Mount Sinai Hospital (Manhattan)

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Mount Sinai Hospital
Mount Sinai Health System
Mount Sinai Hospital Logo.png
SinaiMed crop.jpg
Buildings of Mount Sinai seen from Central Park
Mount Sinai Hospital (Manhattan) is located in New York City
Mount Sinai Hospital (Manhattan)
Location 1 Gustave L. Levy Place and
1468 Madison Avenue,
New York City, East Harlem, NY 10029, United States
Coordinates 40°47′24″N 73°57′12″W / 40.790066°N 73.953249°W / 40.790066; -73.953249Coordinates: 40°47′24″N 73°57′12″W / 40.790066°N 73.953249°W / 40.790066; -73.953249
Funding Non-profit hospital
Hospital type University, Teaching
Affiliated university Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Network Mount Sinai Health System
Beds 1,171[1]
Founded 1852[1]
Lists Hospitals in the United States

Mount Sinai Hospital, founded in 1852, is one of the oldest and largest teaching hospitals in the United States.[1] In 2011–2012, Mount Sinai Hospital was ranked as one of America's best hospitals by U.S. News & World Report in 12 specialties.[2] Mount Sinai Hospital was ranked number 16 on the U.S. News & World Report 2014–15 Best Hospitals Rankings Honor Roll.[3] It was ranked number 15 on U.S. News & World Report 2016-2017 Best Hospitals Rankings Honor Roll.[4]

Located on the eastern border of Central Park stretching along Fifth Avenue between 98th and 103rd Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan, Mount Sinai also has a number of hospital affiliates in the New York metropolitan area including Brooklyn Hospital Center, and an additional campus, the Mount Sinai Hospital of Queens.

The hospital is also affiliated with the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, which opened in September 1968.[5] In 2013, the Mount Sinai Hospital joined with the Continuum Health Partners in the creation of the Mount Sinai Health System. The system encompasses the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and seven hospital campuses in the New York metropolitan area, as well as a large, regional ambulatory footprint.


The hospital, from a postcard sent in 1920

As U.S. cities grew more crowded in the mid-19th century, philanthropist Sampson Simson (1780-1857) founded a hospital to address the needs of New York's rapidly growing Jewish immigrant community. It was the second Jewish hospital in the United States. At the time of its founding in 1852, other hospitals in New York City discriminated against Jews by not hiring them and preventing them from being treated in their wards.[6]

The Jews' Hospital in the City of New York, as it was then called, was built on 28th Street in Manhattan, between 7th and 8th Avenues, on land donated by Simson; it opened two years before Simson's death. Four years later, it was unexpectedly filled to capacity with soldiers from the Civil War.[7][8]

The Jews' Hospital felt the effects of the escalating Civil War in other ways, as staff doctors and board members were called into service: Dr. Israel Moses served four years as lieutenant colonel in the 72nd;[9] Joseph Seligman had to resign as a member of the board of directors, as he was increasingly called upon by President Lincoln for advice on the country's growing financial crisis.[10][11]

The Draft Riots of 1863 again strained the resources of the new hospital, as draft inequities and a shortage of qualified men increased racial tensions in New York City. As the Jews' Hospital struggled to tend to the many wounded, outside its walls over 100 men, and children were killed in the riots.[12]

More and more, the Jews' Hospital was finding itself an integral part of the general community. In 1866, to reflect this new-found role, it changed its name. In 1872, the hospital moved uptown to the east side of Lexington Avenue, between 66th and 67th Streets.[13][14]

Now called The Mount Sinai Hospital, the institution forged relationships with many physicians who made contributions to medicine, including Henry N. Heineman, Frederick S. Mandelbaum, Bernard Sachs, Charles A. Elsberg, Emanuel Libman, and, most significantly, Abraham Jacobi, known as the father of American pediatrics and a champion of construction at the hospital's new site on Manhattan's Upper East Side in 1904.[15]

The hospital established a school of nursing in 1881. Created by Alma deLeon Hendricks and a small group of women, the Mount Sinai Hospital Training School for Nurses was taken over by the hospital in 1895. In 1923, the name was changed to the Mount Sinai Hospital School of Nursing. This school closed in 1971 after graduating 4,700 nurses—all women except one man in the last class. An active alumnae association continues.

