Cyrillic alphabets

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Countries with widespread use of the Cyrillic script:
  Sole official script
  Co-official with another script (either because the official language is biscriptal, or the state is bilingual)
  Being replaced with Latin, but is still in official use
  Legacy script for the official language, or large minority use
  Cyrillic is not widely used

Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script. The early Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the 9th century AD and replaced the earlier Glagolitic script developed by the Bulgarian theologians Cyril and Methodius. It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, past and present, Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011, around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages. About half of them are in Russia. Cyrillic is one of the most-used writing systems in the world. The creator is Saint Clement of Ohrid from the Preslav literary school in the First Bulgarian Empire.

Some of these are illustrated below; for others, and for more detail, see the links. Sounds are transcribed in the IPA. While these languages largely have phonemic orthographies, there are occasional exceptions—for example, Russian ⟨г⟩ is pronounced /v/ in a number of words, an orthographic relic from when they were pronounced /ɡ/ (e.g. его yego 'him/his', is pronounced [jɪˈvo] rather than [jɪˈɡo]).

Spellings of names transliterated into the Roman alphabet may vary, especially й (y/j/i), but also г (gh/g/h) and ж (zh/j).

Unlike the Latin script, which is usually adapted to different languages by adding diacritical marks/supplementary glyphs (such as accents, umlauts, tildes and cedillas) to standard Roman letters, by assigning new phonetic values to existing letters (e.g. ⟨c⟩, whose original value in Latin was /k/, represents /ts/ in West Slavic languages, /ʕ/ in Somali, /t͡ʃ/ in many African languages and /d͡ʒ/ in Turkish), or by the use of digraphs (such as ⟨sh⟩, ⟨ch⟩, ⟨ng⟩ and ⟨ny⟩), the Cyrillic script is usually adapted by the creation of entirely new letter shapes. However, in some alphabets invented in the 19th century, such as Mari, Udmurt and Chuvash, umlauts and breves also were used.

Bulgarian and Bosnian Sephardim without Hebrew typefaces occasionally printed Judeo-Spanish in Cyrillic.[1]

Spread[edit]

The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
АА̀А̂А̄ӒБВГ
ҐДЂЃЕЀЕ̄Е̂
ЁЄЖЗЗ́ЅИІ
ЇЍИ̂ӢЙЈК
ЛЉМНЊОО̀О̂
ŌӦПРР̌СС́Т
ЋЌУУ̀У̂ӮЎӰ
ФХЦЧЏШЩ
ЪЪ̀ЫЬѢЭЮЮ̀
ЯЯ̀
Non-Slavic letters
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́Ә̃
ӚВ̌ԜГ̑Г̇Г̣Г̌Г̂
Г̆Г̈ҔҒӺҒ̌Ӷ
Д́Д̌Д̈Д̣Д̆ӖЕ̃
Ё̄Є̈ԐԐ̈ҖӜӁЖ̣
ҘӞЗ̌З̣З̆ӠИ̃Ӥ
ҊҚӃҠҞҜК̣Ԛ
Л́ӅԮԒЛ̈Ӎ
Н́ӉҢԨӇҤО̆О̃
Ӧ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪԤП̈
ҎС̌ҪС̣С̱Т́Т̈Т̌
Т̇Т̣ҬУ̃ӲУ̊Ӱ̄
ҰҮҮ́Х̣Х̱Х̮Х̑Х̌
ҲӼӾҺҺ̈ԦЦ̌Ц̈
ҴҶҶ̣ӴӋҸЧ̇
Ч̣ҼҾШ̈Ш̣Ы̆Ы̄
ӸҌҨЭ̆Э̄Э̇Ӭ
Ӭ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̄Я̆Я̄Я̈
Ӏʼˮ
Archaic or unused letters
А̨Б̀Б̣Б̱В̀Г̀Г̧
Г̄Г̓Г̆Ҕ̀Ҕ̆ԀД̓
Д̀Д̨ԂЕ̇Е̨
Ж̀Ж̑Џ̆
Ꚅ̆З̀З̑ԄԆ
ԪІ̂І̣І̨
Ј̵Ј̃К̓К̀К̆Ӄ̆
К̑К̇К̈К̄ԞК̂
Л̀ԠԈЛ̑Л̇Ԕ
М̀М̃Н̀Н̄Н̧
Н̃ԊԢН̡Ѻ
П̓П̀
П́ҦП̧П̑ҀԚ̆Р́
Р̀Р̃ԖС̀С̈ԌҪ̓
Т̓Т̀ԎТ̑Т̧
Ꚍ̆ОУУ̇
У̨ꙋ́Ф̑Ф̓Х́Х̀Х̆Х̇
Х̧Х̾Х̓һ̱ѠѼ
ѾЦ̀Ц́Ц̓Ꚏ̆
Ч́Ч̀Ч̆Ч̑Ч̓
ԬꚆ̆Ҽ̆Ш̀
Ш̆Ш̑Щ̆Ꚗ̆Ы̂
Ы̃Ѣ́Ѣ̈Ѣ̆Э̨Э̂
Ю̂Я̈Я̂Я̨
ԘѤѦѪѨ
ѬѮѰѲѴѶ

Non-Slavic alphabets are generally modelled after Russian, but often bear striking differences, particularly when adapted for Caucasian languages. The first few of these alphabets were developed by Orthodox missionaries for the Finnic and Turkic peoples of Idel-Ural (Mari, Udmurt, Mordva, Chuvash, and Kerashen Tatars) in the 1870s. Later, such alphabets were created for some of the Siberian and Caucasus peoples who had recently converted to Christianity. In the 1930s, some of those languages were switched to the Uniform Turkic Alphabet. All of the peoples of the former Soviet Union who had been using an Arabic or other Asian script (Mongolian script etc.) also adopted Cyrillic alphabets, and during the Great Purge in the late 1930s, all of the Latin alphabets of the peoples of the Soviet Union were switched to Cyrillic as well (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia were occupied and annexed by Soviet Union in 1940, and were not affected by this change). The Abkhazian and Ossetian languages were switched to Georgian script, but after the death of Joseph Stalin, both also adopted Cyrillic. The last language to adopt Cyrillic was the Gagauz language, which had used Greek script before.

In Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, the use of Cyrillic to write local languages has often been a politically controversial issue since the collapse of the Soviet Union, as it evokes the era of Soviet rule and Russification. Some of Russia's peoples such as the Tatars have also tried to drop Cyrillic, but the move was halted under Russian law. A number of languages have switched from Cyrillic to either a Roman-based orthography or a return to a former script.

Cyrillic alphabets continue to be used in several Slavic (Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Belarusian) and non-Slavic (Kazakh, Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Tajik, Gagauz, Mongolian) languages.

