Sous le Ciel de l'Ouest (1952), cover of an early softcovered issue.
|First appearance||das Debut (December 1946)|
|Place of origin||USA|
|Partnerships||Jolly Jumper, Rantanplan|
|Publisher||Lucky Comics (French)
Cinebook Ltd (English)
|Publication date||December 7, 1946|
|Main character(s)||Lucky Luke
|Writer(s)||Morris (and René Goscinny for a period) Various|
|Artist(s)||Morris (until his death in 2001) Achde (2001-current)|
|Colorist(s)||Vittorio Léonardo Kind|
|Editor(s)||Dupuis and Dargaud (previous), Lucky Comics (current)|
Lucky Luke is a Belgian comics series created by Belgian cartoonist Maurice De Bevere, better known as Morris, and for one period written by René Goscinny. Set in the American Old West, it stars the title character Lucky Luke, the cowboy known as the " man who shoots faster than his shadow".
Along with The Adventures of Tintin, Johan and Peewit, The Smurfs and Asterix, Lucky Luke is one of the most popular and best-selling comic-book series in continental Europe. About half of the series' adventures have been translated into English. Lucky Luke comics have been translated into 23 languages, including many European languages, some African and Asian languages.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Spin-off series
- 3 The stories
- 4 Collected editions
- 4.1 By Morris (1949–1958)
- 4.2 By Morris & Goscinny (1957–1986)
- 4.3 By Morris and various writers (1980–2002)
- 4.4 By Achdé and various writers (since 2003)
- 4.5 English translations
- 5 Lucky Luke in other media
- 6 In popular culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Both a tribute to the mythic Old West and an affectionate parody, the comics were created by the Belgian artist Morris who drew Lucky Luke from 1946 until his death in 2001. The first Lucky Luke adventure named Arizona 1880 appeared in the Almanach issue of the Franco-Belgian comics magazine Spirou on December 7, 1946. After several years of solitary work on the strip, Morris began a collaboration with René Goscinny who became the series' writer for a period that is considered the golden age of the series. This started with the story Des rails sur la Prairie published on August 25, 1955 in Spirou. Ending a long run of serial publications in Spirou, the series shifted to Goscinny's Pilote magazine in 1967 with the story La Diligence, subsequently leaving publisher Dupuis for Dargaud.
After the death of Goscinny in 1977, several writers have tried to fill the role of storyteller, including Vicq, Bob de Groot, Jean Léturgie and Lo Hartog Van Banda. At the 1993 Angoulême International Comics Festival, Lucky Luke was given an honorary exhibition.
Lucky Luke comics have been translated into Afrikaans, Arabic, Bengali, Bosnian, Catalan, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (both in the Brazilian and Portuguese forms), Serbian, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil, Turkish, Vietnamese and Welsh.
A spin-off series called Rantanplan starring Luke's dimwitted canine sidekick began in 1987. It has been written over the years by several successive teams of writers and artists. The character also got a 76-episode animated television series in 2006.
A second spin-off series called Kid Lucky was designed in 1995, aimed at attracting a younger readership. This starred Luke as a little boy, a format that had been very popular with Spirou. Two albums starring this version of the character were released as part of the main series: Kid Lucky and Oklahoma Jim. These were credited to veteran writer Jean Léturgie and unknown artist Pearce, who was later revealed to be a joint pen name for Yann Lepennetier and Didier Conrad. The series was scrapped due to poor sales and the two albums removed from the official list of Lucky Luke albums. It was however launched at last in 2011 as Les aventures de Kid Lucky d'après Morris, with Achdé now solely in charge of it.
Although always described as a cowboy, Luke generally acts as a righter of wrongs or bodyguard of some sort, where he excels thanks to his resourcefulness and incredible gun prowess. A recurring task is that of capturing bumbling gangsters the Dalton brothers, Joe, William, Jack and Averell. He rides Jolly Jumper, "the smartest horse in the world" and is often accompanied by Rantanplan, "the stupidest dog in the universe", a spoof of Rin Tin Tin.
Luke meets many historical Western figures like Calamity Jane, Billy the Kid, Judge Roy Bean and Jesse James's gang, and takes part in events such as the guarding of Wells Fargo stagecoaches, the Pony Express, the building of the First Transcontinental Telegraph, the Rush into the Unassigned Lands of Oklahoma, and a tour by French actress Sarah Bernhardt. Some of the books feature a one-page article on the background to the events featured. Goscinny once said that he and Morris tried to base the Lucky Luke adventures on real events whenever possible, but that they would not let the facts get in the way of a funny story.
