Heights of presidents and presidential candidates of the United States
A record of the heights of the presidents of the United States and presidential candidates is useful for evaluating what role, if any, height plays in presidential elections. Some observers have noted that the taller of the two major-party candidates tends to prevail, and argue this is due to the public's preference for taller candidates.
U.S. Presidents by height order
|Rank||No.||President||Height (in)||Height (cm)||Ref.|
|1||16||Abraham Lincoln||6 ft 4 in||193 cm|||
|2||36||Lyndon B. Johnson||6 ft 3 1⁄2 in||192 cm|||
|3||45||Donald Trump||6 ft 3 in||191 cm||[note 1]|
|4||3||Thomas Jefferson||6 ft 2 1⁄2 in||189 cm|||
|5||1||George Washington||6 ft 2 in||188 cm|||
|21||Chester A. Arthur||6 ft 2 in||188 cm|||
|32||Franklin D. Roosevelt||6 ft 2 in||188 cm|||
|41||George H. W. Bush||6 ft 2 in||188 cm|||
|42||Bill Clinton||6 ft 2 in||188 cm|||
|10||44||Barack Obama||6 ft 1 1⁄2 in||187 cm|||
|11||7||Andrew Jackson||6 ft 1 in||185 cm|||
|35||John F. Kennedy||6 ft 1 in||185 cm|||
|40||Ronald Reagan||6 ft 1 in||185 cm|||
|14||5||James Monroe||6 ft 0 in||183 cm|||
|10||John Tyler||6 ft 0 in||183 cm|||
|15||James Buchanan||6 ft 0 in||183 cm|||
|20||James A. Garfield||6 ft 0 in||183 cm|||
|29||Warren G. Harding||6 ft 0 in||183 cm|||
|38||Gerald Ford||6 ft 0 in||183 cm|||
|20||27||William Howard Taft||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm|||
|31||Herbert Hoover||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm|||
|37||Richard Nixon||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm|||
|43||George W. Bush||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm|||
|46||Joe Biden||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm|||
|25||22, 24||Grover Cleveland||5 ft 11 in||180 cm|||
|28||Woodrow Wilson||5 ft 11 in||180 cm|||
|27||34||Dwight D. Eisenhower||5 ft 10 1⁄2 in||179 cm|||
|28||14||Franklin Pierce||5 ft 10 in||178 cm|||
|17||Andrew Johnson||5 ft 10 in||178 cm|||
|26||Theodore Roosevelt||5 ft 10 in||178 cm|||
|30||Calvin Coolidge||5 ft 10 in||178 cm|||
|32||39||Jimmy Carter||5 ft 9 1⁄2 in||177 cm|||
|33||13||Millard Fillmore||5 ft 9 in||175 cm|||
|33||Harry S. Truman||5 ft 9 in||175 cm|||
|35||19||Rutherford B. Hayes||5 ft 8 1⁄2 in||174 cm|||
|36||9||William Henry Harrison||5 ft 8 in||173 cm|||
|11||James K. Polk||5 ft 8 in||173 cm|||
|12||Zachary Taylor||5 ft 8 in||173 cm|||
|18||Ulysses S. Grant||5 ft 8 in||173 cm|||
|40||6||John Quincy Adams||5 ft 7 1⁄2 in||171 cm|||
|41||2||John Adams||5 ft 7 in||170 cm|||
|25||William McKinley||5 ft 7 in||170 cm|||
|43||8||Martin Van Buren||5 ft 6 in||168 cm|||
|23||Benjamin Harrison||5 ft 6 in||168 cm|||
|45||4||James Madison||5 ft 4 in||163 cm|||
Electoral success as a function of height
This section possibly contains original research. (July 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Folk wisdom about U.S. presidential politics holds that the taller of the two major-party candidates always wins or almost always wins since the advent of the televised presidential debate.
There are more data if the relationship of electoral success to height difference starts from the year 1900, rather than from the beginning of televised debates. In the thirty-one presidential elections between 1900 and 2020, twenty of the winning candidates have been taller than their opponents, while nine have been shorter, and two were the same height. On average the winner was 1.1 inches (2.8 cm) taller than the loser.