Common letters[edit]

The following table lists the Cyrillic letters which are used in the alphabets of most of the national languages which use a Cyrillic alphabet. Exceptions and additions for particular languages are noted below.

Common Cyrillic letters
Upright Italic Name(s) IPA
А а А а A /a/
Б б Б б Be /b/
В в В в Ve /v/
Г г Г г Ge /g/
Д д Д д De /d/
Е е Е е
Ëë Ëë Jo

Yo

/jo/
Ж ж Ж ж /ʒ/
З з З з Ze /z/
И и И и I
  • /i/
  • /ʲi/
Й й Й й Short I[a]/I kratkaya /j/
К к К к Ka /k/
Л л Л л El /l/
М м М м Em /m/
Н н Н н /n/
О о О о O /o/
П п П п Pe /p/
Р р Р р /r/
С с С с /s/
Т т Т т Te /t/
У у У у U /u/
Ф ф Ф ф /f/
Х х Х х /x/
Ц ц Ц ц
  • /ts/
  • (t͡s)
Ч ч Ч ч
Ш ш Ш ш /ʃ/
Щ щ Щ щ
[b]
Ь ь Ь ь /ʲ/[e]
Э э Э э E /e/
Ю ю Ю ю
  • /ju/
  • /ʲu/
Я я Я я
  • /ja/
  • /ʲa/
  1. ^ Russian: и краткое, i kratkoye; Bulgarian: и кратко, i kratko. Both mean "short i".
  2. ^ See the notes for each language for details
  3. ^ Russian: мягкий знак, myagkiy znak
  4. ^ Bulgarian: ер малък, er malâk
  5. ^ The soft sign ⟨ь⟩ usually does not represent a sound, but modifies the sound of the preceding letter, indicating palatalization ("softening"), also separates the consonant and the following vowel. Sometimes it does not have phonetic meaning, just orthographic; e.g. Russian туш, tush [tuʂ] 'flourish after a toast'; тушь, tushʹ [tuʂ] 'India ink'. In some languages, a hard sign ⟨ъ⟩ or apostrophe ⟨’⟩ just separates the consonant and the following vowel (бя [bʲa], бья [bʲja], бъя = б’я [bja]).

Slavic languages[edit]

Cyrillic alphabets used by Slavic languages can be divided into two categories:

South Slavic[edit]

Bulgarian[edit]

First Bulgarian Empire, 9th century (850)
The Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ж ж З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ь ь Ю ю Я я

The Bulgarian alphabet features:

  • The Bulgarian names for the consonants are [bɤ], [kɤ], [ɫɤ] (bǔ, kǔ, lǔ) etc. instead of [bɛ], [ka], [ɛl] (be, ka, el) etc.
  • Е represents /ɛ/ and is called "е" [ɛ]. Unlike in other Slavic languages, the sound [jɛ] does not exist in native words, being replaced with Е in most cases.
  • The sounds /dʒ/ (/d͡ʒ/) and /dz/ (/d͡z/) are represented by the digraphs дж and дз respectively, as in Ukrainian.
  • Short I (Й, й) represents /j/, as in Russian.
  • Щ represents /ʃt/ (/ʃ͡t/) and is called "щъ" [ʃtɤ] ([ʃ͡tɤ]).
  • Ъ represents the vowel /ɤ/, and is called "ер голям" (IPA: [ˈɛr ɡoˈʎam]) ('big er'). Despite the official name being "big er", the letter is only referred to as that in the context of the alphabet, and is usually called /ɤ/ in common speech . The vowel Ъ /ɤ/ is sometimes approximated to the /ə/ (schwa) sound found in many languages for easier comprehension of its Bulgarian pronunciation for foreigners, but it is actually a back vowel, not a central vowel.[citation needed]
  • Ь is used on rare occasions (only after a consonant [and] before the vowel "о"), such as in the words 'каньон' (canyon), 'шофьор' (driver), etc. It represents the sound [j], unless after Г, К and Л, in which case it palatalizes them to [ɟ], [c] and [ʎ]. It is called "ер малък" [ˈɛr ˈmalɐk] ('small er').
  • Before 1945, the letter Ѣ (yat) was used. In eastern dialects, the letter would be pronounced as [ɛ] or [ja] depending on the context, while in western dialects, it would be pronounced almost exclusively as [ɛ]. This led to cases in which words such as млѣко (Modern Bulgarian: мляко) would be pronounced as "mlyako" in the east, but as "mleko" in the west. In 1945, the letter was abolished and replaced by Я or Е, depending on its use in the eastern dialects. The letter is also referred to as "е двойно" (double e).
  • Before 1945, the letter Ѫ (big yus) was used. In early Bulgarian, the letter represented the nasal vowel [ɔ̃]. By the late 18th century however, the sound had shifted to /ɤ/, the same sound as Ъ, and was mostly used in its etymological locations. There are no differences between the two, apart from the fact that Ѫ can be used at the end of words. In 1945, the letter was abolished along with Ѣ (yat) and was replaced by А or Ъ. It is sometimes referred to as "голяма носовка" (big nasal sign) and "ъ широко" (wide ъ).
  • For a brief period, the letter Ѭ (iotated big yus) was used, during the use of the Drinov Orthography, and represented the sound [jɐ] or /jɤ/ in words verb conjugations, for example in търпѭ (IPA: /tɐrˈpjɤ/). The letter Ѫ was also used for the same purpose alongside its normal usage. In 1899, both letters replaced in verb conjugations by Я and А in all cases as part of the new Ivanchov Orthography.

The Cyrillic alphabet was originally developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 9th – 10th century AD at the Preslav Literary School.[2][3]

It has been used in Bulgaria (with modifications and exclusion of certain archaic letters via spelling reforms) continuously since then, superseding the previously used Glagolitic alphabet, which was also invented and used there before the Cyrillic script overtook its use as a written script for the Bulgarian language. The Cyrillic alphabet was used in the then much bigger territory of Bulgaria (including most of today's Serbia), North Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Northern Greece (Macedonia region), Romania and Moldova, officially from 893. It was also transferred from Bulgaria and adopted by the East Slavic languages in Kievan Rus' and evolved into the Russian alphabet and the alphabets of many other Slavic (and later non-Slavic) languages. Later, some Slavs modified it and added/excluded letters from it to better suit the needs of their own language varieties.

Serbian[edit]

Alternate variants of lowercase Cyrillic letters: Б/б, Д/д, Г/г, И/и, П/п, Т/т, Ш/ш.
  Default Russian (Eastern) forms on the left.
  Alternate Bulgarian (Western) upright forms in the middle.
  Alternate Serbian/Macedonian (Southern) italic forms on the right.

