Siddhaṃ script

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Shukla Siddham.svg
The word Siddhaṃ in Siddhaṃ script
Script type
Time period
c. late 6th century[1]c. 1200 CE[note 1]
Directionleft-to-right Edit this on Wikidata
Related scripts
Parent systems
Child systems
Sister systems
Śāradā,[2][3][5] Tibetan script[4]
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Sidd (302), ​Siddham, Siddhaṃ, Siddhamātṛkā
Unicode alias

Final Accepted Script Proposal

Variant Forms
  1. ^ a b c The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.

Siddhaṃ (also Siddhāṃ[7]), also known in its later evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā,[8] is a medieval Brahmic abugida, derived from the Gupta script and ancestral to the Nāgarī, Assamese, Bengali, Tirhuta, Odia and Nepalese scripts.[9]

The word Siddhaṃ means "accomplished" or "perfected" in Sanskrit. The script received its name from the practice of writing Siddhaṃ, or Siddhaṃ astu (may there be perfection), at the head of documents. Other names for the script include bonji (Japanese: 梵字) lit. "Brahma's characters" and "Sanskrit script" and Chinese: 悉曇文字; pinyin: Xītán wénzi lit. "Siddhaṃ script".


Siddhaṃ manuscript of the Heart Sutra. Bibliothèque nationale de France
A reproduction of the palm-leaf manuscript in Siddham script, originally held at Hōryū-ji Temple, Japan; now located in the Tokyo National Museum at the Gallery of Hōryū—ji Treasure. The original copy may be the earliest extant Sanskrit manuscript of the Heart Sutra dated to the 7th–8th century CE. It also contains the Sanskrit text of the Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī Sūtra and the final line shows the Siddhaṃ abugida.[10]
Chinese use of the Siddhaṃ script for the Pratisara mantra, from the Later Tang. 927 CE
Chinese use of the Siddhaṃ script for the Mahāpratyaṅgirā mantra. 971 CE
Siddhaṃ Bijakshara A, Daishō-in, Miyajima
Mirror with bijaksharas, Miyajima

The Siddham script evolved from the Gupta Brahmi script in the late 6th century CE.[1]

Many Buddhist texts taken to China along the Silk Road were written using a version of the Siddhaṃ script. This continued to evolve, and minor variations are seen across time, and in different regions. Importantly it was used for transmitting the Buddhist tantra texts. At the time it was considered important to preserve the pronunciation of mantras, and Chinese was not suitable for writing the sounds of Sanskrit. This led to the retention of the Siddhaṃ script in East Asia. The practice of writing using Siddhaṃ survived in East Asia where Tantric Buddhism persisted.

Kūkai introduced the Siddhaṃ script to Japan when he returned from China in 806, where he studied Sanskrit with Nalanda-trained monks including one known as Prajñā (Chinese: 般若三藏; pinyin: Bōrě Sāncáng; 734–c. 810). By the time Kūkai learned this script, the trading and pilgrimage routes over land to India had been closed by the expanding Abbasid Caliphate.[11]

In the middle of the 9th century, China experienced a series of purges of "foreign religions", thus cutting Japan off from the sources of Siddhaṃ texts. In time, other scripts, particularly Devanagari, replaced Siddhaṃ in India, while Siddhaṃ's northeastern derivative called Gaudi evolved to become the Assamese, Bengali, Tirhuta, Odia and also the Nepalese scripts in the eastern and northeastern regions of South Asia,[12][13] leaving East Asia as the only region where Siddhaṃ is still used.

There were special forms of Siddhaṃ used in Korea that varied significantly from those used in China and Japan, and there is evidence that Siddhaṃ was written in Central Asia, as well, by the early 7th century.

