List of ichthyosaur genera

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This list of ichthyosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the order Ichthyosauria or the parent clade Ichthyopterygia, excluding purely vernacular terms. The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered ichthyopterygian. Non-ichthyosaur ichthyopterygians shall be noted as such. This list contains 90 genera.

Scope and terminology[edit]

There is no official, canonical list of ichthyosaur genera but one of the most thorough attempts can be found at the "Ichthyosauromorpha" section of Mikko Haaramo's Phylogeny Archive.[1]

Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:

  • Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN, but junior synonyms cannot be used again, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
  • Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen. In this case, these nomina nuda will be deleted from this list in favor of the published name.
  • Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. As preoccupied names are not valid generic names, they will also go unitalicized on this list.
  • Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation, this term is not used on this list.

The List[edit]

Genus Authors Year Status Age Location Notes

Acamptonectes[2]

Fischer
et al.

2012

Valid

eK[2]
to
lK[2]

Europe[2]

Actiosaurus

Sauvage

1883

Disputed

Europe

Aegirosaurus[3]

Bardet
Fernández

2000

Valid

lJ[3]

Europe[3]

A 2 meter long[3] ophthalmosaurid[4] whose remains were discovered in the Solnhofen limestone and mistaken for a new Ichthyosaurus species. In 2000 scientists concluded that the fossil material should be assigned to a new genus.

Anhuisaurus[1]

Chen

1985

Jr. synonym

N/A

N/A

Preoccupied by lizard genus Anhuisaurus Hou, 1974. Junior synonym of Chaohusaurus.

Arthropterygius

Maxwell

2010

Valid

lJ

North America

Athabascasaurus

Druckenmiller
Maxwell

2010

Valid

eK

North America

Barracudasauroides

Maisch

2010

Valid

mT

Asia

Besanosaurus[5]

Dal Sasso
Pinna

1996

Valid

mT[5]

Europe[5]

Brachypterygius[6][7]

von Huene

1922

Valid

lJ[6]

Europe[8][9]

A lJ Ophthalmosaurid closely related to Platypterygius and Caypullisaurus.[4] Fossils have been found in England and European Russia.[8][9]

Californosaurus[6][10]

Kuhn

1934

Valid

lT[6]

N. America

A 3-meter teretocnemid who is also the basal-most known Euichthyosaurian. Its remains were first recovered from the Carnian Lower Hosselkus Limestone of California. Californosaurus has also been known as Shastasaurus perrini and Delphinosaurus perrini.

Callawayia[11]

Maische
Matzke

2000

Valid

Cartorhynchus[12]

Motani
et al.

2015

Valid eT Asia Non-ichthyosaur ichthyosauriform

Caypullisaurus[6][7]

Fernández

1997

Valid

lJ[6]

to

eK[citation needed]

S. America

A large ophthalmosaurid closely related to Platypterygius and Brachypterygius.[4] It was discovered in strata dating to the lJ - eK of Argentina.

Chacaicosaurus[10]

Fernández

1994

Valid

S. America[9]

A Bajocian genus whose fossils have been found in Argentina.[9] Possibly a stenopterygiid.

Chaohusaurus[1][6]

Young
Dong

1972

Valid

eT[6]

Asia

A primitive ichthyosaur that retained a lizard-like body discovered in Chaohu, China. It was also one of the smallest ichthyosaurs, being from 70 to 180 cm long and an estimated weight of 10 kg.

Chensaurus[1][6]

Mazin
Suteethorn
Buffetaut
Jaeger
Helmcke-Ingavat

1991

Jr. synonym

N/A

N/A

Junior synonym of Chaohusaurus.

Chonespondylus[6]

Leidy

1868

Valid

mT[6]

Contectopalatus[13]

Maische
Matzke

1998

Disputed

mT[13]

Europe[13]

A strange mT mixosaurid with a high crest of bone on its head and a 5-meter body. It was thought to be a Mixosaurus species for some time until given its own genus in 1998. Some experts have felt that the splitting was unjustified.

Cryopterygius[14]

Druckenmiller
et al.

2012[14]

Valid

lJ[14]

Europe[14]

Cymbospondylus[6][11]

Leidy

1868

Valid

eT[6]

to

mT[6]

One of the largest ichthyosaurs, adults ranged in length from 6 m (20 ft) up to 10 m (33 ft) long. It was one of the least fish-like of the ichthyosaurs, lacking a dorsal fin and fluked tail. Consequently, Cymbospondylus probably swam by wriggling its body from side to side like a modern sea snake.