See also:

South Slavic Cyrillic alphabets (with the exception of Bulgarian) are generally derived from Serbian Cyrillic. It, and by extension its descendants, differs from the East Slavic ones in that the alphabet has generally been simplified: Letters such as Я, Ю, Ё, and Ь representing /ja/, /ju/, /jo/, and palatalization in Russian, respectively, have been removed. Instead, these are represented by the digraphs ⟨ја⟩, ⟨ју⟩, ⟨јо⟩, and unmarked palatization, respectively. Additionally, the letter Е, representing /je/ in Russian, is instead pronounced /e/ or /ɛ/, with /je/ being represented by ⟨је⟩. Alphabets based on the Serbian that add new letters often do so by adding an acute accent ⟨´⟩ over an existing letter.

The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Ђ ђ Е е Ж ж З з И и
Ј ј К к Л л Љ љ М м Н н Њ њ О о П п Р р
С с Т т Ћ ћ У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Џ џ Ш ш

The Serbian alphabet shows the following features:

  • E represents /ɛ/.
  • Between Д and E is the letter Dje (Ђ, ђ), which represents /dʑ/, and looks like Tshe, except that the loop of the h curls farther and dips downwards.
  • Between И and К is the letter Je (Ј, ј), represents /j/, which looks like the Latin letter J.
  • Between Л and М is the letter Lje (Љ, љ), representing /ʎ/, which looks like a ligature of Л and the Soft Sign.
  • Between Н and О is the letter Nje (Њ, њ), representing /ɲ/, which looks like a ligature of Н and the Soft Sign.
  • Between Т and У is the letter Tshe (Ћ, ћ), representing /tɕ/ and looks like a lowercase Latin letter h with a bar. On the uppercase letter, the bar appears at the top; on the lowercase letter, the bar crosses the top at half of the vertical line.
  • Between Ч and Ш is the letter Dzhe (Џ, џ), representing /dʒ/, which looks like Tse but with the descender moved from the right side of the bottom bar to the middle of the bottom bar.
  • Ш is the last letter.
  • Certain letters are handwritten differently,[4] as seen in the adjacent image.

Montenegrin[edit]

The Montenegrin Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Ђ ђ Е е Ж ж З з З́ з́ И и
Ј ј К к Л л Љ љ М м Н н Њ њ О о П п Р р С с
С́ с́ Т т Ћ ћ У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Џ џ Ш ш

The Montenegrin alphabet differs from Serbian in the following ways:

  • Between Ze (З з) and I (И и) is the letter З́, which represents /ʑ/ (voiced alveolo-palatal fricative). It is written ⟨Ź ź⟩ in the corresponding Montenegrin Latin alphabet, previously written ⟨Zj zj⟩ or ⟨Žj žj⟩.
  • Between Es (С с) and Te (Т т) is the letter С́, which represents /ɕ/ (voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative). It is written ⟨Ś ś⟩ in the corresponding Montenegrin Latin alphabet, previously written ⟨Sj sj⟩ or ⟨Šj šj⟩.
  • The letter Dze (Ѕ ѕ), from Macedonian, is used in scientific literature when representing the /d͡z/ phoneme, although it is not officially part of the alphabet. A Latin equivalent was proposed that looks identical to Ze (З з).

Macedonian[edit]

Macedonian cursive
The Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Ѓ ѓ Е е Ж ж З з Ѕ ѕ И и
Ј ј К к Л л Љ љ М м Н н Њ њ О о П п Р р С с
Т т Ќ ќ У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Џ џ Ш ш

The Macedonian alphabet differs from Serbian in the following ways:

  • Between Ze (З з) and I (И и) is the letter Dze (Ѕ ѕ), which looks like the Latin letter S and represents /d͡z/.
  • Dje (Ђ ђ) is replaced by Gje (Ѓ ѓ), which represents /ɟ/ (voiced palatal stop). In some dialects, it represents /d͡ʑ/ instead, like Dje. It is written ⟨Ǵ ǵ⟩ in the corresponding Macedonian Latin alphabet.
  • Tshe (Ћ ћ) is replaced by Kje (Ќ ќ), which represents /c/ (voiceless palatal stop). In some dialects, it represents /t͡ɕ/ instead, like Tshe. It is written ⟨Ḱ ḱ⟩ in the corresponding Macedonian Latin alphabet.
  • Lje (Љ љ) often represents the consonant cluster /lj/ instead of /ʎ/.
  • Certain letters are handwritten differently, as seen in the adjacent image.[5]

Bosnian[edit]

Croatian[edit]

Historically, the Croatian language briefly used the Cyrillic script in areas with large Croatian or Bosnian speaking populations.[6]

East Slavic[edit]

Russian[edit]

The Russian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф
Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
  • Yo (Ё ё) indicates /jo/.
  • The Hard Sign¹ (Ъ ъ) indicates no palatalization².
  • Yery (Ы ы) indicates [ɨ] (an allophone of /i/).
  • The letter Ф is most often found in loanwords or other foreign words and only occurs in a few native words.
  • E (Э э) indicates /e/.
  • Ж and Ш indicate sounds that are retroflex.

Notes:

  1. In the pre-reform Russian orthography, in Old East Slavic and in Old Church Slavonic the letter is called yer. Historically, the "hard sign" takes the place of a now-absent vowel, which is still preserved as a distinct vowel in Bulgarian (which represents it with ъ) and Slovene (which is written in the Latin alphabet and writes it as e), but only in some places in the word.
  2. When an iotated vowel (vowel whose sound begins with [j]) follows a consonant, the consonant is palatalized. The Hard Sign indicates that this does not happen, and the [j] sound will appear only in front of the vowel. The Soft Sign indicates that the consonant should be palatalized in addition to a [j] preceding the vowel. The Soft Sign also indicates that a consonant before another consonant or at the end of a word is palatalized. Examples: та ([ta]); тя ([tʲa]); тья ([tʲja]); тъя ([tja]); т (/t/); ть ([tʲ]).

Before 1918, there were four extra letters in use: Іі (replaced by Ии), Ѳѳ (Фита "Fita", replaced by Фф), Ѣѣ (Ять "Yat", replaced by Ее), and Ѵѵ (ижица "Izhitsa", replaced by Ии); these were eliminated by reforms of Russian orthography.

