Cat meat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Cat meat is meat prepared from domestic cats for human consumption. Some countries eat cat meat regularly, whereas others have only consumed some cat meat in desperation during wartime or poverty.

Africa[edit]

Prehistoric human feces have contained bones from the wild cat of Africa.[1]

In some cultures of Cameroon, there is a special ceremony featuring cat-eating that is thought to bring good luck.[2]

Asia[edit]

China[edit]

According to Humane Society International,[3] Agence France-Presse,[4] and the BBC,[5] cat meat is not widely eaten in China. But in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces in south-eastern China, some—especially older—people consider cat flesh a good warming food during winter months.[6] The Associated Press reported in 2008 that people in southern China's Guangdong province (population just over 113 million) ate 10,000 cats per day.[7]

In Guangdong, cat meat is a main ingredient in the traditional dish "dragon, tiger, phoenix" (snake, cat, chicken), which is said to fortify the body.[8]

Organized cat-collectors supply the southern restaurants with animals that often originate in Anhui and Jiangsu provinces.[8][9][10] On January 26, 2010, China launched its first draft proposal to protect the country's animals from maltreatment including a measure to jail people—for periods up to 15 days—for eating cat or dog meat.[11]

With the increase of cats as pets in China, opposition towards the traditional use of cats for food has grown. In June 2006, approximately 40 activists stormed the Fangji Cat Meatball Restaurant in Shenzhen, forcing it to shut down.[12] Expanded to more than 40 member societies, the Chinese Animal Protection Network in January 2006 began organizing well-publicized protests against dog and cat consumption, starting in Guangzhou, following up in more than ten other cities "with very optimal response from public."[13] Beijing News reported in 2014 and 2015 of Beijing and Tianjin authorities respectively discovering feral, and stray cats to be used as part of the cat meat trade, which drew outrage from many Chinese netizens.[5] A 2015 Animals Asia survey found that at least more than 70-80% of Chinese respondents agreed it was unacceptable to eat dogs and cats if they had been abused or tortured during feeding and slaughter.[14]


Japan

In Japan, cats were sometimes eaten until the end of the Edo period . [15]In Okinawa, it is believed to be effective against costochondritis, bronchitis, lung disease, and hemorrhoids, and was eaten in the form of a soup, such as Maya No Ushiro.[16]

India[edit]

According to HuffPost and a few Indian news outlets in 2016, cat meat was being served in parts of Chennai and being consumed mainly by the Narikuravar community in the city.[17] There had been allegations made online in the same year that some Narikuravar people were hunting feral, and stray cats for their meat in Bengaluru.[18]

Indonesia[edit]

Cat meat has been featured at the Extreme Market in the North Sulawesi city of Tomohon.[19]

Korea[edit]

In Korea, cat meat was historically brewed into a tonic as a folk remedy for neuralgia and arthritis, not commonly as food. Modern consumption is seen and more likely to be in the form of cat soup, though the number of people who consume cat soup is considered minimal, compared to a relatively popular dog meat.[20][21] Julien Dugnoille wrote in The Conversation that cat meat is mostly consumed by middle-aged working class women for perceived health benefits, and that usually 10 cats are needed to produce a small bottle of cat, or goyangi, soju (an alcoholic elixir thought to keep arthritis at bay for a few weeks at a time).[22] According to In Defense of Animals, 100,000 cats are killed yearly to make cat soju in South Korea. Cats are not farmed for their meat in the country, so the trade involves ferals and strays. Nonetheless, the trade is mostly done underground, and the great majority of population is not even aware that there is cat consumption problem in the country. Moreover, eating cat meat is highly stigmatized throughout the country, unlike eating dog meat, which is often criticized but not universally stigmatized.[23]

Malaysia[edit]

According to the Malaysian branch of Friends of the Earth, cat meat is not illegal in Malaysia. The organisation reported that some Vietnamese nationals had been selling dog and cat meat in a couple of cities,[24] an allegation repeated by Coconuts Media.[25] According to The Star in 2012, cat meat was popular among some Myanmar nationals in the country.[26]

Taiwan[edit]

In October 2017, Taiwan's national legislature, known as Legislative Yuan, passed amendments to the country's Animal Protection Act which "bans the sale and consumption of dog and cat meat and of any food products that contain the meat or other parts of these animals."[27]

