White meat

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Chicken is the most commonly eaten white meat

White meat is meat which is pale in color before and after cooking. The most common kind of white or light meat is the lighter-colored meat of poultry, coming from the breast, as contrasted with dark meat from the legs. In traditional gastronomy, white meat also includes rabbit, the flesh of milk-fed young mammals (in particular veal and lamb), and usually pork.[1][2][3][4]

In nutritional studies however, white meat includes poultry and fish, but excludes all mammal flesh, which is considered red meat.[5] The United States Department of Agriculture as red meats if the myoglobin level is higher than 65%.[dubious ][6][7] This categorization is controversial[weasel words] as some types of fish, such as tuna, are red when raw and turn white when cooked; similarly, certain types of poultry that are sometimes grouped as "white meat" are actually red when raw, such as duck and goose.

Poultry white meat is made up of fast-twitch muscle fibres, while red, or dark, meat is made up of muscles with fibres that are slow-twitch.[8]

Poultry[edit]

Within poultry, there are two types of meats—white and dark. The different colors are based on the different locations and uses of the muscles. White meat can be found within the breast of a chicken or turkey. Dark muscles are fit to develop endurance, or long-term use, and contain more myoglobin than white muscles, allowing the muscle to use oxygen more efficiently for aerobic respiration. White meat contains large amounts of protein.

Dark meat contains 2.64 times more saturated fat than white meat, per gram of protein.[9] One commentator wrote that dark meat contains more vitamins,[10] while a New York Times columnist has stated the two meats are nearly identical in nutritional value, especially when compared with typical red meat. For ground-based birds like chicken and turkeys, dark meats occur in the legs, which are used to support the weight of the animals while they move. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, one ounce of boneless, skinless turkey breast contains about one gram of fat, compared with roughly two grams of fat for an ounce of boneless, skinless thigh.[11] The numbers go up when the skin is kept in: a chicken thigh, with skin intact, has 13 grams of total fat and 3.5 grams of saturated fat per 3-ounce serving; this is about 20 percent of the recommended maximum daily intake.[12] Birds which use their chest muscles for sustained flight (such as geese and ducks) have dark meat throughout their bodies.[13]

Pork[edit]

Because of nutritional concerns, it can be preferable for meat producers to have their products considered white meat. The United States National Pork Board has marketed their product as "Pork. The Other White Meat".

In Israel, where Jewish dietary laws are popularly practiced, forbidding the consumption of pork, "white meat" is the accepted euphemism for pork.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Larousse Gastronomique, 1961, s.v. pork
  2. ^ Evan Goldstein, Joyce Goldstein, Perfect Pairings: A Master Sommelier’s Practical Advice for Partnering Wine with Food, ISBN 0520243773, 2006, p. 109: "White meats such as pork and veal are also excellent table companions for Gewürz..."
  3. ^ Pierre Paillon, Secrets of Good French Cooking, ISBN 0471160628, 1996, p. 95: "White meats (veal and pork) and poultry should be cooked "medium"..."
  4. ^ Elisabeth Rozin, The Primal Cheeseburger: A Generous Helping of Food History Served On a Bun, ISBN 0140178430 1994, p. 19: "Beef and lamb are clearly red meats, while veal and rabbit are white meats; the white meat category has been generalized to include the flesh of poultry and fish as well."
  5. ^ "USDA-Safety of Fresh Pork...from Farm to Table". Fsis.usda.gov. 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  6. ^ Lee, Elizabeth. "The Truth About Red Meat". Web MD. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  7. ^ National Agricultural Statistics Service (2005-11-03). "Idaho Red Meat Production Down 40 Percent" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2007-04-05. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-12. Retrieved 2014-08-18. 
  9. ^ "Dark Meat Versus White Meat: What's The Difference". Retrieved 2012-02-20. 
  10. ^ "Come To The Dark Side Of The Chicken; It's Tastier". Retrieved 2011-02-26. 
  11. ^ Anahead O'Connor, "Really? The Claim: White Meat Is Healthier Than Dark Meat" Archived April 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. in the New York Times, 20 Nov 2007.
  12. ^ "The Nutrition of Chicken Breasts Vs. Thighs". healthyeating.sfgate.com. Retrieved 22 June 2016. 
  13. ^ Article on the color of turkey and chicken meat Archived January 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ "Mexican Flu: The Other White Meat : On Language". The Jewish Daily Forward. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009.