|Cape York Peninsula, Queensland|
Paman languages (green) among other Pama–Nyungan (tan)
The Paman languages (/pamən/) are an Australian language family spoken on the Cape York Peninsula of Queensland. First noted by Kenneth Hale, Paman is noteworthy for the profound phonological changes which have affected some of its descendants.
Geographically, running down the east coast, they are:
- North Cape York
- Umbindhamu †
- Yalgawarra †
- Mbariman-Gudhinma †
- Djabugay †
Down the west coast, they are:
- North Cape York
- Northern Paman
- Kok-Nar †
- Norman Paman
- Gugadj †
In the interior, south of Wik, they are:
The unclassified Marrett River language (†) was presumably Paman, though distinct from its neighbors, as presumably was Wik Paach (†). The Mayabic languages (†) to the southwest were once classified as Paman, but have been excluded in Bowern (2011). Alodja may have been another Thaypan / Rarmul Pama language.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Paman". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hale, Kenneth L. (1964). "Classification of Northern Paman Languages, Cape York Peninsula, Australia; A Research Report". Oceanic Linguistics. Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 3, No. 2. 3 (2): 248–265. doi:10.2307/3622881. JSTOR 3622881.
- Hale, Kenneth L. (1966). "The Paman group of the Pama–Nyungan phylic family. Appendix to Languages of the World: Indo-Pacific Fascicle Six, by G.N. O'Grady, C. F. & F.M. Voegelin". Anthropological Linguistics. 8 (2): 162–197.
- See Dixon (2002), pp. xxx–xlii.
- Y94 Gugu Mini at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
- Y199 Alungul at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies,
Y74 Gugu Yawa at the Australian Indigenous Languages Database, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
- Bowern, Claire. 2011. "How Many Languages Were Spoken in Australia?", Anggarrgoon: Australian languages on the web, 23 December 2011 (corrected 6 February 2012)
- Dixon, R. M. W. (2002). Australian Languages: Their Nature and Development.