Belarusian[edit]

The Belarusian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ґ ґ Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з І і Й й
К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ў ў Ф ф
Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я '

The Belarusian alphabet displays the following features:

  • He (Г г) represents a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/.
  • Yo (Ё ё) represents /jo/, just like in Russian.
  • I (І і), also known as the dotted I or decimal I, resembles the Latin letter I. Unlike Russian and Ukrainian, "И" is not used.
    • Short I (Й й), however, uses the base И glyph.
  • Short U (Ў ў) is the letter У with a breve and represents /w/, or like the u part of the diphthong in loud. The use of the breve to indicate a semivowel is analogous to the Short I (Й).
  • A combination of Sh and Ch (ШЧ шч) is used where those familiar only with Russian and or Ukrainian would expect Shcha (Щ щ).
  • Yery (Ы ы) represents /ɨ/.
  • E (Э э) represents /ɛ/, just like in Russian.
  • An apostrophe (’) is used to indicate depalatalization[clarification needed] of the preceding consonant. This orthographical symbol is used instead of the traditional Cyrillic letter Yer (Ъ), also known as the hard sign.
  • The letter combinations Dzh (Дж дж) and Dz (Дз дз) appear after D (Д д) in the Belarusian alphabet in some publications. These digraphs represent the affricates Дж /d͡ʒ/ and Дз /d͡z/ correspondingly.
  • Before 1933, the letter Ґ ґ (Ge) was used.

Ukrainian[edit]

The Ukrainian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ґ ґ Д д Е е Є є Ж ж З з И и
І і Ї ї Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ь ь Ю ю Я я

The Ukrainian alphabet displays the following features:

  • Ve (В) represents /ʋ/ (which may be pronounced [w] in a word final position and before consonants).
  • He (Г, г) represents a voiced glottal fricative, (/ɦ/), similar to the respective sound in Belarusian.
  • Ge (Ґ, ґ) appears after He, represents /ɡ/. It looks like He with an "upturn" pointing up from the right side of the top bar. (This letter was removed in Soviet Ukraine in 1933–1990, so it may be missing from older Cyrillic fonts.)
  • E (Е, е) represents /ɛ/.
  • Ye (Є, є) appears after E and represents the sound /jɛ/.
  • E and И (И, и) both represent the sound /ɪ/ if unstressed.
    • И when stressed represents the sound /ɨ/, the same as the traditional Cyrillic letter Yery (Ы).
  • I (І, і) appears after И and represents the sound /i/.
  • Yi (Ї, ї) appears after I and represents the sound /ji/.
  • Jot (Й, й) represents /j/.
  • Shcha (Щ, щ) represents /ʃtʃ/.
  • An apostrophe (’) is used to mark nonpalatalization of the preceding consonant before Ya (Я, я), Yu (Ю, ю), Ye (Є, є), Yi (Ї, ї), the same as how it’s used in Belarusian.
  • As in Belarusian Cyrillic, the sounds /dʒ/, /dz/ are represented by digraphs Дж and Дз respectively.

Rusyn[edit]

The Rusyn language is spoken by the Carpatho-Rusyns in Carpathian Ruthenia, Slovakia, and Poland, and the Pannonian Rusyns in Croatia and Serbia.

The Rusyn Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ґ ґ Д д Е е Є є Ё ё* Ж ж З з І і
Ї ї И и Ы ы Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ю ю Я я Ь ь Ъ ъ

The Rusyn alphabet differs from Ukrainian in that the letters Ё, Ы, and the hard sign (Ъ), from Russian, are also used.

The Pannonian Rusyn alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ґ ґ Д д Е е Є є Ж ж З з И и
Ї ї Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т
У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ю ю Я я Ь ь

Non-Slavic Indo-European languages[edit]

Romance languages[edit]

Romanian Cyrillic alphabet

Romanian and Moldovan[edit]

The Romanian language used the cyrillic script up to the 19th century (see Romanian Cyrillic alphabet).

The Moldovan language (an alternative name of the Romanian language in Bessarabia, Moldavian ASSR, Moldavian SSR and Moldova) used varieties of the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet in 1812–1918, and the Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet (derived from the Russian alphabet and standardised in the Soviet Union) in 1924–1932 and 1938–1989. Nowadays, this alphabet is still official in the unrecognized republic of Transnistria (see Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet).

Ladino[edit]

Ladino uses the cyrillic script in occasional Bulgarian Sephardic publications.

Indo-Aryan[edit]

Romani[edit]

Romani is written in Cyrillic in Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and the former USSR.

Iranian[edit]

Kurdish[edit]

Kurds in the former Soviet Union use a Cyrillic alphabet:

Kurdish Cyrillic script
А а Б б В в Г г Г' г' Д д Е е
Ә ә Ә' ә' Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
К' к' Л л М м Н н О о Ö ö П п
П' п' Р р Р' р' С с Т т Т' т' У у
Ф ф Х х Һ һ Һ' һ' Ч ч Ч' ч' Ш ш
Щ щ Ь ь Э э Ԛ ԛ Ԝ ԝ

Ossetic[edit]

The Ossetic language has officially used the Cyrillic script since 1937.

Ossetian Cyrillic script
А а Ӕ ӕ Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ Д д Дж дж
Дз дз Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Къ къ Л л М м Н н О о П п Пъ пъ Р р
С с Т т Тъ тъ У у Ф ф Х х Хъ хъ Ц ц
Цъ цъ Ч ч Чъ чъ Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь
Э э Ю ю Я я

Tajik[edit]

The Tajik alphabet is written using a Cyrillic-based alphabet.

Tajik-Persian Cyrillic Alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и
Ӣ ӣ Й й К к Қ қ Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ӯ ӯ Ф ф Х х Ҳ ҳ Ч ч Ҷ ҷ Ш ш Ъ ъ Э э
Ю ю Я я

Other[edit]

Uralic languages[edit]

Uralic languages using the Cyrillic script (currently or in the past) include:

Karelian[edit]

The first lines of the Book of Matthew in Karelian using the Cyrillic script, 1820

The Karelian language was written in the Cyrillic script in various forms until 1940 when publication in Karelian ceased in favor of Finnish, except for Tver Karelian, written in a Latin alphabet. In 1989 publication began again in the other Karelian dialects and Latin alphabets were used, in some cases with the addition of Cyrillic letters such as ь.

