White meat

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Chicken is a widely consumed white meat.

In culinary terms, white meat is meat which is pale in color before and after cooking. A common example of white meat is the lighter-colored meat of poultry (light meat), coming from the breast, as contrasted with dark meat from the legs. Poultry white ("light") meat is made up of fast-twitch muscle fibres, while red ("dark") meat is made up of muscles with fibres that are slow-twitch.[1] In traditional gastronomy, white meat also includes rabbit, the flesh of milk-fed young mammals (in particular veal and lamb), and sometimes pork.[2][3][4][5]

In nutritional studies, white meat includes poultry and fish, but excludes all mammal flesh, which is considered red meat.[6] Some types of fish, such as tuna, are red when raw and turn white when cooked. Certain types of poultry that are sometimes grouped as white meat are red when raw, such as duck and goose. These factors have resulted in debate centering on the definition of white meat.

Terminology[edit]

The terms white, red, light and dark applied to meat have varied and inconsistent meanings in different contexts.[7] The term white meat in particular has caused confusion from oversimplification in scientific publications, misuse of the term in the popular press, and evolution of the term over decades. Some writers suggest avoiding the terms "red" and "white" altogether, instead classifying meat by objective characteristics such as myoglobin or heme iron content, lipid profile, fatty acid composition, cholesterol content, etc.[7]

In nutritional studies, white meat may also include amphibians like frogs, land snails.[8][9] Mammal flesh (eg; beef, pork, goat, lamb, doe, rabbit) is excluded and considered to be red meat.[6] Periodically some researchers allow lean cuts of rabbit to be an outlier and categorize it into the “white meat” category because it shares certain nutritional similarities with poultry.[9][10][11] Otherwise, nutritional studies and social studies popularly define "red meat" as coming from any mammal, "seafood" as coming from fish and shellfish, and "white meat" coming from birds and other animals.[12][13] Some entomologists have referred to edible insects as "the next white meat".[14]

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) typically classifies red meat, poultry, and seafood as their own separate categories.[15] The USDA considers all livestock animals (including beef, veal, pork) to be "red meat” because their muscles contain enough myoglobin that their fresh meat is deep red in color prior to being cooked. Poultry and seafood are not considered to be red meats because they contain less myoglobin.[16] The term white meat is used to describe poultry in particular;[17][18] while this includes duck and geese, they are considered to be a dark meat.[19] Seafood is treated as a distinct product and not included as a type of meat by the USDA's FSIS.[20] The World Health Organization (WHO) makes a distinction between white meat and seafood.[21]

Poultry[edit]

Within poultry, there are two types of meats—white and dark. The different colours are based on the different locations and uses of the muscles. White meat can be found within the breast of a chicken or turkey. Dark muscles are fit to develop endurance or long-term use, and contain more myoglobin than white muscles, allowing the muscle to use oxygen more efficiently for aerobic respiration. White meat contains large amounts of protein.

Dark meat contains 2.64 times more saturated fat than white meat, per gram of protein.[22] One commentator wrote that dark meat contains more vitamins,[23] while a New York Times columnist has stated the two meats are nearly identical in nutritional value, especially when compared with typical red meat. For ground-based birds like chicken and turkeys, dark meats occur in the legs, which are used to support the weight of the animals while they move. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, 28 grams (1 oz) of boneless, skinless turkey breast contains about one gram of fat, compared with roughly two grams of fat for 28 g (1 oz) of boneless, skinless thigh.[24] The numbers go up when the skin is kept in: a chicken thigh, with skin intact, has 13 grams of total fat and 3.5 grams of saturated fat per 85 g (3 oz) serving; this is about 20 percent of the recommended maximum daily intake.[25] Birds which use their chest muscles for sustained flight (such as geese and ducks) have dark meat throughout their bodies.[26]

Pork[edit]

Because of health concerns, meat producers have positioned pork as "white meat", taking advantage of the traditional gastronomic definition. The United States National Pork Board has marketed their product as "Pork. The Other White Meat".

In Israel, where Jewish dietary laws which forbid the consumption of pork are popularly practiced, "white meat" is the accepted euphemism for pork.[27]

Health effects[edit]