As was done with Chinese characters, Japanese Buddhist scholars sometimes created multiple characters with the same phonological value to add meaning to Siddhaṃ characters. This practice, in effect, represents a 'blend' of the Chinese style of writing and the Indian style of writing and allows Sanskrit texts in Siddhaṃ to be differentially interpreted as they are read, as was done with Chinese characters that the Japanese had adopted. This led to multiple variants of the same characters.[14]


Siddhaṃ is an abugida rather than an alphabet, as each character indicates a syllable, including a consonant and (possibly) a vowel. If the vowel sound is not explicitly indicated, the short 'a' is assumed. Diacritic marks are used to indicate other vowels, as well as the anusvara and visarga. A virama can be used to indicate that the consonant letter stands alone with no vowel, which sometimes happens at the end of Sanskrit words.

Siddhaṃ texts were usually written from left to right then top to bottom, as with other Brahmic scripts, but occasionally they were written in the traditional Chinese style, from top to bottom then right to left. Bilingual Siddhaṃ-Japanese texts show the manuscript turned 90 degrees clockwise and the Japanese is written from top to bottom, as is typical of Japanese, and then the manuscript is turned back again, and the Siddhaṃ writing is continued from left to right (the resulting Japanese characters appear sideways).

Over time, additional markings were developed, including punctuation marks, head marks, repetition marks, end marks, special ligatures to combine conjuncts and rarely to combine syllables, and several ornaments of the scribe's choice, which are not currently encoded. The nuqta is also used in some modern Siddhaṃ texts.


Independent form Romanized As diacritic with Siddham kya.svg Independent form Romanized As diacritic with Siddham kya.svg
𑖀 Siddham a.svg a 𑖎𑖿𑖧 Siddham kya.svg 𑖁 Siddham aa.svg ā 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖯 Siddham kyaa.svg
𑖂 Siddham i.svg i 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖰 Siddham kyi.svg 𑖃 Siddham ii.svg ī 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖱 Siddham kyii.svg
𑖄 Siddham u.svg u 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖲 Siddham kyu.svg 𑖅 Siddham uu.svg ū 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖳 Siddham kyuu.svg
𑖊 Siddham e.svg e 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖸 Siddham kye.svg 𑖋 Siddham ai.svg ai 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖹 Siddham kyai.svg
𑖌 Siddham o.svg o 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖺 Siddham kyo.svg 𑖍 Siddham au.svg au 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖻 Siddham kyau.svg
𑖀𑖽 Siddham am.svg aṃ 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖽 Siddham kyam.svg 𑖀𑖾 Siddham ah.svg aḥ 𑖎𑖿𑖧𑖾 Siddham kyah.svg
Alternative forms
Siddham aa1.svg ā Siddham i1.svg i Siddham i2.svg i Siddham ii1.svg ī Siddham ii2.svg ī Siddham u1.svg u Siddham uu1.svg ū Siddham o1.svg o Siddham au1.svg au Siddham am1.svg aṃ
Independent form Romanized As diacritic with Siddham k.svg Independent form Romanized As diacritic with Siddham k.svg
𑖆 Siddham ri.svg 𑖎𑖴 Siddham kri.svg 𑖇 Siddham rii.svg
𑖈 Siddham li.svg 𑖉 Siddham lii.svg