The Icahn Medical Institute at 1425 Madison Avenue was built in 1997.

The early 20th century had the population of New York City explode. That, coupled with many new discoveries at Mount Sinai (including significant advances in blood transfusions and the first endotracheal anesthesia apparatus), meant that Mount Sinai's pool of doctors and experts was in increasing demand. A $1.35 million expansion of the 1904 hospital site (equivalent to over $30 million in 2008)[16] raced to keep pace with demand. The opening of the new buildings was delayed by the advent of World War I. Mount Sinai responded to a request from the United States Army Medical Corps with the creation of Base Hospital No.3. This unit went to France in early 1918 and treated 9,127 patients with 172 deaths: 54 surgical and 118 medical, the latter due mainly to influenza and pneumonia.

Two decades later, with tensions in Europe escalating, a committee dedicated to finding placements for doctors fleeing Nazi Germany was founded in 1933. With the help of the National Committee for the Resettlement of Foreign Physicians, Mount Sinai Hospital became a new home for a large number of émigrés. When World War II broke out, Mount Sinai was the first hospital to throw open its doors to Red Cross nurses' aides; the hospital trained many in its effort to reduce the nursing shortage in the States. Meanwhile, the president of the medical board, George Baehr, M.D., was called by President Roosevelt to serve as the nation's Chief Medical Director of the Office of Civilian Defense.[17]

These wartime roles were eclipsed, however, when the men and women of Mount Sinai's 3rd General Hospital set sail for Casablanca, eventually setting up a 1,000-bed hospital in war-torn Tunisia. Before moving to tend to the needs of soldiers in Italy and France, the 3rd General Hospital had treated more than 5,000 wounded soldiers.[18]

In the decades following World War II, Mount Sinai has continued its efforts to expand its usefulness to medicine and its communities. In 1963, the hospital created a medical school, and in 1968 welcomed the first students of Mount Sinai School of Medicine, now the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. The 1980s had a $500 million hospital expansion, including the construction of the Guggenheim Pavilion, the first medical facility designed by I.M. Pei; the faculty has made significant contributions to gene therapy, cardiology, immunotherapy, organ transplants, cancer treatments, and minimally invasive surgery.

Writing for The Boston Globe on 14 October 2007, Scott Allen reported the issue of patient abuse and problems with human resources management at Mount Sinai by Dr. Jack M. Gorman who was Department Chairman of Psychiatry at Mount Sinai. Allen stated that; "... officials at McLean learned that Gorman had, like so many patients at the renowned psychiatric hospital, attempted suicide. But their initial sympathy for a sick man turned to horror when they learned, from a legal document delivered in mid-May, why he had taken such a desperate measure. The married father of two had brought a shameful secret with him to Massachusetts: He had engaged in a long-term sexual relationship with a New York patient... Gorman, 55, inspired great hope when McLean and Partners announced that they had lured him away from New York City's Mount Sinai School of Medicine in October 2005... It was Gorman's decision to contact the New York Board of Professional Medical Conduct that finally brought the episode to public attention. Earlier this month, the board finally acted on what Gorman told them, posting on its website that his medical license had been indefinitely suspended for 'inappropriate sexual contact' with a patient."[19]

The issue of human resources management between nurses and doctors at Mount Sinai hospital was reported by Jose Martinez on April 20, 2010 in the New York Daily News. As stated by Martinez: "A Catholic nurse was forced to assist in an abortion at Mount Sinai Medical Center over her strenuous objections, a lawsuit filed Friday charges. Catherina Cenzon-DeCarlo, who works in the operating room at the Manhattan hospital, contends that her boss ordered her to assist in the May 2009 abortion of a 22-week-old fetus or face charges of 'insubordination and patient abandonment.'"[20]

Mount Sinai logo prior to 2013

In January 2013 David L. Reich was the first openly gay medical doctor named Interim President of Mount Sinai Hospital as reported by The New York Times;[21] in October of the same year he was named President.[22][23] On November 24, 2002, The New York Times reported the commitment ceremony of Reich to Keith Loren Marran stating that: "Keith Loren Marran Jr. and Dr. David Louis Reich are to celebrate their partnership today with a commitment ceremony at the Bloom Ballroom in Manhattan. Judge Paul G. Feinman of New York City Civil Court in Manhattan will officiate." [21]