Vietnam[edit]

As of 2015, cat meat is eaten in Vietnam, even though it is technically illegal.[28][29][30][31][32][33][34] It is generally seen on menus with the euphemism "tiểu hổ", literally "baby tiger" rather than the literal "thịt mèo".[35] Cat galls have aphrodisiacal properties according to people in North Vietnam.[36][37] In 2018, however, officials in the city of Hanoi urged citizens to stop eating dog and cat meat, citing concerns about the cruel methods with which the animals are slaughtered and the diseases this practice propagates, including rabies and leptospirosis. The primary reason for this exhortation seems to be a fear that the practice of dog and cat consumption, most of which are stolen household pets, could tarnish the city's image as a "civilised and modern capital".[38] According to data from a market research study by Four Paws, approximately 8% of people living in Hanoi have consumed cat meat in their lives.[39]

According to The Independent in April 2020, COVID-19 has led to increased dog and cat meat sales in Vietnam (and Cambodia) due to their perceived health benefits against the virus.[40]

Europe[edit]

Belgium[edit]

In January 2011, the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain stated that people are not allowed to kill random cats walking in their garden, but '[n]owhere in the law does it say that you can't eat your own pet cat, dog, rabbit, fish or whatever. You just have to kill them in an animal-friendly way.'[41]

Denmark[edit]

In June 2008, three students at the Danish School of Media and Journalism published pictures of a cat being slaughtered and eaten in Citat, a magazine for journalism students. Their goal was to create a debate about animal welfare. The cat was shot by its owner, a farmer, and it would have been put down in any case. The farmer slaughtered the cat within the limits of Danish law. This led to criticism from Danish animal welfare group Dyrenes Beskyttelse,[42][43] and death threats received by the students.[44]

Italy[edit]

In February 2010, on a television cooking show, the Italian food writer Beppe Bigazzi mentioned that during the famine in World War II cat stew was a "succulent" and well-known dish in his home area of Valdarno, Tuscany. Later he claimed he had been joking, but added that cats used to be eaten in the area during famine periods, historically. He was widely criticised in the media for his comments and ultimately dropped from the television network.[45]

Cat consumption is a stereotype attributed to Vincenzans in Vicenza, Italy.[46]

According to the British Butchers' Advocate, Dressed Poultry and the Food Merchant of 1904, "Just before Christmas it is common for a group of young men in northern Italy to kill some cats, skin them and soak them in water for two or three days. They are cooked with great care on Christmas day and served up hot about 1:30 p.m. after mass....Many people in Italy, 'on the quiet,' keep cats like the English do rabbits—to kill. A catskin there is worth ten pence, as the material for muffs for girls... Extraordinary care has to be taken in procuring the animals, for the Italian Society for the Protection of Cats is vigilant, and offenses against the law are followed by imprisonment only. We have no fines in Italy."[47]

According to The Dietetic & Hygienic Gazette in 1905, "Italy cultivates the cat for home consumption as English people raise rabbits. It is to be done on the quiet, however, for in spite of the profit in the business and the demand for the delicacy, the law has to be looked out for, and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Cats is vigilant. Offenses against the law are visited with imprisonment. Cats are raised for the market nonetheless. Fattened on the finest of milk, a choice specimen will attain the weight of fifteen pounds."[48][49]

France and Spain[edit]

There are accounts of cat being consumed in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis (southern France), in Spain in the 17th century, and during WWI and WWII.[46]

Switzerland[edit]

According to the Food Safety and Veterinary Office, the sale of dog or cat meat is not allowed, but it is legal for people to eat their own animals.[50][51] The Swiss parliament rejected changing the laws to protect dogs and cats for human consumption in 1993.[52]

United Kingdom[edit]

In 18th-century Britain, there are a few records of cats being eaten as entertainment or gambling. In 1788 the Duke of Bedford bet the Earl of Barrymore 1000 guineas he could not eat a live cat, the earl did not.[53]

Other areas[edit]

Cats were sometimes eaten as a famine food during harsh winters, poor harvests, and wartime. Cat gained notoriety as "roof rabbit" (Dachhase) in Central Europe's hard times during and between World War I and World War II.[54]

