Tokugawa Ienari

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Tokugawa Ienari
Tokugawa Ienari.jpg
Shōgun
In office
1787–1837
Monarch
Preceded byTokugawa Ieharu
Succeeded byTokugawa Ieyoshi
Personal details
Born(1773-11-18)November 18, 1773
DiedMarch 22, 1841(1841-03-22) (aged 67)

Tokugawa Ienari; 徳川 家斉 (November 18, 1773 – March 22, 1841) was the eleventh and longest-serving shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan who held office from 1787 to 1837.[1] He was a great-grandson of the eighth shōgun Tokugawa Yoshimune through his son Munetada (1721–1764), head of the Hitotsubashi branch of the family, and his grandson Harusada (1751–1827).

Ienari died in 1841 and was given the Buddhist name Bunkyouin and buried at Kan'ei-ji.

Family life[edit]

Tokugawa Harusada, Ienari's father

First wife[edit]

Ienari's wife, Shigehime later Kodaiin

In 1778, the four-year-old Hitotsubashi Toyochiyo (豊千代), a minor figure in the Tokugawa clan hierarchy, was betrothed to Shimazu no Shige-hime[2] or Tadako-hime, the four-year-old daughter of Shimazu Shigehide, the tozama daimyō of Satsuma Domain on the island of Kyūshū. The significance of this alliance was dramatically enhanced when, in 1781, the young Toyochiyo was adopted by the childless shōgun, Tokugawa Ieharu. This meant that when Toyochiyo became Shōgun Ienari in 1786, Shigehide was set to become the father-in-law of the shōgun.[3] The marriage was completed in 1789, after which Tadako became formally known as Midaidokoro Sadako, or "first wife" Sadako. Protocol required that she be adopted into a court family, and the Konoe family agreed to take her in but this was a mere formality.[4]

Other relationships[edit]

Ienari was known as a degenerate who kept a harem of 900 women and fathered over 75 children.[5]

Many of Ienari's children were adopted into various daimyō houses throughout Japan, and some played important roles in the history of the Bakumatsu and Boshin War. Some of the more famous among them included:

Parents and Siblings[edit]

Wife and Concubines[edit]

  • Wife: Shimazu no Shigehime later Kodaiin (1773–1844)
  • Concubine:
    • Omiyo no Kata (1797–1872) (There is legend said that Omiyo was daughter of Tokugawa Ieharu with a servant) later Senkoin
    • O-ito no kata
    • Oyae no Kata (d. 1843) later Kaishun'in
    • Oraku no Kata (d. 1810) later Korin'in
    • Otase no Kata (d. 1832) later Myosoin
    • Ohana no Kata (d. 1845) later Seiren'in
    • Ohachi no Kata later Honrin'in (d. 1850)
    • Ohachi no Kata (d. 1813) later Chisoin
    • Osode no Kata (d. 1830) later Honshoin
    • Oyachi no Kata (d. 1810) later Seishoin
    • Osato no Kata (d. 1800) later Chosoin
    • Ocho no Kata (d. 1852) later Sokuseiin
    • Oshiga no Kata (d. 1813) later Keimeiin
    • Outa no Kata (d. 1851) later Hoschiin
    • Oume no Kata (d. 1794)later Shinsei-in
    • Oman no Kata (d. 1835) later Seishin'in
    • Obi no Kata (d. 1808) later Hoshin'in

Children[edit]