James McKinley writing for The New York Times reported abuse issue investigations dealing with human resources management at Mount Sinai Hospital on March 24, 2016 when a doctor was brought to court for abuse of several patients. As stated by McKinley: "A former doctor at Mount Sinai Hospital in Manhattan was arraigned on Thursday on charges of sexually abusing four women who came into the emergency room there, touching their breasts for no medical reason and, in one case, drugging, groping and masturbating on a patient. The physician, Dr. David H. Newman, pleaded not guilty before Justice Michael J. Obus in State Supreme Court in Manhattan to one count of first-degree sexual abuse and four counts of third-degree sexual abuse. He remains free on bail. 'Four young women who came to the hospital for medical treatment were sexually abused by the very doctor entrusted with their care,' the Manhattan district attorney, Cyrus R. Vance Jr., said in a statement."[24]

Dennis S. Charney, the current Dean of Mount Sinai, graduated from medical school at Penn State in 1977 and completed his residency in Psychiatry at Yale School of Medicine. A fellowship in Biological Psychiatry was completed at the Connecticut Medical Health Center. Charney was shot and wounded as he left a deli in his home town of Chappaqua, New York, early on the morning of August 29, 2016. Hengjun Chao, a former Mount Sinai faculty member who had been fired for cause in 2010, was arrested and charged with attempted murder.[25][26] As reported by Jonah Bromwich in the New York Times, "A former faculty member at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine who had been fired shot the school’s dean outside a popular deli in Chappaqua, N.Y., on Monday, apparently in an act of revenge, the authorities said... Mount Sinai officials confirmed that the dean, Dr. Dennis S. Charney, 65, of Chappaqua, was one of the victims. The name of the other victim was not released. 'This is an extremely disturbing event,' Dr. Kenneth L. Davis, the chief executive of the Mount Sinai Health System, said in a statement. 'Fortunately, Dr. Charney’s injuries are not life-threatening, and we expect he will fully recover.'"[27]

Firsts at the hospital[edit]

Medical firsts[edit]

A significant number of diseases were first described at Mount Sinai Hospital in the last 160+ years, including Brill's disease, Buerger's disease, Churg-Strauss disease, collagen disease, Crohn's disease, eosinophilic granuloma of bone, glomus jugulare tumor, Libman-Sacks endocarditis, Moschcowitz disease, polymyalgia rheumatica,[28] and Tay-Sachs disease.[29]

Other "firsts" include:

Timeline of other significant events[edit]

  • 1852 – Hospital chartered as "The Jews' Hospital" in New York.
  • 1855 – “The Jews’ Hospital” opens for patients on June 5.[38]
  • 1866 – To free itself of racial or religious distinction, The Jews' Hospital changes it name to "The Mount Sinai Hospital."
  • 1872 – First women appointed to professional positions.
  • 1886 – The Eye and Ear Service is created; Dr. Josephine Walter, the first American woman to serve a formal residency in a general hospital, is granted a diploma.
  • 1908 – Dr. Rueben Ottenberg is the first to perform blood transfusions with routine compatibility test and to point out that blood groups are hereditary.
  • 1919 – Dr. I.C. Rubin introduces the use of peruterine insufflation of the fallopian tubes for the diagnosis and treatment of sterility in women.
  • 1928 – Dr. Moses Swick develops a method for introducing radio-opaque media into the blood stream for visualization of the urinary tract.
  • 1932 – Crohn's Disease, a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine, is identified by Drs. Burrill Crohn, Leon Ginzburg and Gordon D. Oppenheimer.
  • 1938 – The nation’s second blood bank is created.
  • 1953 – The Jack Martin Respirator Center admits its first polio patients.
  • 1962 – Dr. Arthur Grishman receives the first medical data, a cardiogram, transmitted successfully via the telephone lines.
  • 1963 – The New York State Board of Regents grants a charter for the establishment of a school of medicine.[39]
  • 1968 – The Graduate School of Biological Sciences admits its first students.
  • 1974 – The Adolescent Health Center is established – the first primary care program in New York designed specifically for the needs of adolescents.
  • 1982 – The Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development is created – the first such department in an American medical school.
  • 1986 – Doctors perform the first blood transfusion into the vein of an unborn fetus.
  • 1988 – Mount Sinai performs the first liver transplant in New York State.[40]
  • 1989 – The Center for Excellence in Youth Education is established, growing from other youth outreach programs that began at Mount Sinai in 1968.
  • 1992 – The Department of Human Genetics is established.
  • 1998 – Recanati/Miller Transplantation Unit opens.
  • 2006 – Mount Sinai Heart opens, a combination of clinicians, researchers and educators working to provide an integrated approach to cardiac care.
  • 2011 – The first center for chronic fatigue syndrome in a major medical center and medical school in the United States is established.
  • 2012 – Mount Sinai Hospital opened New York City's First Emergency Room for geriatrics patients.[41]
  • 2012 – It received an advanced certification from The Joint Commission for excellence in palliative care.[42]
  • 2013 – It became the first hospital in New York State to receive Joint Commission Comprehensive Stroke Center Certification.[43]

