Battle of Koregaon

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The Battle of Koregaon was fought on 1 January 1818 between the British East India Company and the Peshwa faction of the Maratha Confederacy, at Koregaon Bhima. The 28,000-strong Marathas, led by Peshwa Baji Rao II intended to attack Pune. On their way, they were met by an 800-strong Company force that was on its way to reinforce the British troops in Pune. The Peshwa dispatched around 2,000 soldiers to attack the Company force stationed in Koregaon. Led by Captain Francis Staunton, the Company troops defended their position for nearly 12 hours. The Marathas ultimately withdrew, fearing the arrival of a larger British force led by General Joseph Smith.

The Company troops included predominantly Mahar Dalit soldiers belonging to the Bombay Native Infantry, and therefore the Dalit activists regard the battle as a heroic episode in Dalit history.

Background[edit]

By the 1800s, the Marathas were organized into a loose confederacy, with the major constituents being the Peshwa of Pune, the Scindia of Gwalior, the Holkar of Indore, the Gaekwad of Baroda, and the Bhonsle of Nagpur.[2] The British had subjugated and signed peace treaties with these factions, establishing Residencies at their capitals. The British intervened in a revenue-sharing dispute between the Peshwa and Gaekwad, and on 13 June 1817, the Company forced Peshwa Baji Rao II to sign an agreement renouncing claims on Gaekwad's reveues and ceding large swaths of territory to the British. This treaty of Pune formally ended the Peshwa's titular overlordship over other Maratha chiefs, thus officially ending the Maratha confederacy.[3][4] Soon after this, the Peshwa burnt down the British Residency at Pune, but was defeated in the Battle of Khadki near Pune on 5 November 1817.[5]

The Peshwa then fled to Satara, and the Company forces took complete control of Pune. Pune was placed under Colonel Charles Barton Burr, while a British force led by General Smith pursued Peshwa. Smith feared that the Marathas might escape to Konkan and overpower the small British detachment there. Therefore, he instructed Colonel Burr to send reinforcements to Konkan, and in turn, call in for reinforcements from Shirur, if needed.[6] Meanwhile, the Peshwa managed to escape beyond Smith's pursuit, but his southward advance was constrained by the advance of a Company force led by General Theophilus Pritzler. He then changed his route, marching eastwards before turning north-west towards Nashik. Realizing that General Smith was in a position to intercept him, he suddenly turned southwards towards Pune.[7] Towards the end of December, Colonel Burr received news that the Peshwa intended to attack Pune, and asked the Company troops stationed at Shirur for help. The troops dispatched from Shirur came across the Peshwa's forces, resulting in the Battle of Koregan.[1][6]

Maratha forces[edit]

The Peshwa's army comprised 20,000 cavalry and 8,000 infantry. Out of these, around 2,000 men were deployed in the action, constantly reinforced during the battle.[8] The force that attacked the Company troops consisted of three infantry parties of 600 soldiers each.[1] These soldiers included Arabs, Gosains and Marathas (the caste).[8] The majority of the attackers were Arabs (mercenaries and their descendants), reputed to be the finest among the Peshwa's soldiers.[9][10] The attackers were supported by a cavalry and two pieces of artillery.[7]

The attack was directed by Bapu Gokhale, Appa Desai and Trimbakji Dengle.[1] Trimbakji was the only among these to enter the Koregaon village, once during the attack.[11] The Peshwa and other chiefs stayed at Phoolsheher (modern Phulgaon) near Koregaon.[12] The titular Maratha Chatrapati, Pratap Singh of Satara, also accompanied the Peshwa.[11]

Company forces[edit]

The Company troops dispatched from Shirur comprised 834 men, including:[1][11]

  • Around 500 soldiers of the 2nd Battalion of the 1st Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry, led by Captain Francis Staunton. Other officers included:
    • Lieutenant and Adjuntant Pattison
    • Lieutenant Jones
    • Assistant-Surgeon Wingate
  • Around 300 auxiliary horsemen under Lieutenant Swanston
  • 24 European and 4 Native Madras artillerymen with two 6-pounder guns, led by Lieutenant Chisholm. Besides Chisholm, Assistant-Surgeon Wyllie (or Wyldie) was the only officer in the artillery.

The native infantry soldiers were predominantly Mahars[citation needed].

The battle[edit]

British defence plan during Battle of Koregaon

The Company troops left Shirur at 8 pm on 31 December 1817. After marching all night and covering a distance of 25 miles, they reached the high ground behind Talegaon Dhamdhere. From there, they spotted Peshwa's army across the Bhima River. Captain Staunton marched up to Koregaon Bhima village, which was located on the banks of the river. The village was surrounded by a low mud wall. Captain Staunton made a feint of crossing the shallow Bhima river. A 5,000-strong infantry, which was slightly ahead of the Peshwa's base, retreated to inform him about the presence of British forces. Meanwhile, Staunton stationed his forces in Koregaon instead of crossing the river. He secured a strong position for his guns, posting one of them to guard an approach from the Bhima river (which was running almost dry), and another to guard the road from Shirur.[1][6]

