|Number of teams||18|
|Level on pyramid||1|
|Relegation to||TFF First League|
|Domestic cup(s)||Turkish Cup
Turkish Super Cup
|International cup(s)||UEFA Champions League
UEFA Europa League
|Current champions||Beşiktaş (15th title)
|Most championships||Galatasaray (20 titles)|
|Most capped player||Oğuz Çetin (503 matches)|
|Top goalscorer||Hakan Şükür (249 goals)|
|TV partners||beIN Sports
TRT (Highlights only)
beIN Sports (FRA,US,AUS), A+Sport(Africa), SportKlub, Kujtesa, CBC Sport (AZE) (Global broadcasting)
|2017–18 Süper Lig|
The Süper Lig (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈsypɛɾ liɟ], Super League) is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs. It is the top-flight of the Turkish football league system. Eighteen clubs compete annually, where a champion is decided and three clubs are promoted and relegated from, and to, the 1. Lig. The season runs from August to May, with each club playing 34 matches. Matches are played Friday through Monday.
The competition was initially established as the Millî Lig (National League) in 1959, the first professional national league competition held in Turkey. Previously, league competitions took place in a few cities, including Adana, Ankara, Eskişehir, Istanbul, Izmir, Kayseri, and Trabzon. The league succeeded the Turkish Football Championship and the National Division, both being former top-level football competitions. The Super League is currently ranked 11th in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the last five years. A total of 67 clubs have competed in the Süper Lig, but only five have won the title: Galatasaray (20), Fenerbahçe (19), Beşiktaş (15), Trabzonspor (6) and Bursaspor (1).
- 1 History
- 2 Competition format
- 3 UEFA ranking
- 4 Teams
- 5 Champions
- 6 League participation
- 7 Player records
- 8 Turkish football clubs in UEFA competitions
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Football in Turkey stems back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Thessaloníki. The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, which took place in 1904–05. The first champions were Imogene FC. The league went through several variations until the creation of the Millî Lig in 1959. Between the creation of the Istanbul Football League and Millî Lig (Super League), several other city leagues took place: Adana (1923), Ankara (1923), Eskişehir (1920), Izmir (1923), Kayseri (1936), and Trabzon (1923). The first competition to bring forth a national champion was the Turkish Football Championship, which began in 1924 and continued until 1951. The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of each of the country's top regional leagues. The National Division (Turkish: Millî Küme) was the first serious step towards a national league competition. Started in 1936, the Millî Küme was a nationwide competition between the strongest clubs of Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir. The competition lasted until 1950.
The Federation Cup was created in 1956 and was used as a cup competition to decide a national champion. This champion would go on to participate in the European Cup. The cup competition was held for two years until it was replaced by the Millî Lig. Beşiktaş won both times, and represented Turkey twice in the European Cup during the two-year span.
The top clubs from Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir competed in the 1959 Millî Lig. The first season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958-59, because the qualifying stages took place in 1958. The 16 clubs who competed in the first season were: Adalet (İstanbul), Altay (İzmir), Ankaragücü, Ankara Demirspor, Beşiktaş (İstanbul), Beykoz (İstanbul), Fatih Karagümrük (İstanbul), Fenerbahçe (İstanbul), Galatasaray (İstanbul), Gençlerbirliği (Ankara), Göztepe (İzmir), Hacettepe (Ankara), İstanbulspor, İzmirspor, Karşıyaka (İzmir Province), and Vefa (Istanbul). Only five of those clubs are currently competing in the Super League: Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray, Gençlerbirliği, and Göztepe. The first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first Gol Kralı (top scorer) was Metin Oktay. No clubs were promoted or relegated at the end of the first season.
The 2.Lig (Second League) was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the Millî Lig or Turkish National League became known as the 1.Lig (First League). Before the creation of a second league, the bottom three clubs competed with regional league winners in a competition called the Baraj Games. The top three teams of the seven-team group were promoted to the Millî Lig. After the creation of a new second division in 2001, known as the 1.Lig, the formerly titled 1.Lig became the Süper Lig. The Fenerbahçe–Galatasaray derby is the most watched football game in Turkey. It is considered to be one of the best and most intense in the world. British Daily Mail ranked it second among the ten greatest football rivalries of all-time.
There are 18 clubs in the Süper Lig. During the course of the season (from August to May) each club plays the others twice (a double round robin system), once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 34 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, then head-to-head record, then goal difference, and then goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion. If points are equal, the head-to-head record and then goal difference determine the winner. The three lowest placed teams are relegated to the 1.Lig and the top two teams from the 1.Lig, together with the winner of play-offs involving the third to sixth placed 1.Lig clubs are promoted in their place.