  • Toshihime (1789–1817) married Tokugawa Naritomo by Oman
  • Koso-in (b. 1790) by Oman
  • Takechiyo (1792–1793) by Oman
  • Tokugawa Ieyoshi born by Korin'in
  • Hidehime (b. 1794) later Tansei-in by Oume
  • Ayahime (1795–1797; infant when died and replaced by her younger sister, Asahime) Married Date Chikamune of Sendai Domain by Oman
  • Tokugawa Keinosuke (1795–1797) by Oume
  • Tokugawa Atsunosuke (1796–1799) born by Shigehime inherited Shimazu-Tokugawa family
  • Sohime (1796–1797) by Oshiga
  • Tokugawa Toyasaburo (b. 1798) by Oume
  • Kakuhime (1798–1799) by Osato
  • Gohime (1799–1800) by Oume
  • Tazawa Hidenari
  • Tokugawa Hidemaru
  • Mine-hime (1800–1853) born by Otase and married Tokugawa Narinobu of Owari Domain
  • Tokugawa Nariyuki (1801–1846) inherited Shimizu-Tokugawa family later inherited Kii Domain and born to Otase
  • Toruhime (1801–1802) by Ocho
  • Jiyohime (1802–1803) by Oume
  • Asahime (1803–1843) married Date Chikamune later married Matsudaira Naritsugu of Fukui Domain by Obi
  • Jukihime (1803–1804) by Otase
  • Tokugawa Tokinosuke (1803–1805) by Ocho
  • Harehime (1805–1807) by Otase
  • Tokugawa Torachiyo (1806–1810) by Ocho
  • Kohime (b. 1806)
  • Kishihime (1807–1811)
  • Motohime (1808–1821) married Matsudaira Katahiro of Aizu Domain by Oyachi
  • Ayahime (1809–1837) married Matsudaira Yoritane of Takamatsu Domain by Osode
  • Tokugawa Tomomatsu (1809–1813) by Ocho
  • Yohime (1813–1868), married Maeda Nariyasu, born to Omiyo
  • Nakahime (1815–1817), born to Omiyo
  • Tokugawa Narinori (1810–1827) inherited Shimizu family of Gosankyō and born by Oyae
  • Tokugawa Naritaka born by Ocho
  • Tsuyahime (b.1811) by Osode
  • Morihime (1811–1846) married Nabeshima Naomasa of Saga Domain by Oyae
  • Ikeda Narihiro (1812–1826) born by Oyae
  • Kazuhime (1813–1830) married Mori Narito of Chōshū Domain by Ocho
  • Takahime (1813–1814) by Osode
  • Tokugawa Okugoro (1813–1814) by Ohachi
  • Kotohime (1815–1816) by Ohana
  • Tokugawa Kyugoro (1815–1817) by Ocho
  • Matsudaira Naritami born to Oyae
  • Suehime (1817–1872) married Asano Naritaka of Hiroshima Domain later Yousein by Omiyo
  • Kiyohime (1818–1868), married Sakai Tadanori of Himeji Domain later Seiko-in, born to Oyae
  • Matsudaira Nariyoshi (1820–1838) adopted to Fukui-Matsudaira family by Ohana
  • Tokugawa Shichiro (1818–1821) by Osode
  • Matsudaira Nariyoshi (1819–1839) of Hamada Domain and born to Oyae
  • Ei-hime (1819–1875) married Tokugawa Narikura of Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa Family by Ohana
  • Tokugawa Nariharu born by Ohana
  • Matsudaira Narisawa born by Honrin'in
  • Tokugawa Narikatsu (1820–1850) inherited Shimizu-Tokugawa family later inherited Kii Domain and born by Osode
  • Hachisuka Narihiro born by Oyae
  • Tokugawa Hachiro (1822–1823) by Osode
  • Matsudaira Narisada (1823–1841) born by Ohana
  • Matsudaira Narikoto (1825–1844) of Akashi Domain born by Ohana
  • Taehime (1827–1843) by Ohana and married Ikeda Narimichi of Tottori Domain
  • Tokugawa Taminosuke, born by O-ito
  • Fumihime

Notable Descendants[edit]

Tokugawa Nariyuki (1801–1846)

Asahime (1803–1843) married Matsudaira Naritsugu

  • Kikuhime (1829–1829)
  • Yoshimaru (1835–1835)
  • Kuninosuke

Tokugawa Naritaka

  • Shomaru (1846–1847) inherited Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa family
  • Rihime married Asano Yoshiteru
  • Fuhime married Matsudaira Noritoshi

Yo-hime (1813–1868) married Maeda Nariyasu

  • Ikeda Yoshitaka (1834–1850)
  • Kanoshimaru
  • Maeda Yoshiyasu
    • Maeda Toshitsugu (1858–1900)
      • Namiko married Toshinari Maeda
        • Maeda Toshitatsu (1908–1989)
          • Maeda Toshiyasu (b. 1935)
            • Maeda Toshinori (b. 1963)

Matsudaira Naritami

  • Matsudaira Yasutomo
  • Hitoshimaru
  • daughter married Miura Yoshitsugu
  • Matsudaira Yasutami (1861–1921)
    • Matsudaira Yasuyoshi
    • Matsudaira Yasuharu
    • Takako married Ichishima Noriatsu
    • Teruko married Shuta Yasuto
    • Watanabe Akira
    • Tsuruko married Matsudaira Yoritsune
    • Sansuko married Isahaya Fujio
    • Matsudaira Shiro
    • Matsudaira Fumihiro