Kildin Sámi[edit]

Over the last century, the alphabet used to write Kildin Sámi has changed three times: from Cyrillic to Latin and back again to Cyrillic. Work on the latest version of the official orthography commenced in 1979. It was officially approved in 1982 and started to be widely used by 1987.[7]

Komi-Permyak[edit]

The Komi-Permyak Cyrillic alphabet:

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё
Ж ж З з И и І і Й й К к Л л
М м Н н О о Ӧ ӧ П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш
Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Mari alphabets[edit]

Meadow Mari Cyrillic alphabet:

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ҥ ҥ О о Ӧ ӧ
П п Р р С с Т т У у Ӱ ӱ Ф ф Х х Ц ц
Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Hill Mari Cyrillic alphabet

А а Ӓ ӓ Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о Ӧ ӧ П п Р р
С с Т т У у Ӱ ӱ Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ
Ъ ъ Ы ы Ӹ ӹ Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Turkic languages[edit]

Azerbaijani[edit]

The Azerbaijani Cyrillic alphabet
First version (1939–1958): Аа Бб Вв Гг Ғғ Дд Ее Әә Жж Зз Ии Йй Кк Ҝҝ Лл Мм Нн Оо
Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Фф Хх Һһ Цц Чч Ҹҹ Шш Ыы Ээ Юю Яя ʼ
Second version (1958–1991):
still used today by Dagestan
Аа Бб Вв Гг Ғғ Дд Ее Әә Жж Зз Ии Ыы Јј Кк Ҝҝ Лл Мм Нн
Оо Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Фф Хх Һһ Чч Ҹҹ Шш ʼ
Latin Alphabet (as of 1992)
Aa, Bb, Cc, Çç, Dd, Ee, Əə, Ff, Gg, Ğğ, Hh, Xx, Iı, İi, Jj, Kk, Qq, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Öö, Pp, Rr, Ss, Şş, Tt, Uu, Üü, Vv, Yy, Zz

Bashkir[edit]

The Cyrillic script was used for the Bashkir language after the winter of 1938.

The Bashkir Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Ҙ ҙ Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Ҡ ҡ Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п
Р р С с Ҫ ҫ Т т У у Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч
Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ә ә Ю ю Я я

Chuvash[edit]

The Cyrillic alphabet is used for the Chuvash language since the late 19th century, with some changes in 1938.

The Chuvash Cyrillic alphabet
А а Ӑ ӑ Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ӗ ӗ Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Ҫ ҫ
Т т У у Ӳ ӳ Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы
Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Kazakh[edit]

Kazakh can be alternatively written in the Latin alphabet. Latin is going to be the only used alphabet in 2031, alongside the modified Arabic alphabet (in the People's Republic of China, Iran and Afghanistan).

The Kazakh Cyrillic alphabet
А а Ә ә Б б В в Г г Ғ ғ Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з
И и Й й К к Қ қ Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п
Р р С с Т т У у Ұ ұ Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч
Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы І і Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
  • Ә ә = /æ/
  • Ғ ғ = /ʁ/ (voiced uvular fricative)
  • Е е = /jɪ/
  • И и = /ɪj/, /ɘj/
  • Қ қ = /q/ (voiceless uvular plosive)
  • Ң ң = /ŋ/, /ɴ/
  • О о = /o/, /ʷo/, /ʷʊ/
  • Ө ө = /œ/, /ʷœ/, /ʷʏ/
  • У у = /ʊw/, /ʉw/, /w/
  • Ұ ұ = /ʊ/
  • Ү ү = /ʉ/, /ʏ/
  • Һ һ = /h/
  • Щ щ = /ʃʃ/
  • Ы ы = /ɯ/, /ә/
  • І і = /ɪ/, /ɘ/

The Cyrillic letters Вв, Ёё, Цц, Чч, Ъъ, Ьь and Ээ are not used in native Kazakh words, but only for Russian loans.

Kyrgyz[edit]

Kyrgyz has also been written in Latin and in Arabic.

The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у Ү ү
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Bold letters are used only in loanwords.

Tatar[edit]

Tatar has used Cyrillic since 1939, but the Russian Orthodox Tatar community has used Cyrillic since the 19th century. In 2000 a new Latin alphabet was adopted for Tatar, but it is used generally on the Internet.

The Tatar Cyrillic alphabet
А а Ә ә Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж Җ җ
З з И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө
П п Р р С с Т т У у Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц
Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
  • Ә ә = /æ/
  • Ң ң = /ŋ/
  • Ө ө = /œ/
  • У у = /uw/, /yw/, /w/
  • Ү ү = /y/
  • Һ һ = /h/
  • Җ җ = /ʑ/

The Cyrillic letters Ёё, Цц, Щщ are not used in native Tatar words, but only for Russian loans.

Turkmen[edit]

Turkmen, written 1940–1994 exclusively in Cyrillic, since 1994 officially in Roman, but in everyday communication Cyrillic is still used along with Roman script.

The Turkmen Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж Җ җ З з И и Й й
К к Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ү ү Ф ф Х х (Ц ц) Ч ч Ш ш (Щ щ) (Ъ ъ) Ы ы (Ь ь) Э э Ә ә
Ю ю Я я

Uzbek[edit]

From 1941 the Cyrillic script was used exclusively. In 1998 the government has adopted a Latin alphabet to replace it. The deadline for making this transition has however been repeatedly changed, and Cyrillic is still more common. It is not clear that the transition will be made at all.

The Uzbek Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц
Ч ч Ш ш Ъ ъ Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я Ў ў Қ қ Ғ ғ Ҳ ҳ
  • В в = /w/
  • Ж ж = /dʒ/
  • Ф ф = /ɸ/
  • Х х = /χ/
  • Ъ ъ = /ʔ/
  • Ў ў = /ө/
  • Қ қ = /q/
  • Ғ ғ = /ʁ/
  • Ҳ ҳ = /h/

In addition to the letters from the Russian alphabet, А–Я, except for Щ and Ы, the Uzbek Cyrillic alphabet includes Ў, Қ, Ғ and Ҳ at the end. They are distinct letters in the Uzbek Cyrillic alphabet and are sorted after Я as shown above.

Other[edit]

Caucasian languages[edit]

Northwest Caucasian languages[edit]

Living Northwest Caucasian languages are generally written using Cyrillic alphabets.

Abaza[edit]

Abaza is a Caucasian language, spoken by Abazins in the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic, Russia.

The Abaza Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Гв гв Гъ гъ Гъв гъв Гъь гъь Гь гь
Гӏ гӏ Гӏв гӏв Д д Дж дж Джв джв Джь джь Дз дз Е е Ё ё
Ж ж Жв жв Жь жь З з И и Й й К к Кв кв Къ къ
Къв къв Къь къь Кь кь Кӏ кӏ Кӏв кӏв Кӏь кӏь Л л Ль ль (Лӏ лӏ)
М м Н н О о П п Пӏ пӏ Р р С с Т т Тл тл
Тш тш Тӏ тӏ У у Ф ф (Фӏ фӏ) Х х Хв хв Хъ хъ Хъв хъв
Хь хь Хӏ хӏ Хӏв хӏв Ц ц Цӏ цӏ Ч ч Чв чв Чӏ чӏ Чӏв чӏв
Ш ш Шв шв Шӏ шӏ Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Э э Ю ю Я я
  • Digraphs in parentheses are dialectal, and are therefore absent from the literary language and the official alphabet.

Abkhaz[edit]

Abkhaz is a Caucasian language, spoken in the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia, Georgia.

