List of plesiosaur genera

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This list of plesiosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the order Plesiosauria, excluding purely vernacular terms. The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered plesiosaurs.

Scope and terminology[edit]

There is no official, canonical list of plesiosaur genera but one of the most thorough attempts can be found on the Plesiosauria section of Mikko Haaramo's Phylogeny Archive;[1] also pertinent is the Plesiosaur Genera section at Adam Stuart Smith's Plesiosaur Directory.[2]

Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:

  • Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN, but junior synonyms cannot be used again, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
  • Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen. In this case, these nomina nuda will be deleted from this list in favor of the published name.
  • Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. As preoccupied names are not valid generic names, they will also go unitalicized on this list.
  • Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation, this term is not used on this list.

The list[edit]

Genus Authors Year Status Age Location Notes
Abyssosaurus[3] Berezin
2011 Valid. eK Europe
Albertonectes[4] Kubo

Mitchell
Henderson

2012 Valid. lK North America

Alexeyisaurus

Sennikov
Arkhangelsky

2010

Valid.

lT

Europe

"Alzadasaurus"

Welles

1943

Anguanax[5] Cau

Fanti

2015 Valid. lJ Europe
Anningasaura[6] Vincent

Benson

2012 Valid. eJ Europe

Apatomerus

Williston

1903

Valid.

eK

Aphrosaurus

Welles

1943

Valid.

lK

"Apractocleidus"

Smellie

1916

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Cryptoclidus.

Aptychodon

Reuss

1855

Valid.

lK

Archaeonectrus

Owen

1865

Valid.

eJ

Europe

Aristonectes

Cabrera

1941

Valid.

lK

South America, Antarctica

Attenborosaurus

Bakker

1993

Valid.

eJ

Europe

Atychodracon

Smith

2015

Valid.

Europe
Avalonnectes[7] Benson

Evans
Druckenmiller

2012 Valid. eJ Europe

Bathyspondylus

Delair

1982

Valid.

lJ

Bishanopliosaurus

Dong

1980

Valid.

eJ

Borealonectes

Sato
Wu

1980

Valid.

mJ

Brachauchenius

Williston

1903

Valid.

eK to lK

Brancasaurus

Wegner

1914

Valid.

eK

Brimosaurus

Leidy

1855

Valid.

lK

Callawayasaurus

Carpenter

1999

Valid.

eK

Cardiocorax[8]

Araújo
et al.

2015

Valid.

lK

Africa

Ceraunosaurus

Thurmond

1968

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Trinacromerum.

Cimoliasaurus

Leidy

1851

Valid.

lK

Colymbosaurus

Seeley

1874

Valid.

lJ

Crymocetus

Cope

1869

Valid.

eK

Cryonectes[9]

Vincent

Bardet
Mattioli

2013 Valid. eJ Europe

Cryptoclidus

Seeley

1892

Valid.

mJ

Europe
Djupedalia[10] Knutsen

Druckenmiller
Hurum

2012 Valid. lJ Europe

Dolichorhynchops

Williston

1903

Valid.

North America

Dravidosaurus

Yadagiri
Ayyasami

1979

Nomen dubium.

Edgarosaurus

Druckenmiller

2002

Valid.

eK North America

Elasmosaurus

Cope

1868

Valid.

Eoplesiosaurus[7] Benson

Evans
Druckenmiller

2012 Valid. eJ Europe

Eopolycotylus[11]

Albright
Gillette
Titus

2007

Valid.

Eretmosaurus

Seeley

1874

Valid.

Eromangasaurus

Kear

2005

Valid.

Eurycleidus

Andrews

1922

Valid.

Eurysaurus

Gaudry

1878

Valid.

Fresnosaurus

Welles

1943

Valid.

Futabasaurus

Sato
Hasegawa
Manabe

2006

Valid.

lK Asia Also a theropod nomen nudum ("Futabasaurus").

Gallardosaurus

Gasparini

2009

Valid.

"Georgia"

Otschev

1976

Preoccupied. Preoccupied by a genus of mollusk, renamed Georgiasaurus.

Georgiasaurus

Otschev

1878

Valid.

Goniosaurus

Meyer

1860[citation needed]

Valid.

Gronausaurus[12]

Hampe 2013 Valid. eK Europe
Hastanectes[13] Benson

et al.

2012 Valid. eK Europe

Hauffiosaurus

O'Keefe

2001

Valid.

Hydralmosaurus

Welles

1943

Valid.

Hydrorion

Grobmann

2006

Valid.