Dearcmhara[15]

Brusatte
et al.

2015

Valid

eJ to mJ

Europe

Delphinosaurus[6]

Merriam

1905

Jr. synonym

N/A

N/A

Junior synonym of Californosaurus.

Eretmorhipis[16]

Chen
et al.

2015

Valid

eT

Asia

Non-ichthyosaur ichthyopterygian

Eurhinosaurus[6][10]

Abel

1909

Valid

eJ[6]

Europe

A genus exceeding 6 m in length[9] from the Sinemurian to Toarcian of England and Germany. Eurhinosaurus was built like a regular ichthyosaur, with a fish-like body including a large eyes, dorsal and caudal fins, but had one distinct feature that set it apart from other ichthyosaurs; its upper jaw was twice as long as the lower jaw and covered with sidewards-pointing 'teeth', like a sawfish's.

Eurypterygius

Jaekel

1904

Jr. synonym

N/A

N/A

Junior synonym of Ichthyosaurus.

Excalibosaurus

McGowan

1986

Valid

eJ[6]

Lived during the Sinemurian stage in what is now England. It is characterized by the extreme elongation of the rostrum, giving the animal a swordfish-like look. Excalibosaurus is known from two skeletons. The holotype was from a juvenile with an estimated body length of 4 m. The estimated body length of the second specimen, discovered in 1996, is 7 m.

Gengasaurus Paparella et al. In press In press lJ Europe

Grendelius[6]

McGowan

1976

Jr. synonym

N/A

N/A

Junior synonym of Brachypterygius.

Grippia[1][6]

Wiman

1930

Valid

eT[6]

Asia
Greenland
Japan
N. America

A small ichthyosaur only 1-1.5 m long, its fossils have been found along the coasts of Greenland, China, Japan, and Canada.

Gulosaurus[17]

Cuthbertson et al.

2013

Valid

eT[17]

N. America[17]

A grippidian. The type species is Gulosaurus helmi.[17]

Guizhouichthyosaurus

Cao
Luo

2000

Valid

lT

Asia

Himalayasaurus

Young
Dong

1972

Valid

lT

Asia

Hudsonelpidia

McGowan

1995

Valid

lT[6]

Hupehsuchus[1]

Carroll
Dong

1991

Valid

mT

Asia

Non-ichthyosaur ichthyopterygian from the mT of China. The type species is H. nanchangensis.

Ichthyosaurus[6][10]

De la Beche
Conybeare

1821

Valid

eJ[6]

Isfjordosaurus

Motani

1999

Valid

Non-ichthyosaur ichthyopterygian.

Janusaurus[18]

Roberts et al.

2014

Valid

lJ[18]

Europe[18]

An ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur. The type species is Janusaurus lundi.[18]

Leninia[19]

Fischer et al.

2014

Valid

eK[19]

Europe[19]

An ophthalmosaurine ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur. The type species is Leninia stellans.[19]

Leptocheirus

Merriam

1903

Valid[dubious ]

Leptonectes

McGowan

1996

Valid

Europe[9]

Lived from the Rhaetian to Pliensbachian in what is now Belgium, England and Germany.[9]

Leptopterygius

Huene

1922

Valid

lT[6] to eJ[6]

Macgowania

Motani

1999

Valid

Macropterygius

Huene

1923

Jr. synonym

N/A

N/A

Junior synonym of Aegirosaurus.

Maiaspondylus[7]

Maxwell
Caldwell

2006

Valid

lK[7]

N. America[7]

Malawania[20]

Fischer et al.

2013

Valid

eK[20]

Asia[20]

A basal member of Thunnosauria. The type species is Malawania anachronus.[20]

Merriamia[6]

Boulenger

1904

Jr. synonym N/A N/A

Junior synonym of Toretocnemus.

Metashastasaurus

Nicholls
Manabe

2001

Jr. synonym N/A N/A

Junior synonym of Callawayia.

Mikadocephalus[11][21]

Maisch
Matzke

1998

Valid

Europe[21]

Mixosaurus[6][11]

Baur

1887

Valid

mT[6]

Mollesaurus

Fernandez

1999

Valid

mJ

S. America

Myopterygius

von Huene

1922

Syn.

