eyes, he said: 'We both share a love for the poor.' 
  104. ^ Si. En Rāmacandran (2001). K. Shivarama Karanth. Sahitya Akademi. p. 27. ISBN 978-81-260-1071-4. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  105. ^ http://www.pmu.edu/chandetails.html
  106. ^ "Don’t let mediocrity be the standard:Kamal". The Times of India. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  107. ^ "He has made history by writing it". Indian Express. 7 May 1999. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  108. ^ "Lavanam Address Indian Secularism". The Harvard Crimson. 8 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2013. 
  109. ^ "Anti-Hindu rhetoric nothing new for atheist DMK chief". Indian Express. 12 July 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  110. ^ "Atheist Karunanidhi visits temple". IBNLive. 16 February 2008. Retrieved 2 September 2013. 
  111. ^ "Act in a manner acceptable to God: Karunanidhi". Rediff.com. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  112. ^ Bayly, Christopher Alan (10 November 2011). Recovering Liberties: Indian Thought in the Age of Liberalism and Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-139-50518-5. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  113. ^ "I Am: Mani Shankar Aiyar". The Times of India. 7 January 2006. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  114. ^ "This Meera’s raga". Indian Express. 3 May 2005. Archived from the original on 16 May 2005. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  115. ^ Santimay Chatterjee, Enakshi Chatterjee (1984). Meghnad Saha, scientist with a vision. National Book Trust, India. p. 5. Even though he later came to be known as an atheist, Saha was well-versed in all religious texts— though his interest in them was purely academic. 
  116. ^ Shashi Tharoor (16 October 2007). Nehru: The Invention of India. Penguin Books Limited. pp. 1899, 1902, 1895. ISBN 978-93-5118-018-0. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  117. ^ "Narendra Dabholkar: A rationalist to the core". DNA India. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  118. ^ Narendra Nayak (10 October 2010). "Swearing by God: An Atheist’s Experiences In Indian Courts". Nirmukta. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  119. ^ Pushpa Mittra Bhargava (4 February 2008). "Why am I an atheist?". International Humanist and Ethical Union. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  120. ^ Gail Omvedt (1 January 2006). Dalit Visions: The Anti-caste Movement and the Construction of an Indian Identity. Orient Blackswan. p. 56. ISBN 978-81-250-2895-6. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  121. ^ "About: Prabir Ghosh". Science and Rationalists' Association. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  122. ^ Aroon Tikekar; Aruṇa Ṭikekara (1 January 2006). The Cloister's Pale: A Biography of the University of Mumbai. Popular Prakashan. p. 107. ISBN 978-81-7991-293-5. Retrieved 9 September 2013. 
  123. ^ "Rationalist International Bulletin 21". 21 October 1999. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  124. ^ "I Am: Rajat Kapoor". The Times of India. 6 May 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  125. ^ "I Am: Rajeev Khandelwal". The Times of India. 10 June 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  126. ^ Rahul Bose (17 September 2006). "I Am Rahul Bose". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  127. ^ "RGV in Chennai to promote Phoonk". Sify.com. 18 April 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2008. I have always been an atheist ever since I can remember. Being an atheist, I believe there is a rational and scientific explanation to everything. 
  128. ^ "An Indian atheist takes on the Islamist world in Indonesia". The Jakarta Post. 10 August 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  129. ^ http://www.pbs.org/moyers/faithandreason/print/faithandreason101_print.html |url= missing title (help). Bill Moyers on Faith & Reason. 23 June 2006. PBS. 
  130. ^ "Periyar survives controversies, censor cuts". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  131. ^ "Partition Prodigy". Tehelka. 19 April 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2013. “I saw widespread rape and murder on both sides. It went on for six months. So when I sat down to paint, the inhumanity of man to man became my first theme,” says Gujral, an atheist who hates all organised religion. 
  132. ^ Satyajit Ray (2007). Satyajit Ray: Interviews. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-57806-937-8. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  133. ^ "Belief in God is superstition: Lagoo". Sakaal Times. 2 January 2010. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  134. ^ "Siddaramaiah: My conscience is my God". Deccan Chronicle. 16 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  135. ^ "'Kashmiris speak of azadi passionately even in hospitals'". The Times of India. 26 September 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2013. We are atheists but we have full respect for people's faith. 
  136. ^ "I still fly kites even though I lost my arm flying one: Subhash Kapoor". The Times of India. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  137. ^ "Patriarchal societies have always felt the need to control and curb women". Rediff.com. 8 August 2001. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  138. ^ Henry F. Schaefer (2003). Science and Christianity: Conflict Or Coherence?. The Apollos Trust. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-9742975-0-7. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  139. ^ "Getting to know Suhasini Maniratnam". Rediff.com. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 6 September 2013. 
  140. ^ "Meet Mumbai's Piper at the gates of truth". DNA India. 4 October 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  141. ^ "Thilakan suspended; says Mammootty’s statement is eyewash". UK Malayalee. 1 March 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  142. ^ "God does not exist, says Thilakan". The New Indian Express. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  143. ^ "Verghese Kurien, father of India’s "white revolution", died on September 9th, aged 90". The Economist. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2013. 
  144. ^ "Noted playwright Vijay Tendulkar dead". Rediff. 19 May 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]