Hydrotherosaurus

Welles

1943

Valid.

lK North America

Ischyrodon

von Meyer

1838

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Liopleurodon.

Kaiwhekea

Cruickshank
Fordyce

2002

Valid.

Kawanectes[14]

O'Gorman

In press

Valid.

lK South America

Kimmerosaurus

Brown

1981

Valid.

Kronosaurus

Longman

1924

Valid.

Australia, South America

Leptocleidus

Andrews

1922

Valid.

eK Europe, Africa, Australia

Leurospondylus

Brown

1913

Valid.

Libonectes

Carpenter

1997

Valid.

Liopleurodon

Sauvage

1873

Valid.

Luetkesaurus

Kiprijanoff

1883

Valid.

Lusonectes

Smith
Araújo
Mateus

2011

Valid.

eJ

Europe

Macroplata

Swinton

1930

Valid.

eJ Europe

Makhaira[15]

Fischer
et al.

2015

Valid.

eK

Manemergus

Buchy
Metayer
Frey

2005

Valid.

Maresaurus

Gasparini

1997

Valid.

Marmornectes

Ketchum
Benson

2011

Valid.

mJ

Europe

Mauisaurus

Hector

1874

Valid.

Megacephalosaurus[16]

Schumacher
Carpenter
Everhart

2013

Valid.

lK

North America

Megalneusaurus

Knight

1898

Valid.

Meyerasaurus

Smith
Vincent

2010

Valid.

eJ

Europe

Microcleidus

Watson

1911

Valid.

eJ

Morenosaurus

Welles

1943

Valid.

Morturneria

Chatterjee
Creisler

1994

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Aristonectes.

Muraenosaurus

Seeley

1874

Valid.

mJ Europe

Nichollssaura[17]

Druckenmiller
Russell

2009

Valid.

eK North America

"Nichollsia"

Druckenmiller
Russell

2008

Preoccupied.

Preoccupied by a genus of isopod, renamed Nichollssaura.

Occitanosaurus

Bardet
Fernandez
Garcia-Ramos
Superbiola
Pinuela
Ruiz-Omenaca
Vincent

2008

Valid.

Ogmodirus

Williston
Moodie

1917

Valid.

Orophosaurus

Cope

1851

Valid.

Opallionectes

Kear

2006

Valid.

Pachycostasaurus

Cruickshank
Martill

1996

Valid.

Pahasapasaurus

Schumacher

2007

Valid.

"Palmula"[11]

Albright
Gillette
Titus

2007

Preoccupied.

Preoccupied by a genus of foraminifer, renamed Palmulasaurus.

Palmulasaurus

Albright
Gillete
Titus

2007

Valid.

Pantosaurus

Marsh

1893

Valid.

Peloneustes

Lydekker

1889

Valid.

mJ Europe

Peyerus

Stromer

1935

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Leptocleidus.

Picrocleidus

Andrews

1909

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Muraenosaurus.

Piptomerus

Cope

1887

Valid.

Piratosaurus

Leidy

1865

Valid.

Plesiopleurodon

Carpenter

1996

Valid.

Plesiopterys

O'Keefe

2004

Valid.

Plesiosaurus

Conybeare

1821

Valid.

eJ Europe

Pliosaurus

Owen

1841

Valid.

Polycotylus

Cope

1869

Valid.

Polyptychodon

Owen

1841

Valid.

Procotylus

Korotneff

1908

Valid.

Rhomaleosaurus

Seeley

1871

Valid.

eJ Europe

Scanisaurus

Persson

1959

Valid.

Seeleyosaurus

White

1940

Valid.

eJ Europe

Simolestes

Andrews

1909

Valid.

Sinopliosaurus

Young

1944

Valid.

eK

Spitrasaurus[18] Knutsen

Druckenmiller
Hurum

2012 Valid. lJ Europe

Spondylosaurus

Fisher

1845

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Pliosaurus.

Stratesaurus[7] Benson

Evans
Druckenmiller

2012 Valid. eJ Europe

Sulcusuchus

Gasparini
Spalletti

1992

Valid.

lK

South America

Stereosaurus

Seeley

1869

Valid.

Sthenarosaurus

Watson

1911

Valid.

eJ

"Stretosaurus"

Tarlo

1959

Invalid. Type specimen is undiagnostic and should be assigned to Thalassophonea indeterminate.[19][20]

Strongylokrotaphus

Novozhilov

1964

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Pliosaurus.