The health effects that correlate with white meat consumption have been studied as compared to red meat and vegetarian diets. There is a decreased incidence of stroke.[28] There is no association with obesity or insulin resistance.[29][30] White meat appears to have a neutral or favorable effect on blood coagulation profiles.[31] There is additional evidence that myoglobin promotes carcinogenesis in colorectal models and therefore epidemiologic evidence supports reduced prevalence of colon cancer in those who consume white meat as opposed to red meat.[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Science of Meat: What Gives Meat its Color? | Exploratorium". Archived from the original on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
  2. ^ Larousse Gastronomique, 1961, s.v. pork
  3. ^ Evan Goldstein, Joyce Goldstein, Perfect Pairings: A Master Sommelier's Practical Advice for Partnering Wine with Food, ISBN 0520243773, 2006, p. 109: "White meats such as pork and veal are also excellent table companions for Gewürz..."
  4. ^ Pierre Paillon, Secrets of Good French Cooking, ISBN 0471160628, 1996, p. 95: "White meats (veal and pork) and poultry should be cooked "medium"..."
  5. ^ Elisabeth Rozin, The Primal Cheeseburger: A Generous Helping of Food History Served On a Bun, ISBN 0140178430 1994, p. 19: "Beef and lamb are clearly red meats, while veal and rabbit are white meats; the white meat category has been generalized to include the flesh of poultry and fish as well."
  6. ^ a b "USDA-Safety of Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table". Fsis.usda.gov. 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2009-09-16.
  7. ^ a b Keeton, Jimmy T.; Dikeman, Michael E. (2017-10-01). "'Red' and 'white' meats—terms that lead to confusion". Animal Frontiers. 7 (4): 29–33. doi:10.2527/af.2017.0440.
  8. ^ Oliveira, Lillian Paranhos Laurindo de; Seixas Filho, José Teixeira de; Pereira, Marcelo Maia; Mello, Silvia Conceição Reis Pereira (2017). "Frog meat in special diets: potential for use as a functional food". Boletim do Instituto de Pesca. 43: 99–106. doi:10.20950/1678-2305.2017.99.106.
  9. ^ a b Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco (January 2016). "Meat consumption and cancer risk: a critical review of published meta-analyses". Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 97: 1–14. doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2015.11.008. ISSN 1879-0461. PMID 26633248.
  10. ^ Kim, Seong Rae; Kim, Kyuwoong; Lee, Sang Ah; Kwon, Sung Ok; Lee, Jong-Koo; Keum, NaNa; Park, Sang Min (2019-04-11). "Effect of Red, Processed, and White Meat Consumption on the Risk of Gastric Cancer: An Overall and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis". Nutrients. 11 (4): 826. doi:10.3390/nu11040826. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 6520977. PMID 30979076.
  11. ^ Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Babio, Nancy; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Salaverria, Itziar; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Lapetra, José (2016-12-01). "Replacing red meat and processed red meat for white meat, fish, legumes or eggs is associated with lower risk of incidence of metabolic syndrome". Clinical Nutrition. 35 (6): 1442–1449. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2016.03.017. hdl:10230/28278. ISSN 0261-5614. PMID 27087650.
  12. ^ Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Estaquio, Carla; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia (2010). "Variations in Compliance with Recommendations and Types of Meat/Seafood/Eggs according to Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Categories". Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 56 (1): 65–73. doi:10.1159/000271469. ISSN 0250-6807. PMID 20051683. S2CID 20787103.
  13. ^ Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate (2015-01-01). "Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians". Appetite. 84: 98–106. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2014.10.002. ISSN 0195-6663. PMID 25312749. S2CID 29746970.
  14. ^ Yates‐Doerr, Emily (2012). "Meeting the demand for meat?". Anthropology Today. 28 (1): 11–15. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8322.2012.00849.x. ISSN 1467-8322.
  15. ^ "USDA ERS - U.S. Per Capita Availability of Red Meat, Poultry, and Seafood on the Rise". www.ers.usda.gov. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  16. ^ "Fresh Pork from Farm to Table". United States Department of Agriculture.
  17. ^ "The color of meat and poultry".
  18. ^ "Food standards and labeling policy book" (PDF).
  19. ^ www.fsis.usda.gov https://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/fsis-content/internet/main/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/poultry-preparation/duck-and-goosefrom-farm-to-table/ct_index#11. Retrieved 2021-03-01. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. ^ "Meat preparation".
  21. ^ "Healthy diet: Keys to eating well". www.who.int. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  22. ^ "Dark Meat Versus White Meat: What's The Difference". Retrieved 2012-02-20.
  23. ^ "Come To The Dark Side Of The Chicken; It's Tastier". Retrieved 2011-02-26.
  24. ^ Anahead O'Connor, "Really? The Claim: White Meat Is Healthier Than Dark Meat" Archived April 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine in the New York Times, 20 Nov 2007.
  25. ^ "The Nutrition of Chicken Breasts Vs. Thighs". healthyeating.sfgate.com. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  26. ^ Article on the color of turkey and chicken meat Archived January 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ "Mexican Flu: The Other White Meat : On Language". The Jewish Daily Forward. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
  28. ^ Kim, K; Hyeon, J; Lee, SA; Kwon, SO; Lee, H; Keum, N; Lee, JK; Park, SM (30 August 2017). "Role of Total, Red, Processed, and White Meat Consumption in Stroke Incidence and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies". Journal of the American Heart Association. 6 (9). doi:10.1161/JAHA.117.005983. PMC 5634267. PMID 28855166.
  29. ^ Dabbagh-Moghadam, A; Mozaffari-Khosravi, H; Nasiri, M; Miri, A; Rahdar, M; Sadeghi, O (December 2017). "Association of white and red meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study among a population of Iranian military families in 2016". Eating and Weight Disorders. 22 (4): 717–724. doi:10.1007/s40519-017-0385-x. PMID 28421475. S2CID 24400904.
  30. ^ Cocate, PG; Natali, AJ; de Oliveira, A; Alfenas Rde, C; Peluzio Mdo, C; Longo, GZ; dos Santos, EC; Buthers, JM; de Oliveira, LL; Hermsdorff, HH (February 2015). "Red but not white meat consumption is associated with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation in Brazilian middle-aged men". European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 22 (2): 223–30. doi:10.1177/2047487313507684. PMID 24104887. S2CID 6918972.
  31. ^ Mann, N; Sinclair, A; Pille, M; Johnson, L; Warrick, G; Reder, E; Lorenz, R (June 1997). "The effect of short-term diets rich in fish, red meat, or white meat on thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis in humans". Lipids. 32 (6): 635–44. doi:10.1007/s11745-997-0081-5. PMID 9208393. S2CID 4053320.
  32. ^ Bastide, Nadia M.; Pierre, Fabrice H. F.; Corpet, Denis E. (2011-02-01). "Heme Iron from Meat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis and a Review of the Mechanisms Involved". Cancer Prevention Research. 4 (2): 177–184. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0113. ISSN 1940-6207. PMID 21209396.