Suehime

  • Yakuhime (1843–1843)

Kiyo-hime

  • Tokudairo (1835–1837)
  • Kisohime (b. 1834) married Sakai Tadatomi

Tokugawa Narikatsu (1820–1850)

  • Ryuchiyo
  • Tatsujiro
  • Nobehime
  • Akihime
  • Junhime
  • Kikuhime

Hachisuka Narihiro

Tokugawa Ieyoshi

  • Takechiyo (1813–1814)
  • Tatsuhime (1814–1818)
  • Tomohime (1815–1815)
  • Saigen-in (1816–1816)
  • Yochiyo (1819–1820)
  • Entsuin (1822-1822)
  • Tokugawa Iesada
  • Maihime (1824–1829)
  • Tokugawa Yoshimasa (1825–1838) of Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa Family
  • Teruhime (1826–1840) married Tokugawa Yoshiyori and later known as Teimei-in
  • Hanhime (1826–1826) by Okaju
  • Tokugawa Harunojo (1826–1827)
  • Tokugawa Atsugoro (1828–1829)
  • Tokugawa Jikimaru (1829–1830)
  • Tokugawa Ginnojo (1832–1833)
  • Satohime (1833–1834)
  • Chiehime (1835–1836)
  • Yoshihime (1836–1837)
  • Tokugawa Kamegoro (1838–1839)
  • Maijihime (1839–1840)
  • Wakahime (1842–1843)
  • Shoyo-in (1843–1843)
  • Okuhime (1844–1845)
  • Tokugawa Tadashimaru (1845–1846)
  • Shikihime (1848–1848)
  • Sashin-in (1849–1849)
  • Tokugawa Choyoshiro (1852–1853)

Events of Ienari's bakufu[edit]

  • 1787 (Tenmei 7): Ienari becomes the 11th shōgun of the bakufu government.[1]
  • 1788 (Tenmei 7): Riots in rice shops in Edo and Osaka.
  • March 6 – 11, 1788 (Tenmei 8, 29th day of the 1st month – 4th day of the second month): Great Fire of Kyoto. A fire in the city, which begins at 3 o'clock in the morning of March 6 burns uncontrolled until the 1st day of the second month (March 8); and embers smolder until extinguished by heavy rain on the 4th day of the second month (March 11). The emperor and his court flee the fire, and the Imperial Palace is destroyed. No other re-construction is permitted until a new palace is completed. This fire was considered a major event. The Dutch VOC Opperhoofd in Dejima noted in his official record book that "people are considering it to be a great and extraordinary heavenly portent."[6]
  • February 28, 1793 (Kansei 5, on the 18th day of the 1st month): Collapse of the peak of Mount Unzen.[7]
  • March 17, 1793 (Kansei 5, on the 6th day of the 2nd month): Eruption of Mt. Biwas-no-kubi[7]
  • April 15, 1793 (Kansei 5, on the 1st day of the 3rd month): The Shimabara earthquake.[8]
  • May 10, 1793 (Kansei 5, on the 1st day of the 4th month): Eruption of Mt. Miyama.[7]
  • September 1817, the Shōgun orders the expulsion of Titia Bergsma, the first European woman to visit Japan
  • 1833–1837, the Tenpō famine
  • 1837 (Tenpō 7): Tokugawa Ieyoshi becomes the 12th shōgun of the bakufu government.[1]

Ienari's time in office was marked by an era of pleasure, excess, and corruption, which ended in the disastrous Tenpō Famine of 1832–1837, in which thousands are known to have perished.

Eras of Ienari's bakufu[edit]

The years in which Ienari was shōgun are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[9]

Ancestry[edit]

[10]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Hall, John Whitney et al. (1991). Early Modern Japan, p. 21.
  2. ^ Screech, Timon. (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779–1822, p. 234 n12.
  3. ^ Screech, p. 11.
  4. ^ Screech, p. 221 n35.
  5. ^ Samson, George. (1963). A History of Japan, 1615–1867, p. 207.
  6. ^ Screech, pp. 152–154, 249–250
  7. ^ a b c Screech, p.154.
  8. ^ Screech, p. 155.
  9. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 420.
  10. ^ "Genealogy". Reichsarchiv. Retrieved 5 July 2018. (in Japanese)

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Tokugawa Ieharu
Shōgun:
Tokugawa Ienari

1786–1837
Succeeded by
Tokugawa Ieyoshi