However, it may be argued that drawing the line at any date ignores the fact that pictorial depictions presidential hopefuls have been available to the American public at large well before debates were televised. Stereographs were widely used as a form of photojournalism for historical events (including political events) by the 1870s. Cutting off the date at 1900 excludes the seven presidential elections immediately preceding where the taller candidate won only once (which, when included, partially equalizes the ratio to 21 taller vs 14 shorter winners between 1872 and 2020). Considering that political cartoons and text-based descriptions of candidates have been a staple of American politics since the beginning, one could argue that Americans have always been able to compare candidates by height. Thus, upon including all elections until 2016 where the heights of each candidate are known, the average height of the winner above the loser drops to a mere 0.3 inches (0.8 cm); this average height difference becomes little more than a round-off error—a mere 0.1 inches (0.3 cm)—when excluding the 2016 election, in which gender not only accounted for the height difference, but was likely the greater physical distinction between the two main candidates than height.
The claims about taller candidates winning almost all modern presidential elections is still pervasive, however. Examples of such views include:
- In Ray Bradbury's 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451, when Mildred and her friends talk about the success of one presidential candidate over the other in a recent election, they talk only about the attractiveness of the winning candidate over the loser. One of their points is "You just don't go running a little short man like that against a tall man."
- A 1988 article in the Los Angeles Times fashion section about a haberdasher devoted to clothing shorter men included a variation of the tale: "Stern says he just learned that Dukakis is 5 feet, 8 inches. 'Did you know,' he adds, noticeably disappointed, 'that since 1900 the taller of the two candidates always wins?'"
- A 1997 book called How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You discusses the issue in a section about the importance of height: "What about height? One assumes the taller the better, because our culture venerates height. In fact, practically every president elected in the United States since 1900 was the taller of the two candidates."
- A chapter titled "Epistemology at the Core of Postmodernism" in the 2002 book Telling the Truth: Evangelizing Postmodernisms makes this observation: "I remember the subversive effect the observation had on me that in every U.S. presidential race, the taller of the two candidates had been elected. It opened up space for a counterdiscourse to the presumed rationality of the electoral process."
- A 1975 book called First Impressions: The Psychology of Encountering Others notes: "Elevator Shoes, Anyone? One factor which has a far-reaching influence on how people are perceived, at least in American society, is height. From 1900 to 1968 the man elected U.S. president was always the taller of the two candidates. (Richard Nixon was slightly shorter than George McGovern.)"
- A 1978 book titled The Psychology of Person Identification states: "They also say that every President of the USA elected since the turn of the [20th] century has been the taller of the two candidates (Jimmy Carter being an exception)."
- A 1999 book, Survival of the Prettiest by Nancy Etcoff, repeated a version of the legend in a section on the power of heights: "... Since 1776 only [two Presidents,] James Madison and Benjamin Harrison[,] have been below-average height. The easiest way to predict the winner in a United States election is to bet on the taller man: in this century you would have had an unbroken string of hits until 1972 when Richard Nixon beat George McGovern."
A comparison of the heights of the winning presidential candidate with the losing candidate from each election since 1788 is provided below to evaluate such views.