Qualification for European competitions
Qualification for European competitions is as follows: champions qualify for the group stage of the Champions League, runners-up qualify for the third qualifying round of the Champions League, third place qualifies for the third qualifying round of the Europa League, and fourth place qualifies for the second qualifying round of the same competition. A fifth spot is given to the winner of the Turkish Cup, who qualify for the play-off round of the Europa League. If the Turkish Cup winner has already qualified for European competition through their league finish, the next highest placed club in the league takes their place.
Adanaspor, Karabükspor and Alanyaspor were promoted from the 2015–16 TFF First League. Sivasspor, Eskişehirspor and Mersin İdmanyurdu were relegated to the 2016–17 TFF First League. The following 18 clubs compete in the 2016–17 Süper Lig.
|Club||City||Position in 2015–16||First season
in top division
of current spell
|Adanaspor||Adana||First League: 1st||1971–72||22||2016–17||—|
|Alanyasporb||Alanya||First League: 3rd||2016–17||1||2016–17||—|
|Karabükspor||Karabük||First League: 2nd||1993–94||9||2016–17||—|
a Founding member of the Süper Lig
b Never been relegated from the Süper Lig
Only five clubs have been champions since the beginning of the Super League in 1959: Galatasaray 20 times, Fenerbahçe 19 times, Beşiktaş 15 times (with an additional two titles counted for star purposes, see note below), Trabzonspor six times and Bursaspor one time.
|Club||Winners||Runners-up||Winning years||Runners-up years|
||20||10||1962, 1963, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1987, 1988, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2015||1959, 1961, 1966, 1975, 1979, 1986, 1991, 2001, 2003, 2014|
||19||21||1959, 1961, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1970, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2011, 2014||1960, 1962, 1967, 1971, 1973, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016|
||15||14||1957*, 1958*, 1960, 1966, 1967, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 2003, 2009, 2016, 2017||1963, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1974, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2007|
||6||8||1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984||1978, 1982, 1983, 1995, 1996, 2004, 2005, 2011|
|Eskişehirspor||—||3||1969, 1970, 1972|
*Note: Beşiktaş formally requested that championships won in the 1956–57 and 1957–58 editions of the Turkish Federation Cup be counted as Turkish Professional First Division championships to the Turkish Football Federation. The ruling on this matter was announced in a press release on March 25, 2002 which indicated that the championships won by Beşiktaş in the Turkish Federation Cup will be considered as national league championships. Beşiktaş were given permission to represent Turkey in UEFA competitions in the 1956–57 and 1957–58 seasons. 
Star rating system
Clubs are permitted to place a golden star above their crest on their uniforms for every five national championships won. For the 2017–18 season Galatasaray is permitted four golden stars, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş are permitted three golden stars, and Trabzonspor is permitted one golden star to be placed above their crest on their jerseys.
As of 2017, 70 clubs have participated. Note: The tallies below include up to the 2017-18 season.
As of 8 October 2017
As of 18 May 2015
- Bold denotes players still playing in the league.
- All players are Turkish unless otherwise indicated.
Turkish football clubs in UEFA competitions
European Cup / UEFA Champions League
|Galatasaray||1989||1963, 1970, 2001, 2013|
- Galatasaray was one of the eight teams competed in 1993–94 UEFA Champions League, however, UEFA does not count it as quarter-final participation.
UEFA Cup / Europa League
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
UEFA Super Cup
- TFF First League
- TFF Second League
- TFF Third League
- Turkish Regional Amateur League
- Amatör Futbol Ligleri
- List of sports attendance figures — the Super League in a worldwide context
- List of foreign Süper Lig players
- List of Süper Lig top scorers
- Football records in Turkey
- List of Turkish football champions
- Turkish Super League all-time table
- "History TFF". tff.org.tr. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Mackolik.com - iddaa, canlı sonuçlar, iddaa sonuçları, puan durumu, iddaa programı". Mackolik.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Hakan Şükür". Mackolik.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- Sivritepe, Erdinç Before the Turkish leagues turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
- Sivritepe, Erdinç Federation Cup 56/57 turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
- Sivritepe, Erdinç Federation Cup 57/58 turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
- Sivritepe, Erdinç 1959 Milli Lig turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
- Sivritepe, Erdinç 1963-1964 1. Lig turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
- "THE LIST: The greatest rivalries in club football, Nos 10–1". Mail Online. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- Official TFF competition rules
- Kárpáti, Tamás (21 May 2010). "List of champions". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation.
- (Dissolved in 2011) Zonguldakspor
- (Dissolved in 2013)
- (before 2014-15 season played as İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor). İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor
- (Dissolved in 2011)
- (Dissolved in 2014) Siirtspor
- "Türkiye Spor Toto Süper Lig". Mackolik.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.