Stop Approximant Fricative
Tenuis Aspirated Voiced Breathy voiced Nasal
Glottal 𑖮 Siddham h.svg h
Velar 𑖎 Siddham k.svg k 𑖏 Siddham kh.svg kh 𑖐 Siddham g.svg g 𑖑 Siddham gh.svg gh 𑖒 Siddham ng.svg
Palatal 𑖓 Siddham c.svg c 𑖔 Siddham ch.svg ch 𑖕 Siddham j.svg j 𑖖 Siddham jh.svg jh 𑖗 Siddham ny2.svg ñ 𑖧 Siddham y.svg y 𑖫 Siddham sh1.svg ś
Retroflex 𑖘 Siddham tt.svg 𑖙 Siddham tth.svg ṭh 𑖚 Siddham dd.svg 𑖛 Siddham ddh.svg ḍh 𑖜 Siddham nn.svg 𑖨 Siddham r.svg r 𑖬 Siddham ss.svg
Dental 𑖝 Siddham t.svg t 𑖞 Siddham th.svg th 𑖟 Siddham d.svg d 𑖠 Siddham dh2.svg dh 𑖡 Siddham n.svg n 𑖩 Siddham l.svg l 𑖭 Siddham s.svg s
Bilabial 𑖢 Siddham p.svg p 𑖣 Siddham ph.svg ph 𑖤 Siddham b.svg b 𑖥 Siddham bh.svg bh 𑖦 Siddham m.svg m
Labiodental 𑖪 Siddham v3.svg v
Conjuncts in alphabet
𑖎𑖿𑖬 Siddham kss.svg kṣ 𑖩𑖿𑖩𑖽 Siddham llm.svg llaṃ
Alternative forms
Siddham ch1.svg ch Siddham j1.svg j Siddham ny.svg ñ Siddham tt1.svg Siddham tth1.svg ṭh Siddham ddh1.svg ḍh Siddham ddh2.svg ḍh Siddham nn1.svg Siddham nn3.svg Siddham th1.svg th Siddham th2.svg th Siddham dh.svg dh Siddham n2.svg n Siddham m1.svg m Siddham sh.svg ś Siddham sh2.svg ś Siddham v.svg v