Comparative table of heights of United States presidential candidates
|Taller candidate was elected||Shorter candidate was elected|
|Winner and opponent were of the same height||Comparison data unavailable|
in Electoral College
|2020||Joe Biden||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm||Donald Trump||6 ft 3 in||191 cm||3½ in||9 cm|
|2016||Donald Trump||6 ft 3 in||191 cm||Hillary Clinton||5 ft 5 in||165 cm||10 in||26 cm|
|2012||Barack Obama||6 ft 1 1⁄2 in||187 cm||Mitt Romney||6 ft 1 1⁄2 in||187 cm||0 in||0 cm|
|2008||Barack Obama||6 ft 1 1⁄2 in||187 cm||John McCain||5 ft 9 in||175 cm||4½ in||12 cm|
|2004||George W. Bush||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm||John Kerry||6 ft 4 in||193 cm||4½ in||11 cm|
|2000||George W. Bush||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm||Al Gore||6 ft 1 in||185 cm||1½ in||3 cm|
|1996||Bill Clinton||6 ft 2 in||188 cm||Bob Dole||6 ft 1 1⁄2 in||187 cm||½ in||1 cm|
|1992||Bill Clinton||6 ft 2 in||188 cm||George H.W. Bush||6 ft 2 in||188 cm||0 in||0 cm|
|1988||George H.W. Bush||6 ft 2 in||188 cm||Michael Dukakis||5 ft 8 in||173 cm||6 in||15 cm|
|1984||Ronald Reagan||6 ft 1 in||185 cm||Walter Mondale||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||2 in||5 cm|
|1980||Ronald Reagan||6 ft 1 in||185 cm||Jimmy Carter||5 ft 9 1⁄2 in||177 cm||3½ in||8 cm|
|1976||Jimmy Carter||5 ft 9 1⁄2 in||177 cm||Gerald Ford||6 ft 0 in||183 cm||2½ in||6 cm|
|1972||Richard Nixon||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm||George McGovern||6 ft 1 in||185 cm||1½ in||3 cm|
|1968||Richard Nixon||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm||Hubert Humphrey||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||½ in||2 cm|
|1964||Lyndon B. Johnson||6 ft 3 1⁄2 in||192 cm||Barry Goldwater||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||4½ in||12 cm|
|1960||John F. Kennedy||6 ft 1 in||185 cm||Richard Nixon||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm||1½ in||3 cm|
|1956||Dwight D. Eisenhower||5 ft 10 1⁄2 in||179 cm||Adlai Stevenson II||5 ft 10 in||178 cm||½ in||1 cm|
|1952||Dwight D. Eisenhower||5 ft 10 1⁄2 in||179 cm||Adlai Stevenson II||5 ft 10 in||178 cm||½ in||1 cm|
|1948||Harry S. Truman||5 ft 9 in||175 cm||Thomas Dewey||5 ft 8 in||173 cm||1 in||2 cm|
|1944||Franklin D. Roosevelt||6 ft 2 in||188 cm||Thomas Dewey||5 ft 8 in||173 cm||6 in||15 cm|
|1940||Franklin D. Roosevelt||6 ft 2 in||188 cm||Wendell Willkie||6 ft 2 1⁄2 in||189 cm||½ in||1 cm|
|1936||Franklin D. Roosevelt||6 ft 2 in||188 cm||Alfred Landon||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||3 in||8 cm|
|1932||Franklin D. Roosevelt||6 ft 2 in||188 cm||Herbert Hoover||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm||2½ in||6 cm|
|1928||Herbert Hoover||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm||Al Smith||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||½ in||2 cm|
|1924||Calvin Coolidge||5 ft 10 in||178 cm||John W. Davis||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||1 in||2 cm|
|1920||Warren G. Harding||6 ft 0 in||183 cm||James M. Cox||5 ft 6 in||168 cm||6 in||15 cm|
|1916||Woodrow Wilson||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||Charles Evans Hughes||5 ft 10 in||178 cm||1 in||2 cm|
|1912||Woodrow Wilson||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||William Howard Taft
|5 ft 11 1⁄2 in
5 ft 10 in
|1908||William Howard Taft||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in||182 cm||William Jennings Bryan||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||½ in||2 cm|
|1904||Theodore Roosevelt||5 ft 10 in||178 cm||Alton B. Parker||5 ft 9 in||175 cm||1 in||3 cm|
|1900||William McKinley||5 ft 7 in||170 cm||William Jennings Bryan||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||4 in||10 cm|
