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List of presidents of the United States by previous experience

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Although many paths may lead to the presidency of the United States, the most common job experience, occupation or profession of U.S. presidents has been that of a lawyer.[1] This sortable table enumerates all holders of that office, along with major elective or appointive offices or periods of military service prior to election to the presidency. The column immediately to the right of the presidents' names shows the position or office held just before the presidency. The next column to the right lists the next previous position held, and so on. Note that the total number of previous positions held by an individual may exceed four; the number of columns was limited to what would fit within the page width. The last two columns on the right list the home state (at the time of election to the presidency) and primary occupation of each future president, prior to beginning a political career.

By the numbers

There have been 46 presidencies (including the current president, Joe Biden, whose term began in 2021), and 45 people have served as president. Grover Cleveland was elected to two nonconsecutive terms, and as such is considered the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. Of the 45 different people who have been or are currently serving as president:


See also


  1. ^ George Washington was commanding general of the Continental Army, the pre-independence equivalent of the US Army. The 9 US Army generals were Jackson, W. H. Harrison, Taylor, Pierce, Grant, Hayes, Garfield, B. Harrison and Eisenhower. Others with military experience were Monroe, McKinley, T. Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy, L. B. Johnson, Nixon, Carter, Ford, Reagan, G. H. W. Bush, G. W. Bush.
  2. ^ Martin van Buren's brief foreign service is not counted since, although he was appointed Ambassador to the United Kingdom, the appointment was rejected by the U.S. Senate
  3. ^ "State" refers to the state generally considered "home", not necessarily the state where the president was born
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v This designation is used whenever the subject was out of public office for more than one year
  5. ^ Washington was first chosen by the Virginia State Legislature to be a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. Then he was elected by the delegates to be president of the convention.
  6. ^ Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War
  7. ^ a b c d e f g This is a general designation for any appointive position representing the United States to a foreign government
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j This is a general designation for any elected state legislator
  9. ^ Van Buren served just over two months of his term as governor of New York before President Jackson appointed him Secretary of State
  10. ^ Tyler succeeded President Harrison, who died in office. He was not elected.
  11. ^ Fillmore succeeded President Taylor, who died in office. He was not elected.
  12. ^ Lincoln was born in Kentucky, but moved to Indiana, then Illinois at an early age
  13. ^ Johnson succeeded President Lincoln, who was assassinated. He was not elected.
  14. ^ President Lincoln appointed Johnson military governor of Tennessee during the Civil War
  15. ^ Grant was born and raised in Ohio. He rose to prominence as a Civil War general from Illinois and Illinois was his residence for his political career.[6][7]
  16. ^ Arthur succeeded President Garfield, who was assassinated. He was not elected.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g This is a general designation for appointive domestic Federal offices below cabinet level
  18. ^ a b c This is a general designation for local elective offices
  19. ^ Roosevelt succeeded President McKinley, who was assassinated. He was elected to a full term in 1904, chose not to run again in 1908, and ran unsuccessfully in 1912.
  20. ^ a b Assistant Secretary of the Navy
  21. ^ President McKinley appointed Taft governor-General of the Philippines
  22. ^ United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
  23. ^ Solicitor General of the United States
  24. ^ Wilson served as president of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910
  25. ^ Coolidge succeeded President Harding, who died in office. He was elected to a full term in 1924, chose not to run again in 1928.
  26. ^ Born and raised in Vermont, Coolidge permanently moved to Massachusetts to attend college.
  27. ^ Following World War I, Hoover was involved with several humanitarian organizations.
  28. ^ Director of United States Food Administration
  29. ^ Truman succeeded President Roosevelt, who died in office. He was elected to a full term in 1948, chose not to run again in 1952.
  30. ^ Johnson succeeded President Kennedy, who was assassinated. He was elected to a full term in 1964, chose not to run again in 1968.
  31. ^ head of the National Youth Administration in Texas
  32. ^ Ford succeeded President Nixon, who resigned. He lost election in 1976. Previously, Ford was appointed vice president after Spiro Agnew resigned. Currently, only president not to have been elected to the executive branch.
  33. ^ Ford was born in Nebraska, but moved to Michigan at an early age
  34. ^ Reagan was born, raised and educated in Illinois; he moved permanently to California after graduation from college.
  35. ^ Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
  36. ^ Bush was born in Massachusetts, and raised in Connecticut, but moved to Texas after graduation from college.
  37. ^ Obama taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004
  38. ^ Obama was born in Hawaii and mostly raised there. His career was based in Illinois.
  39. ^ Trump, who was born in New York, ran for office in 2016 from there, but moved his official residence to Mar-a-Lago in Florida during his term.


  1. ^ International Law, US Power: The United States' Quest for Legal Security, p 10, Shirley V. Scott - 2012
  2. ^ Christensen, Tricia (January 5, 2023). "How Many United States Presidents Were Governors First?" www.unitedstatesnow.org. Retrieved January 13, 2023.
  3. ^ Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861–1865 Volume 1. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1904. pp. 303, 658.
  4. ^ The Preacher President http://punditwire.com/2012/03/03/the-preacher-president/
  5. ^ The Singular Humility of America's Only Ordained President https://www.christianitytoday.com/pastors/2016/april-web-exclusives/singular-humility-of-americas-only-ordained-president.html
  6. ^ "The Congressional Globe". Library of Congress. 1868. p. 1063.
  7. ^ McFeely, William S. (1981). Grant: A Biography. Norton. pp. 232–233. ISBN 0-393-01372-3.
  8. ^ P.O. Box 400406. "George W. Bush: Life Before the Presidency—Miller Center". Millercenter.org. Retrieved 2016-12-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ York, Byron. "Byron York on George W. Bush & National Guard on National Review Online". Archived from the original on 2008-08-30. Retrieved 2016-12-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)