Siddhaṃ alphabet by Kūkai (774–835)
A Buddhist altar in Kawasaki, Japan showing a devotional mantra inscribed in Siddham to Shakyamuni Buddha with Japanese pronunciation guide
kkṣ -ya -ra -la -va -ma -na
𑖎 Siddham k.svg k 𑖎𑖿𑖧 Siddham kya.svg kya 𑖎𑖿𑖨 Siddham kra.svg kra 𑖎𑖿𑖩 Siddham kla.svg kla 𑖎𑖿𑖪 Siddham kva.svg kva 𑖎𑖿𑖦 Siddham kma.svg kma 𑖎𑖿𑖡 Siddham kna1.svg kna
𑖨𑖿𑖎 Siddham rka.svg rk 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖧 Siddham rkya.svg rkya 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖨 Siddham rkra.svg rkra 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖩 Siddham rkla.svg rkla 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖪 Siddham rkva.svg rkva 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖦 Siddham rkma.svg rkma 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖡 Siddham rkna.svg rkna
𑖏 Siddham kh.svg kh
    total 68 rows.
  • ↑ The combinations that contain adjoining duplicate letters should be deleted in this table.
𑖒𑖿𑖎 Siddham ngka1.svg ṅka 𑖒𑖿𑖏 Siddham ngkha.svg ṅkha 𑖒𑖿𑖐 Siddham ngga1.svg ṅga 𑖒𑖿𑖑 Siddham nggha.svg ṅgha
𑖗𑖿𑖓 Siddham nyca.svg ñca 𑖗𑖿𑖔 Siddham nycha.svg ñcha 𑖗𑖿𑖕 Siddham nyja1.svg ñja 𑖗𑖿𑖖 Siddham nyjha.svg ñjha
𑖜𑖿𑖘 Siddham nntta.svg ṇṭa 𑖜𑖿𑖙 Siddham nnttha.svg ṇṭha 𑖜𑖿𑖚 Siddham nndda.svg ṇḍa 𑖜𑖿𑖛 Siddham nnddha.svg ṇḍha
𑖡𑖿𑖝 Siddham nta.svg nta 𑖡𑖿𑖞 Siddham ntha.svg ntha 𑖡𑖿𑖟 Siddham nda.svg nda 𑖡𑖿𑖠 Siddham ndha1.svg ndha
𑖦𑖿𑖢 Siddham mpa.svg mpa 𑖦𑖿𑖣 Siddham mpha.svg mpha 𑖦𑖿𑖤 Siddham mba.svg mba 𑖦𑖿𑖥 Siddham mbha.svg mbha
𑖒𑖿𑖧 Siddham ngya1.svg ṅya 𑖒𑖿𑖨 Siddham ngra.svg ṅra 𑖒𑖿𑖩 Siddham ngla.svg ṅla 𑖒𑖿𑖪 Siddham ngva.svg ṅva
𑖒𑖿𑖫 Siddham ngsha.svg ṅśa 𑖒𑖿𑖬 Siddham ngssa.svg ṅṣa 𑖒𑖿𑖭 Siddham ngsa.svg ṅsa 𑖒𑖿𑖮 Siddham ngha.svg ṅha 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖬 Siddham ngkssa.svg ṅkṣa
𑖭𑖿𑖎 Siddham ska.svg ska 𑖭𑖿𑖏 Siddham skha.svg skha 𑖟𑖿𑖐 Siddham dga.svg dga 𑖟𑖿𑖑 Siddham dgha.svg dgha 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖝𑖿𑖨 Siddham ngktra.svg ṅktra
𑖪𑖿𑖓 Siddham wca.svg vca/bca 𑖪𑖿𑖔 Siddham wcha.svg vcha/bcha 𑖪𑖿𑖕 Siddham wja.svg vja/bja 𑖪𑖿𑖖 Siddham wjha.svg vjha/bjha 𑖕𑖿𑖗 Siddham jny1.svg jña
𑖬𑖿𑖘 Siddham sstta.svg ṣṭa 𑖬𑖿𑖙 Siddham ssttha.svg ṣṭha 𑖟𑖿𑖚 Siddham ddda.svg dḍa 𑖟𑖿𑖛 Siddham dddha.svg dḍha 𑖬𑖿𑖜 Siddham ssnya.svg ṣṇa
𑖭𑖿𑖝 Siddham sta.svg sta 𑖭𑖿𑖞 Siddham stha.svg stha 𑖪𑖿𑖟 Siddham wda.svg vda/bda 𑖪𑖿𑖠 Siddham wdha.svg vdha/bdha 𑖨𑖿𑖝𑖿𑖭𑖿𑖡 Siddham rtsna.svg rtsna
𑖭𑖿𑖢 Siddham spa.svg spa 𑖭𑖿𑖣 Siddham spha.svg spha 𑖟𑖿𑖤 Siddham dba.svg dba 𑖟𑖿𑖥 Siddham dbha.svg dbha 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖬𑖿𑖦 Siddham rkssma.svg rkṣma
𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖬𑖿𑖪𑖿𑖧 Siddham rkssvya.svg rkṣvya 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖬𑖿𑖪𑖿𑖨𑖿𑖧 Siddham rkssvrya.svg rkṣvrya 𑖩𑖿𑖝 Siddham lta.svg lta 𑖝𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖪 Siddham tkva.svg tkva
𑖘𑖿𑖫 Siddham ttsha2.svg ṭśa 𑖘𑖿𑖬 Siddham ttssa.svg ṭṣa 𑖭𑖿𑖮 Siddham sha.svg sha 𑖤𑖿𑖎𑖿𑖬 Siddham bkssa.svg bkṣa
𑖢𑖿𑖝 Siddham pta.svg pta 𑖘𑖿𑖎 Siddham ttka.svg ṭka 𑖟𑖿𑖭𑖿𑖪 Siddham dsva.svg dsva 𑖘𑖿𑖬𑖿𑖔𑖿𑖨 Siddham ttsschra.svg ṭṣchra
𑖕𑖿𑖕 Siddham jja.svg jja 𑖘𑖿𑖘 Siddham ttttta.svg ṭṭa 𑖜𑖿𑖜 Siddham nnnna.svg ṇṇa 𑖝𑖿𑖝 Siddham tta.svg tta 𑖡𑖿𑖡 Siddham nna2.svg nna 𑖦𑖿𑖦 Siddham mma.svg mma 𑖩𑖿𑖩 Siddham lla.svg lla 𑖪𑖿𑖪 Siddham vva.svg vva
Alternative forms of conjuncts that contain .
𑖜𑖿𑖘 Siddham nntta1.svg ṇṭa 𑖜𑖿𑖙 Siddham nnttha1.svg ṇṭha 𑖜𑖿𑖚 Siddham nndda1.svg ṇḍa 𑖜𑖿𑖛 Siddham nnddha1.svg ṇḍha

ṛ syllables[edit]