Styxosaurus

Welles

1952

Valid.

lK

North America

Taphrosaurus

Cope

1870

Valid.

lK

"Tatenectes"[21]

Knight

1900

Valid.

Terminonatator

Sato

2003

Valid.

lK

Thalassiodracon

Storrs
Taylor

1996

Valid.

lT-eJ

Europe

Thalassiosaurus

Welles

1953

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Styxosaurus.

Thalassomedon

Welles

1943

Valid.

lK

North America

Thalassonomosaurus

Welles

1943

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Styxosaurus.

"Thaumatosaurus"

Meyer

1841

Invalid. Holotype is not diagnostic and can be referred to Pliosauroidea indet at best.

Thililua

Bardet
Suberbiola
Jalil

2003

Valid.

lK

"Tremamesacleis"

White

1940

Jr. synonym

Junior synonym of Muraenosaurus.

Tricleidus

Andrews

1909

Valid.

Trinacromerum

Cragin

1888

Valid.

lK

North America

Tuarangisaurus

Wiffen
Moisley

1986

Valid.

lK

"Turneria"

Chatterjee
Small

1989

Preoccupied.

Preoccupied by a genus of ant, renamed Morturneria which is now recognised as a junior synonym of Aristonectes.

Umoonasaurus

Kear
Schroeder
Lee

2006

Valid.

eK

Australia

Uronautes[22]

Cope

1870

Valid.

lK

Vectocleidus[13] Benson

et al.

2012 Valid. eK Europe
Vegasaurus[23] O'Gorman

Salgado
Olivero
Marenssi

2015 Valid. lK Antarctica

Vinialesaurus[24]

Gasparini
Bardet
Vinent
Iturralde

2002

Valid.

lJ

Westphaliasaurus

Schwermann
Sander

2011

Valid.

eJ

Europe

Woolungasaurus

Persson

1960

Valid.

eK

Yuzhoupliosaurus[25]

Zhang

1985

Valid.

mJ[25]

Zarafasaura

Vincent
Pereda-Suberbiola
Bouya
Amaghzaz
Meslouh

2011

Valid.