Areas of concentration[edit]

Specialty Condition
Heart Cardiomyopathy, Congestive heart failure, Mitral regurgitation, Angina, Arrhythmias, Aortic aneurysm, Mitral valve prolapse, Heart Attack, Atrial fibrillation, Septal defects
Brain Epilepsy, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Stroke, Parkinson's disease, Cerebral palsy, Arteriovenous malformations, Alzheimer's disease, Multiple sclerosis, Brain cancer
Organ Transplants Renal failure, Liver cirrhosis, Cystic fibrosis, Short gut syndrome, Congestive heart failure, Primary pulmonary hypertension, Laryngeal cancer,
Cancer Melanoma, Breast cancer, Lung cancer, Wilms tumor, Glioma, Colorectal cancer, Gastric cancer, Hepatoma, Esophageal cancer, Pheochromocytoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, Ovarian cancer
Gastrointestinal Conditions Gastric ulcer, Irritable bowel syndrome, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Food allergy, Spastic colon, Gallstones
Women Anorexia nervosa, Breast cancer, Heart attack, Osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease, Colorectal cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Human papillomavirus, Iron-deficiency anemia
Children Obesity, Congestive heart failure, Asthma, Myocarditis, Hypothyroidism, Food allergy, Juvenile diabetes, Cushing's syndrome, Sleep apnea
Bone, Joint and Spine Tennis elbow, Anterior cruciate ligament, Torn meniscus, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Chondromalacia patellae, Scoliosis, Bone fracture, Rotator cuff injury, Herniated disk, Osteoarthritis, Bunion, Spinal stenosis
Rehabilitation Medicine Traumatic Brain Injury, Spinal cord injury, Stroke, Anoxic brain injury, Amputee, Fluroscopic guided spinal injection, Acupuncture, Joint replacement
Palliative Care Breast cancer, Pancreatic cancer, Lung cancer, Emphysema, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Colorectal cancer, Coma, Alzheimer's disease, Renal failure, AIDS, Liver cirrhosis, Brain Cancer
HIV/AIDS Toxoplasmosis, Hepatitis C, Tuberculosis, Cryptosporidiosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, Aspergillosis
Diabetes Obesity, Cardiomyopathy, Cholecystitis, Kidney failure, Diabetic foot ulcer, Coma, Atherosclerosis, Enuresis, Gangrene
Occupational Health Occupational disease, Musculoskeletal Disorder, Asbestosis, Occupational stress, Injury, Occupational asthma, Ergonomics

Noteworthy individuals[edit]

Noted benefactors[edit]