The Abkhaz Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Гь гь Гә гә Ӷ ӷ Ӷь ӷь Ӷә ӷә
Д д Дә дә Е е Ж ж Жь жь Жә жә З з Ӡ ӡ Ӡә ӡә
И и К к Кь кь Кә кә Қ қ Қь қь Қә қә Ҟ ҟ Ҟь ҟь
Ҟә ҟә Л л М м Н н О о П п Ԥ ԥ Р р С с
Т т Тә тә Ҭ ҭ Ҭә ҭә У у Ф ф Х х Хь хь Хә хә
Ҳ ҳ Ҳә ҳә Ц ц Цә цә Ҵ ҵ Ҵә ҵә Ч ч Ҷ ҷ Ҽ ҽ
Ҿ ҿ Ш ш Шь шь Шә шә Ы ы Ҩ ҩ Џ џ Џь џь

Adyghe[edit]

Adyghe is a Caucasian language, spoken in the Republic of Adygea, Russia.

The Adyghe Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Гу гу Гъ гъ Гъу гъу Д д Дж дж Дз дз Дзу дзу
Е е Ё ё Ж ж Жъ жъ Жъу жъу Жь жь З з И и Й й К к Ку ку
Къ къ Къу къу Кӏ кӏ Кӏу кӏу Л л Лъ лъ Лӏ лӏ М м Н н О о П п
Пӏ пӏ Пӏу пӏу Р р С с Т т Тӏ тӏ Тӏу тӏу У у Ф ф Х х Хъ хъ
Хъу хъу Хь хь Ц ц Цу цу Цӏ цӏ Ч ч Чъ чъ Чӏ чӏ Ш ш Шъ шъ Шъу шъу
Шӏ шӏ Шӏу шӏу Щ щ (Ъ ъ) Ы ы (Ь ь) Э э Ю ю Я я Ӏ ӏ Ӏу ӏу
  • Letters in parentheses are only used in digraphs.

Kabardian[edit]

Kabardian is a Caucasian language, spoken in the Republics of Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia.

The Kabardian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Гу гу Гъ гъ Гъу гъу Д д Дж дж Дз дз
Е е Ё ё Ж ж Жь жь З з И и Й й К к Ку ку Кӏ кӏ
Кӏу кӏу Къ къ Къу къу Кхъ кхъ Кхъу кхъу Л л Лъ лъ Лӏ лӏ М м Н н
О о П п Пӏ пӏ Р р С с Т т Тӏ тӏ У у Ф ф Фӏ фӏ
Х х Ху ху Хъ хъ Хъу хъу Хь хь Ц ц Цӏ цӏ Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ
Щӏ щӏ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я Ӏ ӏ Ӏу ӏу

Northeast Caucasian languages[edit]

Northeast Caucasian languages are generally written using Cyrillic alphabets.

Avar[edit]

Avar is a Caucasian language, spoken in the Republic of Dagestan, of the Russian Federation, where it is co-official together with other Caucasian languages like Dargwa, Lak, Lezgian and Tabassaran. All these alphabets, and other ones (Abaza, Adyghe, Chechen, Ingush, Kabardian) have an extra sign: palochka (Ӏ), which gives voiceless occlusive consonants its particular ejective sound.

The Avar Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ Гь гь Гӏ гӏ Д д
Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Къ къ
Кь кь Кӏ кӏ Кӏкӏ кӏкӏ Кк кк Л л М м Н н О о
П п Р р С с Т т Тӏ тӏ У у Ф ф Х х
Хх хх Хъ хъ Хь хь Хӏ хӏ Ц ц Цц цц Цӏ цӏ Цӏцӏ цӏцӏ
Ч ч Чӏ чӏ Чӏчӏ чӏчӏ Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь
Э э Ю ю Я я Ӏ
  • В = /w/
  • гъ = /ʁ/
  • гь = /h/
  • гӀ = /ʕ/
  • къ = /qːʼ/
  • кӀ = /kʼ/
  • кь = /t͡ɬːʼ/
  • кӀкӀ = /t͡ɬː/, is also written ЛӀ лӀ.
  • кк = /ɬ/, is also written Лъ лъ.
  • тӀ = /tʼ/
  • х = /χ/
  • хъ = /qː/
  • хь = /x/
  • хӀ = /ħ/
  • цӀ = /t͡sʼ/
  • чӀ = /t͡ʃʼ/
  • Double consonants, called "fortis", are pronounced longer than single consonants (called "lenis").

Lezgian[edit]

Lezgian is spoken by the Lezgins, who live in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan. Lezgian is a literary language and an official language of Dagestan.

Other[edit]

Mongolian[edit]

The Mongolic languages include Khalkha (in Mongolia; Cyrillic is official since 1941, in practice from 1946), Buryat (around Lake Baikal; Cyrillic is used since the 1930s) and Kalmyk (northwest of the Caspian Sea; Cyrillic is used in various forms since the 1920-30s). Khalkha Mongolian is also written with the Mongol vertical alphabet, which was the official script before 1941.[8] Since the beginning of the 1990s Mongolia has been making attempts to extend the rather limited use of Mongol script and the most recent National Plan for Mongol Script aims to bring its use to the same level as Cyrillic by 2025 and maintain a dual-script system (digraphia).[9]

Overview[edit]

This table contains all the characters used.

Һһ is shown twice as it appears at two different locations in Buryat and Kalmyk

Mongolian Cyrillic alphabets
Khalkha Аа Бб Вв Гг Дд Ее Ёё Жж Зз Ии Йй Кк Лл Мм Нн Оо
Buryat Аа Бб Вв Гг Дд Ее Ёё Жж Зз Ии Йй Кк Лл Мм Нн Оо
Kalmyk Аа Әә Бб Вв Гг Һһ Дд Ее Ёё Жж Җҗ Зз Ии Йй Кк Лл Мм Нн Ңң Оо
Khalkha Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Фф Хх Цц Чч Шш Щщ Ъъ Ыы Ьь Ээ Юю Яя
Buryat Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Фф Хх Һһ Цц Чч Шш Щщ Ъъ Ыы Ьь Ээ Юю Яя
Kalmyk Өө Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Үү Фф Хх Цц Чч Шш Щщ Ъъ ЫЫ Ьь Ээ Юю Яя

Khalkha[edit]

The Khalkha Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у Ү ү Ф ф
Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
  • В в = /w/
  • Е е = /jɛ/, /jœ/
  • Ё ё = /jo/
  • Ж ж = /dʒ/
  • З з = /dz/
  • Ий ий = /iː/
  • Й й = the second element of closing diphthongs (ай, ой, etc.) and long /iː/ (ий), it never indicates /j/ in native words
  • Н н = /n-/, /-ŋ/
  • Ө ө = /œ/
  • У у = /ʊ/
  • Ү ү = /u/
  • Ы ы = /iː/ (in suffixes after a hard consonant)
  • Ь ь = palatalization of the preceding consonant
  • Ю ю = /ju/, /jy/

Long vowels are indicated with double letters. The Cyrillic letters Кк, Пп, Фф and Щщ are not used in native Mongolian words, but only for Russian or other loans (Пп may occur in native onomatopoeic words).