|1896||William McKinley||5 ft 7 in||170 cm||William Jennings Bryan||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||4 in||10 cm|
|1892||Grover Cleveland||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||Benjamin Harrison||5 ft 6 in||168 cm||5 in||12 cm|
|1888||Benjamin Harrison||5 ft 6 in||168 cm||Grover Cleveland*||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||5 in||12 cm|
|1884||Grover Cleveland||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||James G. Blaine||5 ft 11 in||180 cm||0 in||0 cm|
|1880||James A. Garfield||6 ft 0 in||183 cm||Winfield Hancock||6 ft 1 1⁄2 in||187 cm||1½ in||4 cm|
|1876||Rutherford B. Hayes||5 ft 8 1⁄2 in||174 cm||Samuel Tilden*||5 ft 10 in||178 cm||1½ in||4 cm|
|1872||Ulysses S. Grant||5 ft 8 in||173 cm||Horace Greeley||5 ft 10 in||178 cm||2 in||5 cm|
|1868||Ulysses S. Grant||5 ft 8 in||173 cm||Horatio Seymour|
|1864||Abraham Lincoln||6 ft 4 in||193 cm||George B. McClellan||5 ft 8 in||173 cm||8 in||20 cm|
|1860||Abraham Lincoln||6 ft 4 in||193 cm||Stephen A. Douglas
John C. Breckinridge
|5 ft 4 in
6 ft 2 in
|1856||James Buchanan||6 ft 0 in||183 cm||Millard Fillmore
John C. Frémont
5 ft 9 in|
5 ft 9 in
|1852||Franklin Pierce||5 ft 10 in||178 cm||Winfield Scott||6 ft 5 in||196 cm||7 in||18 cm|
|1848||Zachary Taylor||5 ft 8 in||173 cm||Lewis Cass||5 ft 8 1⁄2 in||174 cm||½ in||1 cm|
|1844||James K. Polk||5 ft 8 in||173 cm||Henry Clay||6 ft 1 in||185 cm||5 in||12 cm|
|1840||William Henry Harrison||5 ft 8 in||173 cm||Martin Van Buren||5 ft 6 in||168 cm||2 in||5 cm|
|1836||Martin Van Buren||5 ft 6 in||168 cm||Hugh Lawson White
William Henry Harrison
|5 ft 11 in
5 ft 8 in
|1832||Andrew Jackson||6 ft 1 in||185 cm||Henry Clay||6 ft 1 in||185 cm||0 in||0 cm|
|1828||Andrew Jackson||6 ft 1 in||185 cm||John Quincy Adams||5 ft 7 1⁄2 in||171 cm||5½ in||14 cm|
|1824||John Quincy Adams||5 ft 7 1⁄2 in||171 cm||William H. Crawford
|6 ft 3 in
6 ft 1 in
6 ft 1 in
|1820||James Monroe†||6 ft 0 in||183 cm|
|1816||James Monroe||6 ft 0 in||183 cm||Rufus King|
|1812||James Madison||5 ft 4 in||163 cm||DeWitt Clinton||6 ft 3 in||191 cm||11 in||28 cm|
|1808||James Madison||5 ft 4 in||163 cm||Charles C. Pinckney||5 ft 9 in||175 cm||5 in||12 cm|
|1804||Thomas Jefferson||6 ft 2 1⁄2 in||189 cm||Charles C. Pinckney||5 ft 9 in||175 cm||5½ in||14 cm|
|1800||Thomas Jefferson||6 ft 2 1⁄2 in||189 cm||John Adams||5 ft 7 in||170 cm||7½ in||19 cm|
|1796||John Adams||5 ft 7 in||170 cm||Thomas Jefferson||6 ft 2 1⁄2 in||189 cm||7½ in||19 cm|
|1792||George Washington†||6 ft 2 in||188 cm|
|1788–89||George Washington†||6 ft 2 in||188 cm|
** Lost the House of Representatives vote, but received the most popular votes and a plurality of electoral votes; however, not the majority needed to win.
† Ran unopposed
Mr. Lincoln's height was six feet three and three-quarter inches "in his stocking-feet." He stood up one day, at the right of my large canvas, while I marked his exact height upon it.
Only slightly shorter than Lincoln was Lyndon B. Johnson (6 ft 3 1⁄2 in or 192 cm), the tallest President who originally entered office without being elected directly.
The shortest President elected to office was James Madison (5 ft 4 in or 163 cm); the shortest President to originally enter the office by means other than election is tied between Millard Fillmore and Harry S. Truman (both were 5 ft 9 in or 175 cm).
The tallest unsuccessful presidential candidate (who is also the tallest of all presidential candidates) is Winfield Scott, who stood at 6 ft 5 in (196 cm) and lost the 1852 election to Franklin Pierce, who stood at 5 ft 10 in (178 cm). The second tallest unsuccessful candidate is John Kerry, at 6 ft 4 in (193 cm). The shortest unsuccessful presidential candidate is Stephen A. Douglas, at 5 ft 4 in (163 cm). The next shortest is Hillary Clinton, who lost the 2016 election and is 5 ft 5 in (165 cm).