  • Leon Black donated $10 million to create the Black Family Stem Cell Institute.[44]
  • Carl Icahn donated $25 million to Mount Sinai Medical Center for advanced medical research; a large building primarily devoted to research was renamed from the "East Building" to the "Icahn Medical Institute."[45] In 2012, Icahn pledged $200 million to the institution.[46] In exchange, the medical school was renamed the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and the genomics institute led by Eric Schadt was renamed the Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology.
  • Frederick Klingenstein, former CEO of Wertheim & Co., and wife Sharon Klingenstein donated $75 million, the largest single gift in the history of Mount Sinai, to establish an institute for scientific research and create a scholarship fund.[47]
  • Henry Kravis and wife Marie-Josée Kravis donated $15 million to establish the "Center for Cardiovascular Health" as well as funding a professorship.
  • Samuel A. Lewis, NYC political leader and philanthropist who served for 21 years (1852-1873) as the first Director, then Honorary Secretary, and finally Chairman of the Executive Committee.
  • Hermann Merkin gave $2 million in dedication of the kosher kitchen at the hospital.
  • Derald Ruttenberg donated $7 million to establish the Ruttenberg Cancer Center at Mount Sinai and later contributed $8 million more.[48]
  • Martha Stewart donated $5 million to start the Martha Stewart Center for Living at Mount Sinai Hospital. The center promotes access to medical care and offers support to caregivers needing referrals or education.[49]
  • James Tisch and wife Merryl Tisch donated $40 million to establish The Tisch Cancer Institute, a state-of-the-art, patient-oriented comprehensive cancer care and research facility.[50]
  • Sander S. Florman, Director of Recanati/Miller Transplant Institute.[51]
  • Jacob M. Appel (born 1973), bioethicist and liberal commentator[52]
  • Burrill Bernard Crohn (1884-1983), gastroenterologist and one of the first to describe the disease of which he is the namesake, Crohn's disease.[53]
  • Valentin Fuster (born 1943), Director of Mount Sinai Heart, The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, The Marie-Josée and Henry R. Kravis Center for Cardiovascular Health, The Richard Gorlin, MD/Heart Research Foundation Professor, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
  • Irving B. Goldman (1898-1975), first president of the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 1964
  • Jonathan L. Halperin, Director of Clinical Cardiology in the Zena and Michael A. Wierner Cardiovascular Institute
  • Michael Heidelberger (1888-1981), immunologist who is regarded as the father of modern immunology
  • Abraham Jacobi (1830-1919), pediatrician and president of the American Medical Association.e Pioneer of pediatrics In the US, devoted to women's and children's welfare.
  • Blair Lewis, gastroenterologist who helped develop the American Gastroenterological Association's position statement on occult and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Isidor Clinton Rubin (1883-1958), gynecologist and infertility specialist
  • Jonas Salk, inventor of the polio vaccine, worked as a staff physician at Mount Sinai after medical school[54]
  • Milton Sapirstein, clinical psychiatrist. Sought "to mesh the advances being made in neurobiology in the 1940's with psychoanalytic concepts."[55]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b c "About The Mount Sinai Hospital". Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Retrieved April 14, 2017. 
  2. ^ U.S. News & World Report: America's Best Hospitals 2011-12 retrieved on July 19, 2011.
  3. ^ [1] retrieved on April 14, 2016.
  4. ^ "2016-17 Best Hospitals Honor Roll and Overview". Retrieved 2016-08-02. 
  5. ^ Mount Sinai School of Medicine: History retrieved on April 28, 2010.
  6. ^ "When the Jews congregated at Mount Sinai," Jerusalem Post.
  7. ^ a b c This House of Noble Deeds, Mount Sinai Hospital, 1852 - 2002, Arthur H. Aufses, Jr. and Barbara J. Niss, New York University Press
  8. ^ Mount Sinai: Mount Sinai Hospital: History
  9. ^ The Chattanooga Civil War Round Table
  10. ^ The Civil War Dictionary
  11. ^ From Pack Peddler to International Banker: The Life and Times of Joseph Seligman
  12. ^ – New York Draft Riots