After the return of his 5,000-strong infantry, the Peshwa dispatched three infantry parties of Arab, Gosain and Maratha soldiers. Each party comprised 300–600 soldiers. The parties crossed the Bhima River at three different points, supported by two cannons and rocket fire. The Marathas also made a feint attack from the Shirur road.[6][11]

By noon, the Arabs took control of a temple on the outskirts of the village. One of the temples was retaken by a party led by Lieutenant and Assistant Surgeon Wyllie. The Arabs also captured the sole gun guarding the river, and killed eleven gunners, including their officer Lieutenant Chisholm. Driven by thirst and hunger, some of the Company's gunners suggested negotiating a surrender. However, Captain Staunton refused to yield. A group led by Lieutenant Pattison retook the gun, and found Lieutenant Chisholm's body with the head cut off. Captain Staunton declared that this would be the fate of those who fall into the Maratha hands. This encouraged the gunners to fight on. The Company troops successfully defended the village.[1][6]

The Maratha forces ceased firing and left the village by 9 pm, driven by the fear of approaching British reinforcements under General Joseph Smith.[10][13] At night, the Company troops managed to procure a supply of water.[11] The Peshwa remained near Koregaon on the next day, but did not launch another attack. Captain Staunton, who was not aware of General Smith's advance, believed that the Peshwa would attack the Company troops on the Koregaon-Pune route. On the night of 2 January, Staunton first pretended to go in the direction of Pune but then marched back to Shirur, carrying most of his wounded soldiers.[7][11]

Casualties[edit]

Out of the 834 Company troops, 275 were killed, wounded or missing. The dead included two officers — Assistant-Surgeon Wingate and Lieutenant Chisholm; Lieutenant Pattison later died of his wounds in Shirur.[1] Among the infantrymen, 50 were killed and 105 wounded. Among the artillery, 12 were killed and 8 were wounded.[9]

According to the British estimates, around 500 to 600 of Peshwa's soldiers were killed or wounded in the battle.[1]

Mountstuart Elphinstone, who visited Koregaon two days later on 3 January 1818, wrote that the houses had been burned and the streets were filled with dead bodies of horses and men. There were around 50 dead bodies lying in the village, most of them of the Peshwa's Arab soldiers. There were six dead bodies outside the village. In addition, there were shallow graves of 50 native sepoys, 11 European soldiers and the 2 deceased officers belonging to the Company forces.[12]

Aftermath[edit]

General Smith arrived in Koregaon on 3 January, but by this time, the Peshwa had already left the area.[9] A company force led by General Pritzler pursued Peshwa, who tried to escape to Mysore. Meanwhile, General Smith captured Satara, the capital of Pratap Singh. Smith intercepted Peshwa in a battle on 19 February 1818 at Ashtoon (or Ashta); Bapuji Gokhale was killed in this action. The Peshwa then fled to Khandesh, while his jagirdars accepted the Company's suzerainty. A dejected Peshwa then met with John Malcolm on 2 June 1818, and surrendered his royal claims in exchange for a pension and a residence in Bithoor. Trimbakji Dengle was captured near Nashik and imprisoned at the Chunar Fort.[7]

As a reward for their bravery in the Battleof Koregaon, the 2nd battalion of the 1st Regiment of the Bombay Native Infantry was made Grenadiers. Their regiment came to be known as 1st Grenadier Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry.[1] The official report to the British Residents at Poona recalls the "heroic valour and enduring fortitude" of the soldiers, the "disciplined intrepidity" and "devoted courage and admirable consistency" of their actions.[14]

Captain Staunton was appointed an honorary aide-de-camp to the Governor General of India. The Court of Directors presented him with a sword and a sum of 500 guineas (gold coins). Later in 1823, he became a Major, and was appointed a companion of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath.[1]

General Thomas Hislop called the battle "one of the most heroic and brilliant achievements ever recorded on the annals of the army".[1] According to M.S. Naravane, "this gallant defense by a small number of Company's troops against an overwhelming Maratha force is rightly considered as one of the most glorious example of valour and fortitude in the annals of the Company's forces."[15]

Memorial[edit]

Neither side achieved a decisive victory in the battle.[16] Shortly after the battle, Mountstuart Elphinstone described it as a "small victory" for the Peshwa.[17] Nevertheless, the East India Company government praised the bravery of its troops, who could not be overpowered despite being outnumbered. Since the battle was one of the last ones to be fought in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, it came to be remembered as a Company victory after the war ended with Peshwa's defeat.[16] To commemorate its fallen soldiers, the Company commissioned a "victory pillar" (an obelisk) in Koregaon.[18] The inscription of the pillar declares that Captain Staunton's force "accomplished one of the proudest triumphs of the British Army in the East."[16]

Significance to Dalits[edit]

The Koregaon pillar inscription features the names of the 49 Company soldiers killed in the battle.[19] 22 of these names end with the suffix -nac (or -nak), which was used exclusively by the people of Mahar caste[16][20] The obelisk was featured on the Mahar Regiment's crest until Indian Independence. While it was built by the British as a symbol of their own power, today it serves as a memorial of the Mahars.,[14][21]