The largest height difference between two presidential candidates (out of the candidates whose heights are known) was in the 1860 election, when Abraham Lincoln stood 12 inches (30 cm) taller than opponent Stephen A. Douglas. The second-largest difference was in the 1812 election, with De Witt Clinton standing 11 inches (28 cm) taller than incumbent James Madison. The 2016 election between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton has the third largest difference at 10 inches (25 cm).
- Kane, Joseph (1993). Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Information. New York: H. W. Wilson. ISBN 0-8242-0845-5.
- Sommers, Paul M. (January 2002). "Is Presidential Greatness Related to Height?". The College Mathematics Journal. 33 (1): 14–16. doi:10.2307/1558973. JSTOR 1558973.
- Gillis, John S. (1982). Too Tall, Too Small. Champaign, Illinois: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc. ISBN 0-918296-15-3.
- Stats: Does the taller man always win?
- The Straight Dope: Does the taller candidate always win the election?
- Presidential Timber Tends To Be Tall
- As some examples, USA TODAY listed height among six criteria for predicting who would win the 2004 election; a Washington Post blog Archived July 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine noted the significance of height in physical appearance and its effect on voters. See the discussion of this phenomenon later in the article for further examples.
- O'Connor, Kevin C. (December 15, 2019). "Joe Biden's Physical Exam" (PDF). joebiden.com. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
height: 5 feet, 11.65 inches, weight: 178 lbs, BMI: 24.38
- Carpenter, Francis B. (1866). Six Months in the White House: The Story of a Picture. Hurd and Houghton. p. 217.
- Dallek, Robert (1998). Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973. Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0195054651.
- Caro, Robert (1982). The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Path to Power. New York: Knopf. p. 146. ISBN 978-0394499734.
- Dallek, Robert (2003). An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy. Little, Brown, and Co. p. 354.
- Bornstein, Harold N. (September 13, 2016). "Donald J. Trump's Medical Records" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
height: 6’3”, weight: 236 pounds
- Jackson, Ronny L. (January 12, 2018). "The President's Periodic Physical Exam" (PDF). The White House. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2018. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
height: 75 inches, weight: 239 pounds
- Conley, Sean P. (February 8, 2019). "The President's Periodic Physical Exam". The White House. Archived from the original on February 14, 2019. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
height: 6’3”, weight: 243 pounds
- Samuelsohn, Darren (December 12, 2016). "Trump's driver's license casts doubt on height claims". Politico. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
- "Donald Trump's Registration Card". The New York Times. December 26, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
- Kane, Joseph (1994). Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Information. New York: H. W. Wilson. pp. 344–45. ISBN 0-8242-0845-5.
- Macdonald, Zanne (July 1992). "Physical Descriptions of Thomas Jefferson". Monticello Report. Monticello Research Department. Archived from the original on July 13, 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2009.
- Various sources have put Washington's height between 6 ft and 6 ft 3.5 in. See: Chernow, Ron, Washington: A Life, 2010, The Penguin Press HC ISBN 1-59420-266-4; Wilson, Woodrow, George Washington, 2004, Cosimo, Inc., p. 111; Alden, John Richard, George Washington: A Biography, 1984, Louisiana State University Press, p. 11; Lodge, Henry Cabot, George Washington, Vol. I, 2007, The Echo Library, p. 30; Haworth, Paul Leland, George Washington, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, p. 119; Thayer, William Roscoe, George Washington, 1931, Plain Label Books, p. 65; Ford, Paul Leicester, The True George Washington, Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott Company, 1896, p. 18-19
- From George Washington to Charles Lawrence, 20 June 1768, founders.archives.gov
- Page, Susan (June 23, 2004). "Time-tested formulas suggest both Bush and Kerry will win on Nov. 2". USA TODAY. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
- Sommers, Paul M. (January 2002). "Is Presidential Greatness Related to Height?". The College Mathematics Journal. 33 (1): 14–16. doi:10.2307/1558973. JSTOR 1558973.
- Sedghi, Ami (October 18, 2011). "Statesmen and stature: how tall are our world leaders?". The Guardian.