  13. ^ Staff. "NEW BUILDINGS.; Description of the Mount Sinai Hospital, and the St. John's M. E. Church in Fifty-third-street.", The New York Times, May 15, 1870. Accessed May 25, 2016. "Our Jewish fellow-citizens are about to erect, on the cast side of Lexington-avenue, between Sixty-sixth and Sixty-seventh streets, a spacious edifice for the accommodation of persons of their own faith, and to be known as the Mount Sinai Hospital."
  14. ^ Staff. "MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL.; Inauguration of the New Buildings Gov. Hoffman's Address Description of the Edifice.", The New York Times, May 30, 1872. Accessed May 25, 2016.
  15. ^ – Abraham Jacobi Biography
  16. ^
  17. ^ American Journal of Public Health, June 1943
  18. ^ Veterans' History Project: Interview with Isabelle Cook
  19. ^ The Boston Globe. October 14, 2007
  20. ^ New York Daily News, April 30, 2010
  21. ^ a b The New York Times, November 24, 2002.
  22. ^ Bloomberg News Bloomberg profile of David L. Reich Page accessed May 3, 2015
  23. ^ "David L. Reich, MD, Named President of The Mount Sinai Hospital". Retrieved May 20, 2014. 
  24. ^ The New York Times. James McKinley, March 24, 2016
  25. ^ Fired Professor Shot 2 Men Outside Chappaqua Deli, Police Say
  26. ^ After losing suit against former boss at top med school, a scientist shoots him, police say
  27. ^ Jonah Bromwich. Aug. 29, 2016. The New York Times.
  28. ^ Davison, S; Spiera, H; Plotz, C. M. (1966). "Polymyalgia rheumatica". Arthritis and rheumatism. 9 (1): 18–23. doi:10.1002/art.1780090103. PMID 4952416. 
  29. ^ a b c d Mount Sinai Firsts retrieved on April 26, 2010
  30. ^ New York Sun - Martha Stewart Center for Living Does a Mother Proud retrieved on April 24, 2008
  31. ^ - Mount Sinai School of Medicine Serving Science and Society retrieved on April 24, 2008
  32. ^ New York Times - First Liver Transplant in New York Performed retrieved on April 24, 2008
  33. ^ American Society of Clinical Oncology retrieved on April 24, 2008
  34. ^ - An Interview with Dr. Edwin Kilbourne retrieved on April 24, 2008
  35. ^ John Francis Maher (1 January 1989). Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis: A Text Book of Dialysis. Springer. pp. 33–33. ISBN 978-0-89838-414-7. 
  36. ^ Daily News - Jaw-Droppin' Op a Success Retrieved April 26, 2010
  37. ^ New York Times "Cardiogram Data Transmitted Here From West Coast"
  38. ^ [2] retrieved January 27, 2013.
  39. ^ Lissner, Will. "MT. SINAI TO OPEN MEDICAL SCHOOL; First Class to Enroll in '68 --Growth of a Biomedical Center Is Envisioned FIVE BUILDINGS PLANNED 30 Million Complex Will Be Built on Hospital Site-- University Tie Sought MT. SINAI TO OPEN MEDICAL SCHOOL", The New York Times, July 8, 1963. Accessed May 25, 2016.
  40. ^ James, George. "First Liver Transplant in New York Performed", The New York Times, September 18, 1988. Accessed May 25, 2016. "The Mount Sinai Medical Center has become the first hospital in New York State to perform a liver transplant."
  41. ^ [3] Mount Sinai Hospital
  42. ^ [4] Joint Commission for excellence in palliative care
  43. ^ [5] Joint Commission Comprehensive Stroke Center Certification
  44. ^ Mount Sinai School of Medicine establishes Stem Cell Institute
  45. ^ New York Times: Mount Sinai Gets $25 Million Gift
  46. ^ Nussbaum, Alex (2012-11-15). "Carl Icahn to Give $200 Million to Mount Sinai School". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  47. ^ New York Times: Financier Gives $75 Million To Mt. Sinai Medical School
  48. ^ New York Times: Derald H. Ruttenberg, 88, Quiet Deal Maker, Dies
  49. ^ USA TODAY: Senate panel calls on Martha Stewart
  50. ^ Mount Sinai: Dean's Quarterly
  51. ^ "Sander Florman | Mount Sinai - New York". Mount Sinai Health System. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  52. ^ "Diversity in Suspense," The American Spectator, July 9, 2009
  53. ^ Waggoner, Walter H. "DR. BURRILL B. CROHN, 99, AN EXPERT ON DISEASES OF THE INTESTINAL TRACT", The New York Times, July 30, 1983. Accessed May 25, 2016. " Dr. Burrill B. Crohn, a leading gastroenterologist whose work greatly advanced the understanding of ileitis - also known as Crohn's disease - died yesterday at the New Milford (Conn.) Hospital.... For most of his professional life, Dr. Crohn was associated with the Mount Sinai Medical Center."
  54. ^ Jonas Salk Biography on
  55. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (December 5, 1996). "Milton Sapirstein, 81, Professor And Researcher in Psychiatry". The New York Times. 

Further reading

External links[edit]