Buryat[edit]

The Buryat (буряад) Cyrillic script is similar to the Khalkha above, but Ьь indicates palatalization as in Russian. Buryat does not use Вв, Кк, Пп, Фф, Цц, Чч, Щщ or Ъъ in its native words (Пп may occur in native onomatopoeic words).

The Buryat Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Л л М м Н н О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т У у Ү ү Ф ф
Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
  • Е е = /jɛ/, /jœ/
  • Ё ё = /jo/
  • Ж ж = /dʒ/
  • Й й = the second element of closing diphthongs (ай, ой, etc.), it never indicates /j/ in native words
  • Н н = /n-/, /-ŋ/
  • Өө өө = /œː/, ө does not occur in short form in literary Buryat based on the Khori dialect
  • У у = /ʊ/
  • Ү ү = /u/
  • Һ һ = /h/
  • Ы ы = /ei/, /iː/
  • Ю ю = /ju/

Kalmyk[edit]

The Kalmyk (хальмг) Cyrillic script differs from Khalkha in some respects: there are additional letters (Әә, Җҗ, Ңң, Һһ), letters Ээ, Юю and Яя appear only word-initially, long vowels are written double in the first syllable (нөөрин), but single in syllables after the first. Short vowels are omitted altogether in syllables after the first syllable (хальмг = /xaʎmaɡ/). Жж and Пп are used in loanwords only (Russian, Tibetan, etc.), but Пп may occur in native onomatopoeic words.

The Kalmyk Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
А а Ә ә Б б В в Г г Һ һ Д д Е е Ж ж Җ җ З з И и
Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т
У у Ү ү Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
  • Ә ә = /æ/
  • В в = /w/
  • Һ һ = /ɣ/
  • Е е = /ɛ/, /jɛ-/
  • Җ җ = /dʒ/
  • Ң ң = /ŋ/
  • Ө ө = /ø/
  • У у = /ʊ/
  • Ү ү = /u/

Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Dungan language[edit]

Since 1953.

The modern Dungan Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ә ә Ж ж Җ җ З з И и
Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ң ң О о П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ў ў Ү ү Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э
Ю ю Я я
  • Letters in bold are used only in Russian loanwords.

Tungusic languages[edit]

Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages[edit]

Chukchi language[edit]

Since 1936.

The Chukchi Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к
Ӄ ӄ Л л Ԓ ԓ М м Н н Ӈ ӈ О о П п Р р С с Т т У у
Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я
ʼ

Koryak language[edit]

Since 1936.

The Koryak Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Вʼ вʼ Г г Гʼ гʼ Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и
Й й К к Ӄ ӄ Л л М м Н н Ӈ ӈ О о П п Р р С с Т т
У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю
Я я

Itelmen language[edit]

Since late 1980s.

The Itelmen Cyrillic alphabet
А а Ӑ ӑ Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й
К к Кʼ кʼ Ӄ ӄ Ӄʼ ӄʼ Л л Љ љ Ԓ ԓ М м Н н Њ њ Ӈ ӈ О о
О̆ о̆ П п Пʼ пʼ Р р С с Т т Тʼ тʼ У у Ў ў Ф ф Х х Ӽ ӽ
Ц ц Ч ч Чʼ чʼ Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Ә ә Э э Ю ю Я я

Alyutor language[edit]

The Alyutor Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Вʼ вʼ Г г Гʼ гʼ Ғ ғ Д д Е е Ә ә Ё ё Ж ж
З з И и Й й К к Ӄ ӄ Л л М м Н н Ӈ ӈ О о П п Р р
С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь
Э э Ю ю Я я

Languages of North America[edit]

Aleut language[edit]

The Aleut Cyrillic alphabet (Bering dialect)
А а А̄ а̄ Б б В в Г г Ӷ ӷ Гў гў Д д
Д̆ д̆ Е е Е̄ е̄ Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Ӣ ӣ
Й й ʼЙ ʼй К к Ӄ ӄ Л л ʼЛ ʼл М м ʼМ ʼм
Н н ʼН ʼн Ӈ ӈ ʼӇ ʼӈ О о О̄ о̄ П п Р р
С с Т т У у Ӯ ӯ Ў ў Ф ф Х х Ӽ ӽ
Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ы̄ ы̄ Ь ь
Э э Э̄ э̄ Ю ю Ю̄ ю̄ Я я Я̄ я̄ ʼ ’Ў ’ў

Central Siberian Yupik language[edit]

The Central Siberian Yupik Cyrillic alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ӷ ӷ Ђ ђ Д д Е е Ё ё
Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Кʼ кʼ Қ қ Л л Лъ лъ
М м Н н Нъ нъ Нʼ нʼ Ң ң О о П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ў ў Ф ф Х х Хʼ хʼ Ҳ ҳ Ц ц Ч ч
Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я ʼ

Chaplino dialect[edit]

The Central Siberian Yupik Cyrillic alphabet (Chaplino dialect)
А а Б б В в Г г Ӷ ӷ Д д Е е Ё ё
Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Ӄ ӄ Л л Лъ лъ
М м Н н Нъ нъ Ӈ ӈ О о П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ў ў Ф ф Х х Ӽ ӽ Ц ц Ч ч
Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Sirenik language[edit]

The Sirenik Cyrillic alphabet
А а А̄ а̄ Б б В в Ԝ ԝ Г г Ӷ ӷ Д д
Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Ӣ ӣ Й й Йь йь
К к Ӄ ӄ Л л Лъ лъ М м Н н Нъ нъ Ӈ ӈ
О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ӯ ӯ Ф ф
Х х Ӽ ӽ Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы
Ь ь Э э Ю ю Ю̄ ю̄ Я я Я̄ я̄
  • Letters in bold are used only in Russian loanwords.

