Gaekwad dynasty

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Gaekwad dynasty
Former Monarchy

Flag of Baroda Sate


Location of Baroda Sate
Baroda state in 1909
 -  Established 1721
 -  Accession to India 1947

The Gaekwad or Gaikwad (once rendered as Guicowar, also given (incorrectly) as Gaekwar) (Marathi: गायकवाड Gāyǎkǎvāḍǎ) are a Maratha clan [1][2][3] [4][5]that formed a part of the Maratha Confederacy[6] and later ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the early 18th century until 1947.[7] The ruling prince was known as the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda. With the city of Baroda (Vadodara) as its capital, during the British Raj its relations with the British were managed by the Baroda Residency. It was one of the largest and wealthiest princely states existing alongside British India, with wealth coming from lucrative cotton business as well as rice, wheat and sugar.[8]

Info of Clan[edit]

Flag of the Maratha Empire
Laxmi Vilas Palace of the Gaekwad dynasty.

Gaikwad / Gayakwad / Gaekwad

  • Vansh:Chandravansh/Suryavansh
  • Current kingdom: Badoda/Baroda/Vadodara (in Gujarat)
  • Throne: Twin colours (Red and White)
  • canopy and sign: Twin colours (Red and White)
  • Horse: White
  • Heraldic sign (Nishan): Moon on flagpole
  • Clan goddess: Bhavani, Chamundeshwari (Chamunda)
  • Clangod : Khandoba
  • Clan object (Devak): Surya-Ful (SunFlower)
  • Guru: Vashishta
  • Gotra: Kashyapa
  • Veda: Yajurveda - Madhyandin
  • Mantra: Gayatri mantra
  • Guhyasutra : Paraska
  • Prawar : Gautam, Angiras and Aoutathya.
  • Surnames: Achal, Achah, Aher, Awadhani, Asure, Adsure, Karmat, Kanle, Kawde, Karjaree, Kanjan, Kapalfhode, Kasare, Karkar, Kahar, Kajale, Kanade, Kanta, Katle, Kanhe, Kirkire, Kithe, Kode, Khare, Khapde, Garade, Gadoor, Ghadhawe, Ghenand, Gayke, Gaykee, Chandre, Gawal, Harpale, Chkrawartee, Chakrapanee, Chkrawak, Jajwaly, Jadoogeer, Jachak, Jire, Joon, Zile, Tiwte, Dige, Dukre, Dhiwar, Dhore, Talwale, Takte, Tagnaledatar, Datare, Duranga, Dewle, Dhagad, Dhagdhamale, Dhare, Dhundupal, Nakhare, Nawate, Nanwar, Nagte, Patait, Padkar, Padsare, Pawade, Pawed, Padpar, Patre, Palkar, Pure, Pendhare, phatak, Fhade, Badwe, Fhakadpale, Bama, Banasur, Bender, Belwade, Ghodke, Bhadkambe, Bhamare, Bhate, Madkar, Marathe, Mahale, Madke, Margath, Mahalunge, Mhasik, Wairkar, Maral, Mabhale, Morkar, Mase, Manse, Mare, Mhatare, Murkar, Muluskar, Mulke,Muluk, Mene, Mengune, Mode, Rage, Rangole, Rande, Rodke, Lagad, Langde, Lokre, Waidya, Wawge, Shankh, Shiwne, Shewde, Sansale, Sawale, Sarad, Sarte, Satag, Saple, Surkhe Sonawde, Hajare, Hame, Hamale, Hadke, Hoke, Dhage, Dhadak, Dhananjay, Kokane, Nadhe, Ozarkar, Taras,Dake, Thakar(Total 137)

Early history[edit]

A print of the Gaekwar of Baroda

The Gaikwads rule of Baroda began when the Maratha general Pilaji Rao Gaekwad conquered the city from the Mughal Empire in 1721. The Gaikwads were granted the city as a fief by the Peshwa, the de facto leader of the Maratha empire.

The leader Damaji rao Gaikwad fought along with Sadashiv Bhau, Vishwas Rao, Malhar Rao Holker, Jayappa & Mahadji Shinde in the Third War of Panipat.