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

Indigenous Australians in the area of Alice Springs roast feral cats on an open fire. They have also developed recipes for cat stew. Some other inhabitants of the area have also taken up this custom, justified on the grounds that felines are "a serious threat to Australia's native fauna". Scientists warned that eating wild cats could expose humans to harmful bacteria and toxins.[55]

Americas[edit]

Argentina[edit]

In two 1996 TV reports from different networks, Telefe Noticias[56] and Todo Noticias,[57] some citizens in a shanty town in Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina, stated that, during an economic crisis, they had to feed the neighborhood children with cat's meat, and commenting, "It's not denigrating to eat cat, it keeps a child's stomach full".

Although, the validity of these reports has been questioned in a book by journalists Gabriel Russo and Edgardo Miller[58] these authors didn't produce any evidence nor taped confession of someone stating that was responsible for the forgery. Moreover it's been reported that the then Mayor of Rosario was the source of the rumor that the TV networks enacted a play just to discredit the city's municipal government.[59] In 2013 Josefa Villalba a former municipal council member in 1996 stated that previously to the TV reports she denounced to the local municipal government the fact that children were being fed with cats but the municipal government heads tried to silence her.[60] Contemporary reporting by the journalist Ricardo Luque of La Nación, a newspaper of record of Argentina, reproduced a quote from an inhabitant of the shanty town "When the kids come to ask for something to eat, there's no point in giving them anything, so we go out and hunt cats, anything to fed them".[61]

Peru[edit]

Cat is not a regular menu item in Peru, but is used in such dishes as fricassee and stews most abundant in two specific sites in the country: the southern town of Chincha Alta (Ica Region, Afro-Peruvian mostly) and the north-central Andean town of Huari (Ancash Region). Primarily used by Afro-Peruvians. Cat cooking techniques are demonstrated every September during the festival of Saint Efigenia in a town of La Quebrada.[62]

In October 2013, a judge banned the annual El Festival Gastronomico del Gato (the Gastronomic Festival of the Cat), which was held every September in La Quebrada to commemorate the arrival of settlers who were forced to eat cats to survive, citing it as cruel to the 100+ cats specifically bred for the event, which involves being kept in cages for a year prior the Festival. The judge also cited concerns over the safety of the meat, which drew criticism from residents who contend that cat meat is far richer than rabbit or duck, and that it has been long consumed globally without any deleterious effects.[63]

That same month, magistrate Maria Luyo banned the festival of Curruñao in the small town of San Luis. Locals say that the festival, which sees cats being drowned, skinned and tied to fireworks and blown up, dates back to the practice of eating cat on the part of African slaves who worked on sugar-cane plantations in colonial times, and is part of the religious celebrations of Santa Efigenia, an African-Peruvian folk saint. Luyo stated in her ruling that the festival "fomented violence based on cruel acts against animals which caused grave social damage and damaged public health", and that minors could be "psychologically damaged" by watching the events.[64]

United States[edit]

In December 2018, the Dog and Cat Meat Trade Prohibition Act of 2018 was signed into federal law making the consumption of cat meat illegal and punishable by a fine of $5,000, except as part of Native American religious ceremonies. Previous to that bill, consuming cat meat was technically legal in 44 states.[65]


Religion[edit]

Islam[edit]

Islamic dietary laws, like in Kosher dietary laws which set the precedent in Abrahamic faiths, it too forbade the consumption of cat meat as it is a terrestrial predator.[66]

Judaism[edit]