- Mathews, Jay (August 3, 1999). "The Shrinking Field". The Washington Post.
- "Presidential Height Index". The Height Site. Archived from the original on August 23, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- Jackson, Ronny L. (March 8, 2016). "The President's Periodic Physical Exam" (PDF). The White House. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 9, 2020. Retrieved November 26, 2020.
height: 73.5 inches, weight: 175 pounds, BMI: 22.8
- Remini, Robert V., Andrew Jackson, HarperCollins, 1969, p. 15. ISBN 0-06-080132-8
- Hendriks, Steven (2017). "JFK Presidential Library". The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved April 19, 2009.
- Whitcomb, John and Claire Whitcomb, Real Life at the White House, Routledge (UK), 2002. ISBN 0-415-93951-8
- Tossey, Lisa D. (2004). "Is presidential race a simple matter of standing tall?". The Pendulum Online. Retrieved April 19, 2009.
- Sotos, John G. Taft and Pickwick: sleep apnea in the White House. Chest. 2003;124:1133-1142.Online copy
- Nash, George H. (1988). The Life of Herbert Hoover. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 365.
- "Report on President Bush's Physical Examination". New York Times. August 2, 2006.
- "Medical History Summary: President George W. Bush". FindLaw. August 7, 2007. Retrieved March 2, 2010.
- Scott, David (October 18, 2011). "GOP Debate: Does height matter in presidential politics?". The Christian Science Monitor.
- Levin, Phyllis Lee, Edith & Woodrow: the Wilson White House, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-7432-1158-8 Google Print
- Davison, Kenneth E (1972). The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Inc. p. 69. ISBN 0-8371-6275-0.
- Behrman, Carol H.James K. Polk, Twenty-First Century Books, 2004. ISBN 0-8225-1396-X
- King, Charles, The True Ulysses Grant, Philadelphia & London, J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1914.Google Print
- Levy, Debbie,John Quincy Adams, Twenty-First Century Books, 2004, p. 28. ISBN 0-8225-0825-7
- Ferling, John E., John Adams: A Life, Owl Books, 1996, ISBN 0-8050-4576-7, p. 169.Google Print
- Widmer, Ted and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Edward L. Widmer, Martin Van Buren, Times Books, 2005, p. 2. ISBN 0-8050-6922-4
- Loderhouse, Gary and Nelson Price, William Addison Hunter, Legendary Hoosiers: Famous Folks from the State of Indiana, Emmis Books, 1999. ISBN 1-57860-097-9 Google Print
- Phillips, Louis, Ask Me Anything About the Presidents, HarperCollins, 1992. ISBN 0-380-76426-1
- "Stereographs". American Antiquarian Society. Archived from the original on October 16, 2019.
- Using the values in the table men are naturally taller than woman), the winner was only 0.12 inches taller on average, which, upon noting how all candidates are rounded to the nearest half-inch, rounds to a 0 inch difference. , by pairing every winner with every losing candidate in the same election year where the height was known for all main opponents listed, the average (mean) amount by which the winner was taller than the loser was 0.29 inches. When excluding the 2016 election in order to eliminate gender as a variable (since
- Los Angeles Times, March 25, 1988, pg. 7
- Lowndes, Leil, How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You, McGraw-Hill Professional, 1997, pp.174-175. ISBN 0-8092-2989-7 Google Print
- Telling the Truth: Evangelizing Postmoderns, edited by D.A. Carson, Zondervan, 2002, p. 83. ISBN 0-310-24334-3 Google Print
- Kleinke, Chris L., First Impressions: The Psychology of Encountering Others, Prentice-Hall, 1975, p. 13. ISBN 0-13-318428-5 Google Print
- Clifford, Brian R. and Ray Bull, The Psychology of Person Identification, Routledge & K. Paul, 1978, p. 115. ISBN 0-7100-8867-1. Print
- Etcoff, Nancy, Survival of the Prettiest, New York, Anchor Books, 1999. ISBN 0-385-47942-5
- Mathews, Jay (September 24, 2015). "Is Hillary Clinton getting taller? Or is the Internet getting dumber?". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Gaz, Randall D. (August 25, 2012). "Healthcare Statement on Mitt Romney" (PDF). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 8, 2021.