After the central rule of the Peshwas was weakened following the defeat at the hands of the Afghans at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761, the Gaikwads, along with several powerful Maratha clans, established themselves as virtually independent rulers of the further regions of the empire, while recognizing the nominal authority of the Peshwas and suzerainty of the Bhonsle Maharaja of Satara.

British suzerainty[edit]

Sayajirao with Sir Richard Temple, the Governor of Bombay and other members of the court. Circa 1880

The Gaekwads, together with several Maratha chieftains, fought the British in the First Anglo-Maratha War.

In 15 March 1802, the British intervened to defend a Gaekwad Maharaja Anand Rao Gaekwad who had recently inherited the throne against rival claimants, and the Gaekwads concluded a Treaty of Cambey with the British that recognized their independence from the Maratha empire and guaranteed the Maharajas of Baroda local autonomy in return for recognizing British suzerainty.

Maharaja Sayyaji Rao III, who took the throne in 1875, did much to modernize Baroda, establishing compulsory primary education, a library system and the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. He also encouraged the setting up of textile factories, which helped create Baroda's textile industry. He is well known for offering B. R. Ambedkar a scholarship to study at Columbia University.

Upon India attaining its independence in 1947, the last ruling Maharaja of Baroda acceded to India. Baroda was eventually merged with Bombay State, which was later divided, based on linguistic principle, into the states of Gujarat and Maharastra in 1960.

Gaekwad, or Gayakwad, also survives as a fairly common Kunbi surname, found mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra.

Gaekwad Maharajas of Baroda[edit]

Maharaja Sayajirao I
  • Nandaji Rao Gaekwad, died May 1721
    • Kerojirao
      • Jhingojirao
        • Pilaji Rao Gaekwad, reigned from 1721, died 14 May 1732
          • Simple silver crown.svg I. Damajirao, Maharaja of Baroda, reigned from 1732, died 18 August 1768
            • Simple silver crown.svg II. Sayajirao I, Maharaja of Baroda, reigned 1768–1778, died 1792
            • Simple silver crown.svg III. Fatehsinhrao I, Maharaja of Baroda, born before April 1751, reigned from 1778, died 26 December 1789
            • Simple silver crown.svg IV. Manajirao, Maharaja of Baroda, born before April 1751, reigned from 1789, died 27 July 1793
            • Simple silver crown.svg V. Govindrao, Maharaja of Baroda, born 175?, reigned from 1793, died 19 September 1800
              • Simple silver crown.svg VI. Anandrao, Maharaja of Baroda, born 179?, reigned from 1800, died 2 October 1819
              • Simple silver crown.svg VI. Sayajirao II, Maharaja of Baroda, born 3 May 1800, reigned from 1819, died 28 December 1847
                • Simple silver crown.svg VII. Ganpatrao, Maharaja of Baroda, born 1816, reigned from 1847, died 1856
                • Simple silver crown.svg VIII. Khanderao, Maharaja of Baroda GCSI, born 1828, reigned from 1856, died 14 June 1870
                • Simple silver crown.svg IX. Malharrao, Maharaja of Baroda, born 1831, reigned 1870 – 19 April 1875, died in obscurity in 1882
          • Prataprao (d. 1737)
            • Kalojirao
              • Gabajirao
                • Bhikajirao
                  • Kashirao (1832-1877)
                    • Simple silver crown.svg X. Sayajirao III, Maharaja of Baroda GCSI, GCIE, born 10 March 1863, reigned from 1875, died 6 February 1939
                      • Yuvraja Fatehsinhrao (1883-1908)
                        • Simple silver crown.svg XI. Pratapsinhrao, Maharaja of Baroda GCIE, born 29 June 1908, reigned from 1939, titular Maharaja from 1949, deposed 1951, died 19 July 1968
                          • Simple silver crown.svg XII. Fatehsinhrao II, Maharaja of Baroda, born 2 April 1930, titular Maharaja 1951-1971, died 1 September 1988
                          • XIII. Ranjitsinhrao, Maharaja of Baroda, born 8 May 1938, family head from 1988, died 9 May 2012
                            • XIV. Samarjitsinhrao, Maharaja of Baroda, born 25 April 1967, family head since 2012


See also[edit]


External links[edit]