𑖎𑖴 Siddham kri.svg kṛ 𑖏𑖴 Siddham khri.svg khṛ 𑖐𑖴 Siddham gri.svg gṛ 𑖑𑖴 Siddham ghri.svg ghṛ 𑖒𑖴 Siddham ngri.svg ṅṛ 𑖓𑖴 Siddham cri.svg cṛ 𑖔𑖴 Siddham chri.svg chṛ 𑖕𑖴 Siddham jri.svg jṛ 𑖖𑖴 Siddham jhri.svg jhṛ 𑖗𑖴 Siddham nyri.svg ñṛ

Some sample syllables[edit]

𑖨𑖿𑖎 Siddham rka.svg rka 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖯 Siddham rkaa.svg rkā 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖰 Siddham rki.svg rki 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖱 Siddham rkii.svg rkī 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖲 Siddham rku.svg rku 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖳 Siddham rkuu.svg rkū 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖸 Siddham rke.svg rke 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖹 Siddham rkai.svg rkai 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖺 Siddham rko.svg rko 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖻 Siddham rkau.svg rkau 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖽 Siddham rkam.svg rkaṃ 𑖨𑖿𑖎𑖾 Siddham rkah.svg rkaḥ
𑖒𑖿𑖎 Siddham ngka1.svg ṅka 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖯 Siddham ngkaa.svg ṅkā 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖰 Siddham ngki.svg ṅki 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖱 Siddham ngkii.svg ṅkī 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖲 Siddham ngku.svg ṅku 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖳 Siddham ngkuu.svg ṅkū 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖸 Siddham ngke.svg ṅke 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖹 Siddham ngkai.svg ṅkai 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖺 Siddham ngko.svg ṅko 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖻 Siddham ngkau.svg ṅkau 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖽 Siddham ngkam.svg ṅkaṃ 𑖒𑖿𑖎𑖾 Siddham ngkah.svg ṅkaḥ


Shorter Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra written in katakana, Siddhaṃ scripts and kanji. This book was published in 1773 in Japan.

In Japan, the writing of mantras and copying/reading of sutras using the Siddhaṃ script is still practiced in the esoteric schools of Shingon Buddhism and Tendai as well as in the syncretic sect of Shugendō. The characters are known as shittan (悉曇) or bonji (梵字, Chinese: Fànzì). The Taishō Tripiṭaka version of the Chinese Buddhist canon preserves the Siddhaṃ characters for most mantras, and Korean Buddhists still write bījas in a modified form of Siddhaṃ. A recent innovation is the writing of Japanese language slogans on T-shirts using Bonji. Japanese Siddhaṃ has evolved from the original script used to write sūtras and is now somewhat different from the ancient script.[15][16][17]

It is typical to see Siddhaṃ written with a brush, as with Chinese writing; it is also written with a bamboo pen. In Japan, a special brush called a bokuhitsu (朴筆, Cantonese: pokbat) is used for formal Siddhaṃ calligraphy. The informal style is known as "fude" (, Cantonese: "moubat").

Siddhaṃ fonts[edit]

Siddhaṃ is still largely a hand written script. Some efforts have been made to create computer fonts, though to date none of these are capable of reproducing all of the Siddhaṃ conjunct consonants. Notably, the Chinese Buddhist Electronic Texts Association has created a Siddhaṃ font for their electronic version of the Taisho Tripiṭaka, though this does not contain all possible conjuncts. The software Mojikyo also contains fonts for Siddhaṃ, but split Siddhaṃ in different blocks and requires multiple fonts to render a single document.

A Siddhaṃ input system which relies on the CBETA font Siddhamkey 3.0 has been produced.


Siddhaṃ script was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0.