Other[edit]

Other languages[edit]

Constructed languages[edit]

International auxiliary languages[edit]

Fictional languages[edit]

Summary table[edit]

Cyrillic Letters:

Cyrillic alphabets comparison table
Early scripts
Church Slavonic А Б В Г Д (Ѕ) Е Ж Ѕ/З И І К Л М Н О П (Ҁ) Р С Т Оу Ф Х (Ѡ) Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Ѣ Ю Ѥ Ѧ Ѩ Ѫ Ѭ Ѯ Ѱ Ѳ Ѵ Ҁ
Most common shared letters
Common А   Б В Г   Д     Е     Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ     Ь       Ю Я
South Slavic languages
Bulgarian А   Б В Г   Д Дж Дз Е     Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ   Ь       Ю Я
Serbian А   Б В Г   Д Ђ   Е     Ж   З   И   Ј     К   Л Љ М   Н Њ   О   П   Р   С   Т Ћ У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч Џ Ш
Montenegrin А   Б В Г   Д Ђ   Е     Ж   З З́   И   Ј     К   Л Љ М   Н Њ   О   П   Р   С С́ Т Ћ У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч Џ Ш
Macedonian А   Б В Г   Д Ѓ   Е     Ж   З Ѕ И   Ј     К   Л Љ М   Н Њ   О   П   Р   С   Т Ќ У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч Џ Ш
East Slavic languages
Russian А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Belarusian А   Б В Г Ґ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З     І     Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ў   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш   Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Ukrainian А   Б В Г Ґ Д     Е Є   Ж   З   И І   Ї Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ   Ь       Ю Я
Rusyn А   Б В Г Ґ Д     Е Є Ё Ж   З І Ї И   Ы   Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ   Ь Ѣ     Ю Я
Iranian languages
Kurdish А   Б В Г Г' Д     Е Ә Ә' Ж   З   И       Й К К' Л   М   Н     О Ö П П' Р Р' С   Т Т' У     Ф Х Һ Һ'   Ч Ч' Ш Щ     Ь   Э Ԛ Ԝ
Ossetian А Ӕ Б В Г Гъ Д Дж Дз Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К Къ Л   М   Н     О   П Пъ Р   С   Т Тъ У     Ф Х Хъ Ц Цъ Ч Чъ Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Tajik А   Б В Г Ғ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И   Ӣ   Й К Қ Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ӯ   Ф Х Ҳ     Ч Ҷ Ш   Ъ       Э   Ю Я
Romance languages
Moldovan А   Б В Г   Д     Е     Ж Ӂ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш     Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Uralic languages
Komi-Permyak А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И І     Й К   Л   М   Н     О Ӧ П   Р   С   Т   У     Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Meadow Mari А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ҥ   О Ӧ П   Р   С   Т   У Ӱ   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Hill Mari А Ӓ Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О Ӧ П   Р   С   Т   У Ӱ   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Ӹ Э   Ю Я
Kildin Sami А Ӓ Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И   Й Ҋ Ј К   Л Ӆ М Ӎ Н Ӊ Ӈ О   П   Р Ҏ С   Т   У     Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ҍ Ь Э Ӭ Ю Я
Turkic languages
Azerbaijani А   Б В Г Ғ Д     Е Ә Ё Ж   З Ы И Ј     Й К Ҝ Л   М   Н     О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч Ҹ Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Bashkir А Ә Б В Г Ғ Д   Ҙ Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К Ҡ Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С Ҫ Т   У   Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э Ә Ю Я
Chuvash А Ӑ Б В Г   Д     Е Ё Ӗ Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С Ҫ Т   У Ӳ   Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Kazakh А Ә Б В Г Ғ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И І     Й К Қ Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У Ұ Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Kyrgyz А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Tatar А Ә Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж Җ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Uzbek А   Б В Г Ғ Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К Қ Л   М   Н     О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ў   Ф Х Ҳ     Ч   Ш   Ъ       Э   Ю Я
Caucasian languages
Abkhaz А   Б В Г Ӷь Ӷә Ӷ(Ҕ) Ӷь(Ҕь) Ӷә(Ҕә) Д Дә Е     Ж Жь Жә   З Ӡ Ӡә И         К Кь Кә Қ(Ӄ) Қь(Ӄь) Қә(Ӄә) Ҟ Ҟь Ҟә Л   М   Н     О П Ԥ(Ҧ) Р   С   Т Тә Ҭ Ҭә У     Ф Х Хь Хә Ҳ Ҳә Ц Цә Ҵ Ҵә Ч Ҷ Ҽ Ҿ Ш Шь Шә Ы         Ҩ Џ Џь
Mongolian languages
Khalkha А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Buryat А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж   З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н     О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү Ф Х Һ Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я
Kalmyk А Ә Б В Г Һ Д     Е     Ж Җ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң   О Ө П   Р   С   Т   У   Ү Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш       Ь   Э   Ю Я
Sino-Tibetan languages
Dungan А   Б В Г   Д     Е   Ё Ж Җ З   И       Й К   Л   М   Н Ң Ә О   П   Р   С   Т   У Ў Ү Ф Х   Ц   Ч   Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь   Э   Ю Я

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Šmid (2002), pp. 113–24: "Es interesante el hecho que en Bulgaria se imprimieron unas pocas publicaciones en alfabeto cirílico búlgaro y en Grecia en alfabeto griego... Nezirović (1992: 128) anota que también en Bosnia se ha encontrado un documento en que la lengua sefardí está escrita en alfabeto cirilico." Translation: "It is an interesting fact that in Bulgaria a few [Sephardic] publications are printed in the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet and in Greece in the Greek alphabet... Nezirović (1992:128) writes that in Bosnia a document has also been found in which the Sephardic language is written in the Cyrillic alphabet."
  2. ^ Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250, Cambridge Medieval Textbooks, Florin Curta, Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 0521815398, pp. 221–222.
  3. ^ The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, Oxford History of the Christian Church, J. M. Hussey, Andrew Louth, Oxford University Press, 2010, ISBN 0191614882, p. 100.
  4. ^ Peshikan, Mitar; Jerković, Jovan; Pižurica, Mato (1994). Pravopis srpskoga jezika. Beograd: Matica Srpska. p. 42. ISBN 86-363-0296-X.
  5. ^ Pravopis na makedonskiot jazik (PDF). Skopje: Institut za makedonski jazik Krste Misirkov. 2017. p. 3. ISBN 978-608-220-042-2.
  6. ^ "Croats Revive Forgotten Cyrillic Through Stone". January 8, 2013.
  7. ^ Rießler, Michael. Towards a digital infrastructure for Kildin Saami. In: Sustaining Indigenous Knowledge, ed. by Erich Kasten, Erich and Tjeerd de Graaf. Fürstenberg, 2013, 195–218.
  8. ^ Veronika, Kapišovská (2005). "Language Planning in Mongolia I". Mongolica Pragensia. 2005: 55–83 – via academia.edu.
  9. ^ "Монгол бичгийн үндэсний хөтөлбөр III (National Plan for Mongol Script III)". Эрх Зүйн Мэдээллийн Нэгдсэн Систем. 2020. Archived from the original on May 8, 2021. Retrieved May 8, 2021.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]