height: 6’1.5”, weight: 184 lbs
- "John McCain Medical Records" (PDF). The Washington Post. May 23, 2008. p. 7. Retrieved February 23, 2009.
height: 175.3 CM, weight: 78.93 KG, BMI: 25.68
- "The Shrinking Field". The Washington Post. August 3, 1999. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
- The Washington Post listed Dole at 6'2"/1.88 m, USA TODAY listed him at 6'1"/1.85 m
- Dowd, Maureen (June 21, 1992). "Where They Stand". The New York Times. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
- Gillis, John S. (1982). Too Tall, Too Small. Champaign, Illinois: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc. p. 20. ISBN 0-918296-15-3.
- "Wendell Willkie". imdb.com. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- Morris, Charles E. (1920). Progressive Democracy of James M. Cox. The Bobbs-Merrill Company. p. 9. ISBN 9781444637489.
- Gillis, Too Tall, Too Small, p. 20. Lists his height as 5 ft 10 in (178 cm).
- Edwards, Rebecca; DeFeo, Sarah (2000). "William Jennings Bryan". 1896: The Presidential Campaign. Vassar College. Retrieved April 20, 2009. Lists his height as 5 ft 10 in (178 cm).
- Wilson, Charles Morrow (1970). The Commoner: William Jennings Bryan. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. p. 40. Lists his height as 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) during his second year in college.
- Springen, Donald K. (1991). William Jennings Bryan: Orator of Small-Town America. Greenwood Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-313-25977-1. Lists his height as 6 ft 0 in (183 cm).
- Records of his height have been difficult to obtain. In one biography, he was described as "just under six feet in height". While not a definitive record of his height, this description does allow us to presume he was at least comparable in height to Cleveland. See Crawford, Thomas Clark (1893). James G. Blaine: A Study of his Life and Career, from the Standpoint of a Personal Witness of the Principal Events in his History. Edgewood Publishing Co. p. 26. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
- Jordan, David M. (1988). Winfield Scott Hancock: A Soldier's Life. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-253-36580-5.
- Bigelow, John (1895). The Life of Samuel Tilden (vol. 1). New York: Harper and Brothers. p. 283.
- Stoddart, Henry Luther (1946). Horace Greeley: Printer, Editor, Crusader. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. p. 38.
- Eckenrode, Hamilton James; Bryan Conrad (1941). George B. McClellan, the man who saved the Union. University of North Carolina Press. p. 2. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
- Johanssen, Robert W. (1973). Stephen A. Douglas. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 4.
- Davis, William C. (1974). Breckinridge: Statesman, Soldier, Symbol. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-8071-0068-4.
- Life of John Charles Fremont. New York: Greeley & McElrath. 1856. p. 31. Retrieved July 6, 2009.
- Heidler, David Stephen (2004). Encyclopedia of the War of 1812. Naval Institute Press. p. 464. ISBN 1-59114-362-4. Retrieved May 17, 2009.
- According to Cass's biography, he was "about five foot eight or nine inches". See Woodford, Frank B. (1950). Lewis Cass: The Last Jeffersonian. New Brunswick and New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 32.
- Seymour, Chas C. B. (1858). Self-made men. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 137. Retrieved July 6, 2009.
- Scott, Nancy N. (1856). A Memoir of Hugh Lawson White, Judge of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, Member of the Senate of the United States, etc., etc. Michigan: J. B. Lippincott & Co. p. 243. Retrieved June 25, 2009.
- Mooney, Chase Curran (1974). William H. Crawford, 1772-1834. Michigan: University of Kentucky Press. p. 7. ISBN 0-8131-1270-2. Retrieved June 25, 2009.
- One biography of Crawford describes his stature as being "considerably over six feet". See Butler, Benjamin F. (1824). Sketches of the Life and Character of William H. Crawford. Albany: Packard and Benthuysen. p. 35.
- Cornog, Evan, The Birth of Empire: DeWitt Clinton and the American Experience, 1769-1828, ISBN 0-19-514051-6
- Sotos, John G. (2008). The Physical Lincoln. Mt. Vernon Book Systems. ISBN 978-0-9818193-2-7.