Synonymy of Platypterygius

Muiscasaurus

Maxwell
Dick
Padilla
Parra

2015

Valid

eK

S. America

Nanchangosaurus

Wang

1959

Valid

mT[6]

Nannopterygius

Huene

1922

Valid

lJ[6]

Europe

Nannopterygius is a genus of ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur that lived in from the Kimmeridgian to Tithonian. Fossils have been found in England and Germany.[9]

Omphalosaurus

Merriam

1906

Valid

eT

Europe

An extinct genus of marine reptile from Spitsbergen. It has been considered an ichthyopterygian, however a study by Motani in 2000 showed that it lacks the basal synapomorphies of Ichthyopterygia. As such, its exact position in the diapsid tree is currently unknown.

Ophthalmosaurus[7]

Seeley

1874

Valid

mJ[6]

to

lJ[6]

Europe[citation needed]
N. America[citation needed]
S. America[7]

Otschevia

Efimov

1997

Jr. synonym N/A N/A

Junior synonym of Brachypterygius.

Palvennia [14]

Druckenmiller
et al.

2012

Valid

lJ[14]

Europe[14]

Panjiangsaurus

Chen
Chang

2003

Jr. synonym

N/A

N/A

Junior synonym of Guizhouichthyosaurus.[22][23]

Paraophthalmosaurus

Arkhangelsky

1997

Jr. synonym N/A N/A

Junior synonym of Ophthalmosaurus.

Parvinatator

Nicholls
Brinkman

1995

Valid

Non-ichthyosaur ichthyopterygian.

Pessopteryx

Wiman

1910

Valid

Pessosaurus

Wiman

1910

Valid

mT[6]

Phalarodon

Merriam

1910

Valid

mT[6]

Asia[24]

Phantomosaurus[6]

Maisch
Matzke

2000

Valid

Platypterygius

Kuhn

1946

Valid

lK[6]

Plutonisaurus

Efimov

1997

Jr. synonym N/A N/A

Junior synonym of Platypterygius.

Proteosaurus

Home

1819

Jr. synonym N/A N/A

Junior synonym of Ichthyosaurus.

Protoichthyosaurus

Appleby

1979

Jr. synonym N/A N/A

Junior synonym of Ichthyosaurus.

Qianichthyosaurus

Li

1999

Valid

Sangiorgiosaurus

Brinkmann

1998

Valid

Sclerocormus

Jiang et al.

2016

Valid eT Asia

Non-ichthyosaur ichthyopterygian.

Shastasaurus

Merriam

1895

Valid

mT[22] to lT[6]

Asia
Europe
N. America

Shastasaurus is a genus of ichthyosaur from whose remains have been found in United States, Canada, Mexico, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Spitsbergen and China.[22]

Shonisaurus

Camp

1976

Valid

lT[6]

?Asia
N. America

The largest genus of ichthyosaur that has yet been found. Fossils of Shonisaurus were first found in Nevada in 1920. It lived during the Norian stage of the late Triassic period and had a long pointed mouth that contained teeth only at the front end. S. popularis specimens reached a length of 15 meters (49 feet). A second species, S. sikanniensis, was later discovered in British Columbia and has an estimated length of 21 meters (69 feet).

Simbirskia

Otschev
Efimov

1985

Valid

Simbirskiasaurus

Otschev
Efimov

1985

Valid

eK[6]

Sisteronia[25]

Fischer et al.

2014

Valid

eK [25]

Europe [25]

A platypterygiine ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur. The type species is Sisteronia seeleyi. [25]

Stenopterygius

Jaekel

1904

Valid

eJ[6]

Europe

Lived from the Toarcian to Aalenian from England, France, Germany and Luxembourg. Maximum length was 4 m.[9] One famous fossil is that of a mother and baby that died in childbirth. This proved that ichthyosaur infants were born tail-first, just like cetaceans, to prevent them from drowning before fully clearing the birth canal.