The chronology of the albums is deliberately murky, and in most albums no particular year is given. The villains and incidental characters based on real persons lived over most of the mid-to-late-19th century. For example, in the album Daily Star, Lucky Luke meets a young Horace Greeley, prior to his moving to New York. Although no year is mentioned in the album, this story must take place c. 1830, since the real Horace Greeley moved to New York in 1831. Judge Roy Bean, who was appointed judge in 1882, appears in another album, taking place some fifty years later – and in another album, Lucky Luke takes part in the 1892 Coffeyville shootout against the Dalton Gang. Lucky Luke himself appears unchanged in all stories.
Except at the very early comics where he shoots and kills Mad Jim, Phil Defer and the Old Dalton Brothers Gang in coffeeville, Luke is never seen to kill anyone, preferring to disarm people by shooting weapons out of their hands.
At the end of each story, except the earliest, Lucky Luke rides off alone into the sunset on Jolly Jumper, singing (in English) "I'm a poor lonesome cowboy, and a long way from home...".
"Lucky Luke's famous cigarette not only identifies a profile but allows the tempo to be modified and extended, expressing a feeling: in Le Pied-tendre (The Tenderfoot), Morris shows Lucky Luke's feelings at the death of a friend in a series of three frames in which the hero rolls and spills a cigarette."
Morris, who has been criticized over Lucky Luke's cigarette for a long time, answered his critics: "the cigarette is part of the character's profile, just like the pipe of Popeye or Maigret". It is claimed that Morris was forced to remove cigarettes Lucky Luke smokes from his strip and Lucky Luke who "used to be a heavy smoker", had to give up smoking for "commercial reasons", "apparently to gain access to the American market". On World No Tobacco Day in 1989, the magazine Spirou published a militantly anti-tobacco issue, #2668. Morris won an award from the World Health Organization in 1988 when he replaced Luke's omnipresent cigarette with a wisp of straw (in the story "Fingers") in 1983, "an anti-cigarette poster today proclaims "Even Lucky Luke can't stand them!" and shows the happy cowboy in a radical reversal of his image". In the 2007 animated film "Tous à l'Ouest: Une aventure de Lucky Luke", Lucky Luke is seen using what appears to be a nicotine patch and mentions that before that he had to "chew on a piece of straw for a while" right after he quit smoking. In the story "The bridge over the Mississippi", he is seen rolling a cigarette again, although he claims it was just to hide his boredom. While in "Sarah Bernhardt" after despite Luke's strict orders to not light a fire, Bernhardt's cook has lit one to make a cake, Luke is seen rolling a cigarette in an irate mood, strikes a match only for it being blown out by Jolly Jumper who reminds him of his own "No fire" orders.
Caricatures of real-life celebrities
- Andre Franquin: Appears as a drunk sheriff. (La Mine d'or de Dick Digger)
- Eddy Paape: Appears as Eddy. (Rodéo)
- Jack Palance: The American actor appears as the villain Phil Defer. (Lucky Luke contre Phil Defer)
- Rene Goscinny: The writer of the series' golden age appears as Pete, a member of Joss Jamon's gang, who costantly changes his mind. (Lucky Luke contre Joss Jamon)
- Jean Gabin: The famous actor appears as a cowboy who won't allow the sheriff to hurt a 'poor old man' who's Lucky Luke in a disguise. (Lucky Luke contre Joss Jamon)
- Michel Simon: The known actor appears as Dopey, the member of Coyote Will's gang. (Ruée sur l'Oklahoma)
- Lee Marvin: The famous actor appears as Pistol Pete, a guy hired by captain Lowriver in an attempt to stop Lucky Luke. (En remontant le Mississippi)
- Victor Hubinon: The known actor appears as the villain Barry Blunt. (À l'ombre des derricks)
- Randolph Scott: The famous actor appears as Colonel McStraggle. (Le Vingtième de cavalerie)
- David Niven: The known actor appears as Robert Gainsborough, a professor who tries to teach Calamity Jane how to behave like a lady. (Calamity Jane)
- Wallace Beery: The American actor appears as Hank Bully, the coach driver of Wells Fargo. (La Diligence)
- John Carradine: The known actor appears as Scat Thumbs, a professional card player. (La Diligence)
- Alfred Hitchcock: The famous movie director has a small cameo as a bartender. (La Diligence)
- Albert Uderzo: The co-creator of Asterix and friend of Morris and Goscinny appears as Waldo Badmminton, a tenderfoot who just arrived at the Wild West. (Le Pied-tendre)
- Mae West: The well-known actress appears as Lulu Carabine, a showgirl that Joe Dalton has fallen in love with. (Dalton City)
- W.C. Fields: The famous American actor appears as Malligan, the proprietor of the circus. (Western Circus)
- Lee Van Cleef: The famous actor appears as the bounty hunter Elliot Belt. (Chasseur de primes)