The Mahars were considered untouchable in the contemporary caste-based society. The Peshwas, who were high-caste Brahmins, were notorious for their mistreatment and persecution of the untouchables.[22] Because of this, the Dalits (former untouchables) now see the Koregaon obelisk as a symbol of their victory over the high-caste oppression.[23] The Dalit Buddhist leader B. R. Ambedkar visited the site on 1 January 1927.To commemorate his visit to the site, now thousands of his followers visit the site every New Year's Day.[24] A number of Mahar gatherings have also been held at the place.[19]

Although it is currently portrayed as victory of lower caste over upper caste Peshwas, the mahars had fought for the Peshwa rulers. [note 1]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Although it is currently portrayed as victory of lower caste over upper caste Peshwas, the mahars had fought for Maratha rulers including Shivaji , Rajaram and the Peshwa rulers.For example, Nagnak Mahar was prominent in the reign of Rajaram,Rainak mahar fought for Raigad and Shidnak Mahar saved the life of Peshwa general Parshuram Patwardhan during the Battle of Kharda in 1795[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. 18. Government Central Press. 1885. pp. 244–247. 
  2. ^ Surjit Mansingh (2006). Historical Dictionary of India. Scarecrow Press. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-8108-6502-0. 
  3. ^ Mohammad Tarique (2008). Modern Indian History. Tata McGraw-Hill. pp. 1.15–1.16. ISBN 978-0-07-066030-4. 
  4. ^ Gurcharn Singh Sandhu (1987). The Indian Cavalry: History of the Indian Armoured Corps. Vision Books. p. 211. ISBN 978-81-7094-013-5. 
  5. ^ John F. Riddick (2006). The History of British India: A Chronology. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-313-32280-8. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Charles Augustus Kincaid; Dattātraya Baḷavanta Pārasanīsa (1918). A history of the Maratha people. Oxford University Press. pp. 212–216. 
  7. ^ a b c d Peter Auber (1837). Rise and progress of the British power in India. 2. W. H. Allen & Co. pp. 542–550. 
  8. ^ a b Reginald George Burton (2008). Wellington's Campaigns in India. Lancer. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-0-9796174-6-1. 
  9. ^ a b c Henry Thoby Prinsep (1825). History of the Political and Military Transactions in India During the Administration of the Marquess of Hastings, 1813-1823. 2. Kingsbury, Parbury & Allen. pp. 158–167. 
  10. ^ a b R. V. Russell (1916). The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India. I. London: Macmillan and Co. p. 363. ISBN 9781465582942. The Arabs attacked us at Koregaon and would have certainly destroyed us had not the Peshwa withdrawn his troops on General Smith's approach. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f James Grant Duff (1826). A History of the Mahrattas. 3. Longmans, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green. pp. 432–438. 
  12. ^ a b Thomas Edward Colebrooke (2011) [1884]. Life of the Honourable Mountstuart Elphinstone. 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–17. 
  13. ^ Tony Jaques (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 542. ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9. 
  14. ^ a b Kumbhojkar, Shraddha (2012). "Contesting Power, Contesting Memories – The History of the Koregaon Memorial". The Economic and Political Weekly. Retrieved 2012-10-19. (subscription required)
  15. ^ Naravane, M.S. (2014). Battles of the Honorourable East India Company. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 83–84. ISBN 9788131300343. 
  16. ^ a b c d Shraddha Kumbhojkar 2015, p. 40.
  17. ^ S. G. Vaidya (1976). Peshwa Bajirao II and The Downfall of The Maratha Power. Pragati Prakashan. p. 308. In his Journal Elphinstone wrote that the Peshwa had gained a small victory at Koregaon 
  18. ^ Nisith Ranjan Ray (1983). Western Colonial Policy. Institute of Historical Studies. p. 176. 
  19. ^ a b Doranne Jacobson; Eleanor Zelliot; Susan Snow Wadley (1992). From untouchable to Dalit: essays on the Ambedkar Movement. Manohar. p. 89. 
  20. ^ Basham ;, Ardythe (Author); Das, Bhagwan (editor) (2008). Untouchable soldiers : the Maharas and the Mazhbis. Delhi: Gautam Book Centre. p. 27. ISBN 9788187733430. 
  21. ^ Kumbhojkar, Shraddha (Author); Geppert,, Dominik(Editor); Müller, Frank Lorenz(Editor) (2015). Sites of Imperial Memory: Commemorating Colonial Rule in the Nineteenth and , Chapter three : Politics, caste and the remembrance of the Raj: the Obelisk at Koregaon. Oxford University press. pp. 39–52. ISBN 9780719090813. 
  22. ^ Shraddha Kumbhojkar 2015, p. 41.
  23. ^ Shraddha Kumbhojkar 2015, p. 49.
  24. ^ Shraddha Kumbhojkar 2015, p. 47.
  25. ^ Kshirsagar, R.K. (1994). Dalit movement in India and its leaders : 1857-1956. New Delhi: M.D. Publ. p. 33. ISBN 9788185880433. Retrieved 7 August 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]