Suevoleviathan

Maisch

1998

Valid

Svalbardosaurus

Mazin

1981

Nomen dubium[1]

eT[6]

Sveltonectes

Fischer
Masure
Arkhangelsky
Godefroit

2011

Valid

eK

Europe

Temnodontosaurus

Lydekker

1889

Valid

eJ[6]

Europe

Lived from the Hettangian to Toarcian in England and Germany. It was a large genus, exceeded 12 meters (39 feet) in length.[9] Temnodontosaurus eyes were approximately 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter making them the largest of any known vertebrate[citation needed].

Thaisaurus

Mazin
Sutetthorn
Buffetaut
Jaeger
Helmcke-Ignavat

1991

Valid

Non-ichthyosaur ichthyopterygian.

Thalattoarchon[26] Fröbisch

et al.

2013 Valid mT[26] North America[26]

Toretocnemus

Merriam

1902

Valid

lT[6]

Undorosaurus

Efimov

1997

Valid

lJ

Russia

Utatsusaurus[1][6]

Shikoma

1978

Valid

eT[6]

Non-ichthyosaur ichthyopterygian.

Wahlisaurus Lomax 2016 Valid eJ Europe

Wimanius

Maisch
Matzke

1988

Valid

Xinminosaurus

Jiang et al

2008

Valid

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Haaramo, Mikko (14 July 2004). "Ichthyosauromorpha". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 9 October 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c d Fischer,V.; Maisch, M.W.; Naish, D.; Kosma, R.; Liston, J.; Joger, U.; Krüger, F.J.; Pérez,J.P.; Tainsh, J.; Appleby, R.M. (2012). "New Ophthalmosaurid Ichthyosaurs from the European Lower Cretaceous Demonstrate Extensive Ichthyosaur Survival across the Jurassic–Cretaceous Boundary". PLoS ONE. 7 (1): e29234. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029234. PMC 3250416Freely accessible. PMID 22235274. 
  3. ^ a b c d Bardet, N; Fernández, M (2000). "A new ichthyosaur from the Upper Jurassic lithographic limestones of Bavaria". Journal of Paleontology. 74 (3): 503–511. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2000)074<0503:aniftu>2.0.co;2. 
  4. ^ a b c Fernández, M. (2007). "Redescription and phylogenetic position of Caypullisaurus (Ichthyosauria: Ophthalmosauridae)". Journal of Paleontology. 81 (2): 368–375. doi:10.1666/0022-3360(2007)81[368:RAPPOC]2.0.CO;2. 
  5. ^ a b c Dal Sasso, Cristiano and Giovanni Pinna, 1996. Besanosaurus leptorhynchus n. gen. n. sp., a new shastasaurid ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic of Besano (Lombardy, N. Italy). Paleontologia Lombarda, Nuova seire Volume IV: 1-23.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera (entry on Reptilia)". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. Retrieved 2008-09-28. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Haaramo, Mikko (11 March 2008). "Ophthalmosauria". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 9 October 2008. 
  8. ^ a b Efimov, VM. (1998). "An Ichthyosaur, Otschevia pseudoscythica gen. et sp. nov from the Upper Jurassic Strata of the Ulyanovsk Region (Volga Region)". Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal. 32 (2): 187–191. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Maisch, MW; Matzke, AT. (2000). "The Ichthyosauria". Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie). 298: 1–159. 
  10. ^ a b c d Haaramo, Mikko (11 March 2004). "Euichthyosauria". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 9 October 2008. 
  11. ^ a b c d Haaramo, Mikko (11 March 2008). "Ichthyosauria". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 9 October 2008. 
  12. ^ Ryosuke Motani; Da-Yong Jiang; Guan-Bao Chen; Andrea Tintori; Olivier Rieppel; Cheng Ji & Jian-Dong Huang (2015). "A basal ichthyosauriform with a short snout from the Lower Triassic of China". Nature. 517 (7535): 485–488. doi:10.1038/nature13866. 
  13. ^ a b c Maisch; Matzke, A. T. (2000). "The mixosaurid ichthyosaur Contectopalatus from the Middle Triassic of the German Basin". Lethaia. 33: 71–74. doi:10.1080/00241160050150186. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Patrick S. Druckenmiller; Jørn H. Hurum; Espen M. Knutsen & Hans Arne Nakrem (2012). "Two new ophthalmosaurids (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from the Agardhfjellet Formation (Upper Jurassic: Volgian/Tithonian), Svalbard, Norway" (PDF). Norwegian Journal of Geology. 92 (2–3): 311–339. 