Jewish Kashrut laws forbid consuming cat meat as it is a predator. As well as not being a predator, a mammal must both chew cud and have cloven hooves in order to be considered kosher.[67][68]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David Taylor; Daphne Negus; Dave King; Jane Burton (1989). The Ultimate Cat Book. Simon and Schuster. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-671-68649-9.
  2. ^ Ngwa-Niba, Francis (March 17, 2003). "The cat eaters of Cameroon". BBC News.
  3. ^ "Saving animals from China's dog and cat meat trade". Humane Society International. February 21, 2019. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  4. ^ "'Don't eat cat and dog meat' - activists to Chinese diners". NDTV, Agence France-Presse. November 22, 2013.
  5. ^ a b Kerry Allen (October 30, 2015). "Claws out over China cat meat scandal". BBC News. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  6. ^ "Trying to get cat off the menu in China". Toronto Star. July 26, 2009.
  7. ^ "China Protesters: Stop 'Cooking Cats Alive' – Fury After Newspaper Says 10,000 Felines Are Eaten Daily in Single Province". NBC News. Associated Press. December 18, 2008.
  8. ^ a b Some call it an indelicate trade, others, a delicacy Archived March 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Xinhuanet.com, January 13, 2012 (from China Daily)
  9. ^ Wang, Yu (December 19, 2008). "Nanjing sends meat that meows to Guangzhou". Beijing: Beijing Today. Archived from the original on February 24, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
  10. ^ Moore, Malcolm (January 1, 2009). "Cat-nappers feed Cantonese taste for pet delicacy". London: Telegraph.
  11. ^ "China to jail people for up to 15 days who eat dog". Chinadaily. Retrieved January 26, 2010.
  12. ^ "Animal rights protest shuts restaurant". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 13, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2006.
  13. ^ "Guangzhou bans eating snakes--ban helps cats". Animal People. March 4, 2008. Archived from the original on March 4, 2008.
  14. ^ "Survey of public attitudes to dog and cat eating in China" (PDF). Animals Asia. June 2015. p. 7.
  15. ^ Hanley, Susan (1997). Everyday Things in Premodern Japan. p. 66.
  16. ^ 渡口初美 (1979). 沖縄の食養生料理 (in Japanese). 国際料理学院. p. 12.
  17. ^ "For Biryani In Chennai, Cats Are Being Boiled Alive, Sold For Rs 100 Per KG". HuffPost. 2016. Archived from the original on June 14, 2018.
  18. ^ Iyer, Shravan Regret (April 26, 2016). "Fear of cats sold for meat looms large in Bengaluru". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  19. ^ Farid M Ibrahim (September 11, 2018). "Dogs and cats blow-torched alive at Indonesia 'extreme' market despite promised ban". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  20. ^ "Dog and Cat Meat Consumption – In Defense of Animals – In Defense of Animals". In Defense of Animals. Archived from the original on November 23, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  21. ^ "Ban South Korean dog and cat meat trade". Our Compass. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  22. ^ Dugnoille, Julien (March 22, 2016). "The truth about cats and dogs (and how they are consumed in South Korea)". The Conversation. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  23. ^ "Dog Meat". In Defense of Animals. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  24. ^ Friends of the Earth Malaysia (May 9, 2019). "The Truth About Malaysia's Dog and Cat Meat Trade". Animal People. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  25. ^ "Social media users in Malaysia discover groups selling dog and cat meat". Coconuts. April 5, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  26. ^ "Cat's meat a purr-fect dish among Myanmar folk". The Star. October 2012.
  27. ^ Zeldin, Wendy (October 18, 2017). "Taiwan: Animal Protection Law Amended". Global Legal Monitor.
  28. ^ Việt Báo Thịt mèo
  29. ^ "Thành phố thịt mèo". Archived from the original on May 21, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  30. ^ "9 Countries That Eat Cats and Dogs". The Daily Meal. Archived from the original on November 23, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  31. ^ "Cat Meat". Vietnam Coracle. Archived from the original on November 23, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  32. ^ "The Truth About Cats & Dogs In Vietnam - The Dropout Diaries". The Dropout Diaries. Archived from the original on November 23, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  33. ^ "Where cat sits happily on the menu". Stuff. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  34. ^ The Christian Science Monitor. "Why do Vietnamese keep cats on a leash? (Hint: What's for dinner?)". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  35. ^ "Cats stolen, drowned, bludgeoned and boiled in secretive Vietnam trade". The Independent. August 12, 2020. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  36. ^ Jerry Hopkins (May 15, 2004). Extreme Cuisine: The Weird and Wonderful Foods That People Eat. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-1-4629-0472-3.