The Unicode block for Siddhaṃ is U+11580–U+115FF:

Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1158x 𑖀 𑖁 𑖂 𑖃 𑖄 𑖅 𑖆 𑖇 𑖈 𑖉 𑖊 𑖋 𑖌 𑖍 𑖎 𑖏
U+1159x 𑖐 𑖑 𑖒 𑖓 𑖔 𑖕 𑖖 𑖗 𑖘 𑖙 𑖚 𑖛 𑖜 𑖝 𑖞 𑖟
U+115Ax 𑖠 𑖡 𑖢 𑖣 𑖤 𑖥 𑖦 𑖧 𑖨 𑖩 𑖪 𑖫 𑖬 𑖭 𑖮 𑖯
U+115Bx 𑖰 𑖱 𑖲 𑖳 𑖴 𑖵 𑖸 𑖹 𑖺 𑖻 𑖼 𑖽 𑖾 𑖿
U+115Cx 𑗀 𑗁 𑗂 𑗃 𑗄 𑗅 𑗆 𑗇 𑗈 𑗉 𑗊 𑗋 𑗌 𑗍 𑗎 𑗏
U+115Dx 𑗐 𑗑 𑗒 𑗓 𑗔 𑗕 𑗖 𑗗 𑗘 𑗙 𑗚 𑗛 𑗜 𑗝
1.^ As of Unicode version 14.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points


  1. ^ Its usage survives into the modern period for liturgical purposes in Japan and Korea.



  1. ^ a b Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Delhi: Pearson. p. 43. ISBN 9788131716779.
  2. ^ a b,p39-41[dead link]
  3. ^ a b Malatesha Joshi, R.; McBride, Catherine (11 June 2019). Handbook of Literacy in Akshara Orthography. ISBN 9783030059774.
  4. ^ a b Daniels, P.T. (January 2008). "Writing systems of major and minor languages". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ a b c Masica, Colin (1993). The Indo-Aryan languages. p. 143.
  6. ^ Handbook of Literacy in Akshara Orthography, R. Malatesha Joshi, Catherine McBride (2019), p. 27.
  7. ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, page 1215, col. 1
  8. ^ Rajan, Vinodh; Sharma, Shriramana (2012-06-28). "L2/12-221: Comments on naming the "Siddham" encoding" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-19.
  9. ^ "Devanagari: Development, Amplification, and Standardisation". Central Hindi Directorate, Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, Govt. of India. 3 April 1977. Retrieved 3 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ e-museum 2018   Ink on pattra (palmyra leaves used for writing upon) ink on paper Heart Sutra: 4.9x28.0 Dharani: 4.9x27.9/10.0x28.3 Late Gupta period/7–8th century Tokyo National Museum N-8.
  11. ^ Pandey, Anshuman (2012-08-01). "N4294: Proposal to Encode the Siddham Script in ISO/IEC 10646" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2.
  12. ^ Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian Epigraphy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-535666-3.
  13. ^ Handbook of Literacy in Akshara Orthography, R. Malatesha Joshi, Catherine McBride(2019)
  14. ^ Kawabata, Taichi; Suzuki, Toshiya; Nagasaki, Kiyonori; Shimoda, Masahiro (2013-06-11). "N4407R: Proposal to Encode Variants for Siddham Script" (PDF). Working Group Document, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2.
  15. ^ SM Dine, 2012, Sanskrit Beyond Text: The Use of Bonji (Siddham) in Mandala and Other Imagery in Ancient and Medieval Japan, University of Washington.
  16. ^ Siddhaṃ : the perfect script.
  17. ^ Buddhism guide: Shingon.


  • Bonji Taikan (梵字大鑑). (Tōkyō: Meicho Fukyūkai, 1983)
  • Chaudhuri, Saroj Kumar (1998). Siddham in China and Japan, Sino-Platonic papers No. 88
  • e-Museum, National Treasures & Important Cultural Properties of National Museums, Japan (2018), "Sanskrit Version of Heart Sutra and Viyaya Dharani", e-Museum
  • Stevens, John. Sacred Calligraphy of the East. (Boston, MA: Shambala, 1995.)
  • Van Gulik, R.H. Siddham: An Essay on the History of Sanskrit Studies in China and Japan (New Delhi, Jayyed Press, 1981).
  • Yamasaki, Taikō. Shingon: Japanese Esoteric Buddhism. (Fresno: Shingon Buddhist International Institute, 1988.)

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