lK

Africa

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ See Haaramo, Plesiosauria.
  2. ^ See Smith, Plesiosaur Genera.
  3. ^ A. Yu. Berezin (2011). "A new plesiosaur of the family Aristonectidae from the early cretaceous of the center of the Russian platform". Paleontological Journal 45 (6): 648–660. doi:10.1134/S0031030111060037. 
  4. ^ Tai Kubo, Mark T. Mitchell and Donald M. Henderson (2012). "Albertonectes vanderveldei, a new elasmosaur (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) from the Upper Cretaceous of Alberta". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (3): 557–572. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.658124. 
  5. ^ Andrea Cau & Federico Fanti (2015). "High evolutionary rates and the origin of the Rosso Ammonitico Veronese Formation (Middle-Upper Jurassic of Italy) reptiles". Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. Online edition. doi:10.1080/08912963.2015.1073726. 
  6. ^ Peggy Vincent and Roger B. J. Benson (2012). "Anningasaura, a basal plesiosaurian (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) from the Lower Jurassic of Lyme Regis, United Kingdom". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (5): 1049–1063. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.686467. 
  7. ^ a b c Roger B. J. Benson, Mark Evans and Patrick S. Druckenmiller (2012). "High Diversity, Low Disparity and Small Body Size in Plesiosaurs (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) from the Triassic–Jurassic Boundary". PLoS ONE 7 (3): e31838. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031838. PMC 3306369. PMID 22438869. 
  8. ^ R. Araújo, M.J. Polcyn, A.S. Schulp, O. Mateus, L.L. Jacobs, A. Olímpio Gonçalves and M.-L. Morais (2015). "A new elasmosaurid from the early Maastrichtian of Angola and the implications of girdle morphology on swimming style in plesiosaurs". Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw 94 (1): 109–120. doi:10.1017/njg.2014.44. 
  9. ^ Peggy Vincent, Nathalie Bardet and Emanuela Mattioli (2013). "A new pliosaurid from the Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) of Normandy (Northern France)". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. in press. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0113. 
  10. ^ Espen M. Knutsen, Patrick S. Druckenmiller and Jørn H. Hurum (2012). "A new plesiosauroid (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Agardhfjellet Formation (Middle Volgian) of central Spitsbergen, Norway" (PDF). Norwegian Journal of Geology 92 (2–3): 213–234. 
  11. ^ a b PLESIOSAURS FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS (CENOMANIAN–TURONIAN) TROPIC SHALE OF SOUTHERN UTAH, PART 2: POLYCOTYLIDAE L. Barry Albright Iii, David D. Gillette, and Alan L. Titus, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 2007, 27(1):41-58
  12. ^ Oliver Hampe (2013). "The forgotten remains of a leptocleidid plesiosaur (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauroidea) from the Early Cretaceous of Gronau (Münsterland, Westphalia, Germany)". Paläontologische Zeitschrift 87 (4): 473–491. doi:10.1007/s12542-013-0175-3. 
  13. ^ a b Roger B. J. Benson, Hilary F. Ketchum, Darren Naish and Langan E. Turner (2012). "A new leptocleidid (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Vectis Formation (Early Barremian–early Aptian; Early Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight and the evolution of Leptocleididae, a controversial clade". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. in press. doi:10.1080/14772019.2011.634444. 
  14. ^ José P. O'Gorman (2016). "A small body sized non-aristonectine elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia with comments on the relationships of the Patagonian and Antarctic elasmosaurids". Ameghiniana. in press. doi:10.5710/AMGH.29.11.2015.2928. 
  15. ^ Valentin Fischer, Maxim S. Arkhangelsky, Ilya M. Stenshin, Gleb N. Uspensky, Nikolay G. Zverkov and Roger B. J. Benson (2015). "Peculiar macrophagous adaptations in a new Cretaceous pliosaurid". Royal Society Open Science 2 (12): 150552. doi:10.1098/rsos.150552. 
  16. ^ Bruce A. Schumacher, Kenneth Carpenter and Michael J. Everhart (2013). "A new Cretaceous Pliosaurid (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) from the Carlile Shale (middle Turonian) of Russell County, Kansas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33 (3): 613–628. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.722576. 
  17. ^ Druckenmiller, Patrick S.; Russell, Anthony P. (2009). "The new plesiosaurian genus Nichollssaura from Alberta, Canada: replacement name for the preoccupied genus Nichollsia". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29 (1): 276. doi:10.1080/02724634.2009.10010379. 
  18. ^ Espen M. Knutsen, Patrick S. Druckenmiller and Jørn H. Hurum (2012). "Two new species of long-necked plesiosaurians (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Upper Jurassic (Middle Volgian) Agardhfjellet Formation of central Spitsbergen" (PDF). Norwegian Journal of Geology 92 (2–3): 187–212. 
  19. ^ Espen M. Knutsen (2012). "A taxonomic revision of the genus Pliosaurus (Owen, 1841a) Owen, 1841b". Norwegian Journal of Geology 92 (2–3): 259–276. ISSN 0029-196X. Low resolution pdf High resolution pdf
  20. ^ Benson, R. B. J.; Evans, M.; Smith, A. S.; Sassoon, J.; Moore-Faye, S.; Ketchum, H. F.; Forrest, R. (2013). "A Giant Pliosaurid Skull from the Late Jurassic of England". In Butler, Richard J. PLoS ONE 8 (5): e65989. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065989. edit
  21. ^ O'Keefe, F.R. & Street, H.P. 2009; "Osteology of the Cryptocleidoid Plesiosaur Tatenectes laramiensis, with Comments on the Taxonomic Status of the Cimoliasauridae" Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29(1):48–57
  22. ^ E. D. Cope. 1876. On some extinct reptiles and Batrachia from the Judith River and Fox Hills Beds of Montana. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 28:340-359
  23. ^ José P. O’Gorman, Leonardo Salgado, Eduardo B. Olivero and Sergio A. Marenssi (2015). "Vegasaurus molyi, gen. et sp. nov. (Plesiosauria, Elasmosauridae), from the Cape Lamb Member (lower Maastrichtian) of the Snow Hill Island Formation, Vega Island, Antarctica, and remarks on Wedellian Elasmosauridae". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 35 (3): e931285. doi:10.1080/02724634.2014.931285. 
  24. ^ Gasparini, Z., Bardet, N., and Iturralde-Vinent, M. (2002). "A new cryptoclidid plesiosaur from the Oxfordian (Late Jurassic) of Cuba". Geobios 35(2): 201-211.
  25. ^ a b Zhang, Y (1985). A new plesiosaur from Middle Jurassic of Sichuan Basin. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 23: 235-240.

References[edit]

  • Haaramo, Mikko (15 November 2005). "Plesiosauria". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 17 May 2006. 
  • Smith, Adam Stuart. "Plesiosaur Genera". The Plesiosaur Directory. Retrieved 17 May 2006.