- Sidney Greenstreet: The American actor appears as the Grand Duke from Russia. (Le Grand Duc)
- John Barrymore: The American actor appears as Whittaker Baltimore, an actor who plays the role of a dashing white cowboy. (Le Cavalier blanc)
- Andy Devine: An American actor who appears as Hank Wallys, Luke's friend. (Le Cavalier blanc)
- Brian Donlevy: The known actor appears as the villain Willard Bradwell. (Le Fil qui chante)
- Donald Meek: The famous British actor appears as Augustus Betting, a lawyer who informs the Daltons about their uncle. (La Ballade des Dalton)
- Patrick Préjean: The French actor appears as Double-Six. (Le Bandit manchot)
- Louis De Funès : The French actor and director makes a small cameo. (Le Bandit machot)
- Christopher Lee: The widely known actor appears as Chris Lee, a broker who sells a ranch that is believed to be haunted. (Le Ranch maudit)
- Serge Gainsbourg: The known French actor and composer has a small cameo as a drunk man who says decides to permanently stop drinking. (Le Ranch maudit)
- Groucho Marx: The widely famous comedian appears as the hunter Crazy Buffalo. (Le Ranch maudit)
- Charlie Chaplin: The most well known actor of the silent era, has a brief cameo as someone who walks in Dawson. (Le Klondike)
- Guy Lux: The French host of television games appears as a Rodeo speaker. (La Belle Province)
- Celine Dion: The widely known singer appears as Seline, a singer who sings horribly. (La Belle Province)
- John Wayne: The famous American actor appears as John, one of the two coach drivers who tries to send the salaries to the calvary. (La Corde au cou)
- Kirk Douglas: The known American actor appears as Kirk, one of the two coach drivers who tries to send the salaries to the calvary. (La Corde au cou)
- Robert Conrad: The American actor appears as James East, one of the two agents who protect Rutherford B. Hayes. (L'Homme de Washington)
- Ross Martin: American actor who appears as Artémius Gin, one of the two agents who protect Rutherford B. Hayes. (L'Homme de Washington)
Some of the humour in Lucky Luke is based on clichés and stereotypes, including many ethnic stereotypes of "sneaky" Chinese or "lazy" Mexicans, Native Americans, Irish and Italians as well as "darky" depictions of Afro-Americans. According to the Forbidden Planet correspondent: "They played on the clichés of the genre, with humour that nowadays probably would be considered quite racist (lazy Mexicans, sneaky Chinese), but also with a special sort of satire, mirroring contemporary social platitudes."  Luke himself however, treats everyone with respect and protects any (stereotype-or-not) vulnerable person against injustice.
Real-life persons who have appeared in Lucky Luke
By Morris (1949–1958)
By Morris & Goscinny (1957–1986)
By Morris and various writers (1980–2002)
By Achdé and various writers (since 2003)
Apart from the collections mentioned below, Lucky Luke comics were published in British comic book magazines such as Film Fun Comic or Giggle (in 1967). The Giggle version had Luke's name changed to "Buck Bingo".
Brockhampton Press Ltd, Leicester, began publishing the books in hardcover and softcover, with six titles from 1972 to 1974, translated by Frederick W Nolan. Brockhampton became part of Hodder & Stoughton Ltd in 1976, and under their children's imprint, Knight Books, Hodder published mini-sized paperback editions of the first six books, in 1976 to 1977. In 1980 and 1982, Hodder & Stoughton published three new titles as Hodder Dargaud, as well as reprints of the previous six.
Cinebook Ltd have been publishing English language translations of Lucky Luke since 2006. One new volume is released every two months. In India only, Euro Books, a division of Euro Kids International Ltd. published English versions of 24 Lucky Luke titles in 2009.
Lucky Luke in other media
In 1983, Hanna-Barbera Productions, France 3, Gaumont Film Company, and Morris collaborated to release the animated TV series Lucky Luke which contained 26 episodes. The series' main voice actors were William Callaway as Lucky Luke, Robert Ridgely as Jolly Jumper, Paul Reubens as Bushwack, Frank Welker as Joe Dalton, Rick Dees as Jack Dalton, Fred Travalena as William Dalton, Bob Holt as Averell Dalton, and Mitzi McCall as Ma Dalton. Additional voices were provided by Peter Cullen, Pat Fraley, Barbara Goodson, and Mona Marshall.
In 1991, a new series of 26 épisodes is produced by IDDH, with the collaboration of Morris.
The 1992 live-action Italian television series, Lucky Luke, also known as The Adventures of Lucky Luke, was based on the films of the previous year, and again starred Terence Hill.
In 2001, Xilam produced the 52-episode animated series Les Nouvelles aventures de Lucky Luke (The New Adventures of Lucky Luke). It is available on 8 DVDs with French and English audio tracks. This series also featured Colonel Custer who in this incarnation is an Indian-hater and a dwarf.