  15. ^ Stephen L. Brusatte; Mark T. Young; Thomas J. Challands; Neil D. L. Clark; Valentin Fischer; Nicholas C. Fraser; Jeff J. Liston; Colin C. J. MacFadyen; Dugald A. Ross; Stig Walsh & Mark Wilkinson (2015). "Ichthyosaurs from the Jurassic of Skye, Scotland". Scottish Journal of Geology. 51 (1): 43–55. doi:10.1144/sjg2014-018. 
  16. ^ Xiao-hong Chen; Ryosuke Motani; Long Cheng; Da-yong Jiang & Olivier Rieppel (2015). "A New Specimen of Carroll's Mystery Hupehsuchian from the Lower Triassic of China". PLoS ONE. 10 (5): e0126024. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126024. PMC 4446317Freely accessible. PMID 26017585. 
  17. ^ a b c d Robin S. Cuthbertson; Anthony P. Russell & Jason S. Anderson (2013). "Cranial morphology and relationships of a new grippidian (Ichthyopterygia) from the Vega-Phroso Siltstone Member (Lower Triassic) of British Columbia, Canada". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 33 (4): 831–847. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.755989. 
  18. ^ a b c d Aubrey Jane Roberts; Patrick Scott Druckenmiller; Glenn-Peter Sætre & Jørn Harald Hurum (2014). "A New Upper Jurassic Ophthalmosaurid Ichthyosaur from the Slottsmøya Member, Agardhfjellet Formation of Central Spitsbergen". PLoS ONE. 9 (8): e103152. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103152. PMC 4118863Freely accessible. PMID 25084533. 
  19. ^ a b c d Valentin Fischer; Maxim S. Arkhangelsky; Gleb N. Uspensky; Ilya M. Stenshin & Pascal Godefroit (2014). "A new Lower Cretaceous ichthyosaur from Russia reveals skull shape conservatism within Ophthalmosaurinae". Geological Magazine. 151 (1): 60–70. doi:10.1017/S0016756812000994. 
  20. ^ a b c d Valentin Fischer; Robert M. Appleby; Darren Naish; Jeff Liston; James B. Riding; Stephen Brindley & Pascal Godefroit (2013). "A basal thunnosaurian from Iraq reveals disparate phylogenetic origins for Cretaceous ichthyosaurs". Biology Letters. 9 (4): 20130021. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2013.0021. PMC 3730615Freely accessible. PMID 23676653. 
  21. ^ a b Maisch, M. W,. and Matzke A. T., 1998, Mikadocephalus gracilirostris n. gen., n. sp., a new ichthyosaur from the Grenzbitumenzone (Anisian-Ladinian) of Mont San Giorgio (Switzerland): Palaontologische Zeitschrift, v. 71, n. ¾, p. 267-289.
  22. ^ a b c Shang Qing-Hua; Li Chun (2009). "On the occurrence of the ichthyosaur Shastasaurus in the Guanling Biota (Late Triassic), Guizhou, China" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 47 (3): 178–193. 
  23. ^ Sander, P.M.; Chen, X.; Cheng, L.; Wang, X. (2011). Claessens, Leon, ed. "Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs". PLoS ONE. 6 (5): e19480. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019480. PMC 3100301Freely accessible. PMID 21625429. 
  24. ^ Jiang, D.-Y.; Schmitz, L.; Motani, R.; Hao, W.-C.; Sun, Y.-L. (2007). "The mixosaurid ichthyosaur Phalarodon cf. P. fraasi from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou Province, China". Journal of Paleontology. 81 (3): 602–605. doi:10.1666/05092.1. 
  25. ^ a b c d Valentin Fischer; Nathalie Bardet; Myette Guiomar & Pascal Godefroit (2014). "High Diversity in Cretaceous Ichthyosaurs from Europe Prior to Their Extinction". PLoS ONE. 9 (1): e84709. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084709. PMC 3897400Freely accessible. PMID 24465427. 
  26. ^ a b c Nadia B. Fröbisch; Jörg Fröbisch; P. Martin Sander; Lars Schmitz & Olivier Rieppel (2013). "Macropredatory ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic and the origin of modern trophic networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110: 1393–1397. doi:10.1073/pnas.1216750110. PMC 3557033Freely accessible. PMID 23297200. 

External links[edit]