  37. ^ Jerry Hopkins (December 23, 2014). Strange Foods. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-1-4629-1676-4.
  38. ^ "Vietnamese capital Hanoi asks people not to eat dog meat". BBC News. September 12, 2018. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  39. ^ "The Dog and Cat Meat Trade in Southeast Asia: A Threat to Animals and People" (PDF). Four Paws. February 2020. p. 28.
  40. ^ Jane Dalton (April 24, 2020). "Coronavirus causes surge in dog and cat meat sales in Vietnam and Cambodia, investigators say". The Independent.
  41. ^ jrosquin (January 5, 2011). "Uw kat opeten is wettelijk toegestaan". Gazet van Antwerpen (in Dutch). Retrieved June 4, 2021.
  42. ^ Walsh, Kevin (June 5, 2008). "Journalistelever spiser kat" [Journalism students eat cat]. BT (in Danish). Berlingske Media. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
  43. ^ Andreassen, Andreas Marckmann (June 6, 2008). "Journaliststuderende spiser kat på nettet" [Journalism students eat cat online]. Journalisten.dk (in Danish). Journalisten. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
  44. ^ Helmer, Jesper (June 7, 2008). "Århus-studerende spiste kat - nu trues de på livet" [Students from Århus ate cat - are now threatened on their life]. Avisen.dk (in Danish). Avisen.dk ApS. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
  45. ^ Owen, Richard (February 16, 2010). "Celebrity chef Beppe Bigazzi upsets viewers with his cat casserole". The Times. London.
  46. ^ a b Ken Albala (2003). Food in Early Modern Europe. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 66–. ISBN 978-0-313-31962-4.
  47. ^ Butchers' Advocate, Dressed Poultry and the Food Merchant. 1904. pp. 11–.
  48. ^ The Dietetic & Hygienic Gazette. Gazette Publishing Company. 1905. pp. 99–100.
  49. ^ Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette. Gazette Publishing Company. 1905. pp. 99–100.
  50. ^ "Stop eating cats and dogs say animal rights campaigners in Switzerland". BBC Newsbeat. November 26, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
  51. ^ "Swiss 'restaurant' serving cat and dog meat sparks outrage". www.thelocal.ch. February 12, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2020.
  52. ^ "Forget chocolate or cheese: Cat and dog meat is Swiss delicacy". www.scotsman.com. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  53. ^ "The Cat Eaters". forteantimes.com. Archived from the original on May 21, 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
  54. ^ "Cats - Friend Or Food". Messybeast.com. Retrieved June 14, 2010.
  55. ^ Mercer, Phil (September 2, 2007). "Australians cook up wild cat stew". BBC News.
  56. ^ Rosario Gente pobre come Gatos [Rosario, paupers eat cats] (in Spanish). Telefé Noticias. 1996. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  57. ^ Rosario Comen Gatos [Rosario, they eat cats] (in Spanish). Todo Noticias. 1996. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  58. ^ "Nunca se comieron gatos en Rosario" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on January 6, 2015.
  59. ^ "El triste recuerdo de los "come gatos" de Rosario" [The sad memories of the "cat eaters"]. Diario Uno (in Spanish). 2000. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  60. ^ "Ex concejala ratificó la existencia de comegatos en Rosario" [Former municipal council member ratified the existence of "cat eaters" in Rosario]. Diario Uno (in Spanish). June 26, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
  61. ^ Ricardo Luque (May 8, 1996). "En una villa comen animales domésticos para sobrevivir" [In a shanty town they eat domestic animals to survive]. La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved December 9, 2020.
  62. ^ Ryan, Missy (September 28, 2001). "'Cat-eaters' take note — feline feast at Peru festival". PlanetArk.com. Archived from the original on September 11, 2004. Retrieved February 16, 2008.
  63. ^ Golgowksi, Nina (October 15, 2013). "Judge bans Peruvian town's annual cat-eating festival". Daily News (New York).
  64. ^ Collyns, Dan (October 18, 2013). "Claws out as Peruvian judge suspends annual cat race and feast". The Guardian.
  65. ^ "President Trump signs the Farm Bill making dog and cat meat illegal in the United States". WRDW-TV. Associated Press. December 21, 2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
  66. ^ Sahih Muslim, 21:4752
  67. ^ Rabbi Louis Jacobs (January 31, 2014). "Kosher Animals". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
  68. ^ "Kashrut: Jewish Dietary Laws". Judaism 101. Retrieved September 15, 2017.

External links[edit]