Xilam produced two further animated series involving Lucky Luke: Rintindumb (2008) and Les Dalton (2010).
Over the years, several Lucky Luke video games have been released for many platforms, most of them by Infogrames, and only released in Europe (the only ones released for the North American market were the Game Boy Color and PlayStation versions).
A Lucky Luke game was also developed for mobile phones by The Mighty Troglodytes. Lucky Luke: Go West was released in Europe for the PC, Nintendo Wii and Nintendo DS in the end of 2007.
In 2013, French publishers Dupuis and Anuman Interactive announced the development of a new Time Management game: Lucky Luke: Transcontinental Railroad, (set in the 1860s) on PC, Mac, iOS and Android.
- Lucky Luke - Tiger Handheld, 1984
- Lucky Luke - Infogrames, Commodore 64 - 1987
- Lucky Luke: The Video Game - Philips Interactive, Philips CD-i - 1996
- Lucky Luke - Infogrames, Game Boy (Europe Only) - 1996 and Game Boy Color - May 1999
- Lucky Luke - SNES (Europe Only) - October 1997 and PC
- Lucky Luke - Infogrames, PlayStation - 1998 and Windows (Europe Only) - 2000 as Lucky Luke: On the Dalton's Trail
- Lucky Luke: Desperado Train - Game Boy Color (Europe Only) - 2000 (Infogrames)
- Lucky Luke: Western Fever - PC and PlayStation (Europe Only) - 2001
- Lucky Luke: Wanted! - Game Boy Advance (Europe Only) - February 11, 2001 (Infogrames)
- Go West! A Lucky Luke Adventure - DS, PC, WII, 2007
In popular culture
In the Belgian Comic Strip Center in Brussels the permanent exhibition brings homage to the pioneers of Belgian comics, among them Morris. In the room dedicated to his work the entry has saloon doors and Luke's shadow can be seen on the floor and on the wall.
Lucky Luke is among the many Belgian comics characters to jokingly have a Brussels street named after them. Since 2007 the Rue des Pierres/ Steenstraat has a commemorative plaque with the name Rue Lucky Luke/ Lucky Luke straat placed under the actual street sign.
In the Rue Willy Ernst, in the Astrid Park in Charleroi, Belgium, a statue of Lucky Luke can be seen. In the underground railroad Métro Parc the walls are decorated with scènes from "Lucky Luke" albums.
- Ratier, Gilles. "ACBD bilan 2006:new Lucky Luke had an initial run of 650,000 copies.." (in French). ACBD.fr. Archived from the original on 2007-03-05. Retrieved 2007-02-08.
- BDoubliées. "Spirou année 1946" (in French).
- BDoubliées. "Spirou année 1955" (in French).
- Lambiek Comiclopedia. "Morris".
- "World Health Forum Vol 11 1990" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- "World Health Forum Vol 11 1990 footnote Les cahiers de la bande dessinée. No. 43, 1980, p. 11." (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- "Peopledaily.com.cn". Peopledaily.com.cn. 2006-08-23. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- Harrie Verstappen. "Thelooniverse.com". Thelooniverse.com. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- BDOubliées.com - 1989 Spirou index
- "ABCnews.com". Blogs.abcnews.com. 2006-08-22. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- Surette, Tim (2006-08-21). "TV.com". TV.com. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- "Forbiddenplanet.co.uk". Forbiddenplanet.co.uk. 2009-06-30. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- "Lucky Luke as "Buck Bingo" on the Forbidden Planet International Blog Log". Forbiddenplanet.co.uk. 2008-07-15. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- "Tous a l'ouest". Official movie website. Xilam Films. October 22, 2007. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
- IGN Staff (November 3, 1998). "Lucky Luke: Infogrames brings a huge European cowboy to the US market and puts him on the discount rack.". IGN.com. IGN. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
- Agergaard, Rose. "The whole world rides with Camilo & Grande in their new musicvideo". Gaffa.dk (in Danish). Gaffa. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Lefevre, Pascal. 1998. Lucky Luke, a 'lonesome cowboy' for more than half a century. In The Low Countries, 1998-1999. Rekkem: Stichting Ons Erfdeel.
- Lucky Luke official site (French)
- English publisher of Lucky Luke - Cinebook Ltd
- Lucky Luke English publications
- List of Lucky Luke games at MobyGames
- In Brussels, a wall is dedicated to Lucky Luke.
- German editions of Lucky Luke
- Goscinny website on Lucky Luke (French)
- Euro Book's Lucky Luke 24 Albums Set (2009)
- Cine Books Lucky Luke #1-10 Albums Set (2008)
- Tara Press's Lucky Luke 5 Albums Set (2007)