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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1530s 1540s 1550s – 1560s – 1570s 1580s 1590s|
|Years:||1559 1560 1561 – 1562 – 1563 1564 1565|
|1562 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2315|
|English Regnal year||4 Eliz. 1 – 5 Eliz. 1|
— to —壬戌年十二月初六日
|- Vikram Samvat||1618–1619|
|- Shaka Samvat||1484–1485|
|- Kali Yuga||4663–4664|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||562–563|
|Japanese calendar||Eiroku 5
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||1562 MDLXII|
|Minguo calendar||350 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2105|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1562|
- January 6 – Shane O'Neill of Tyrone pleads his cause at the Palace of Whitehall in London before Queen Elizabeth I of England, who recognises his status. He returns to Ireland on May 26 and resumes his rebellious activities by November.
- January 17 – Huguenots are recognized under the Edict of Saint-Germain.
- January 18 – First performance of Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville's play Gorboduc before Queen Elizabeth I of England. It is the first known English tragedy and the first English language play to employ blank verse.
- March 1 – Over 80(?) Huguenots are massacred by the ultra-Catholic Francis, Duke of Guise in Wassy-sur-Blaise, marking the start of the First War of Religion in France. Protestant forces led by Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé and Gaspard de Coligny quickly seize control of Orléans, Rouen, and other cities throughout France.
- May 1 – Jean Ribault, French navigator, lands in Florida and later establishes a Huguenot colony at Charlesfort on Parris Island, off the coast of South Carolina.
- July 12 – Fray Diego de Landa, acting Bishop of Yucatan, burns the sacred books of the Maya.
- September 20 – Treaty of Hampton Court between Queen Elizabeth I of England and Huguenot leader Louis, Prince of Condé.
- September 22 – Maximilian, son of the Emperor Ferdinand I, succeeds as King of Bohemia.
- October – John Hawkins initiates the English trans-Atlantic slave trade, shipping slaves from Sierra Leone on the Guinea Coast to Hispaniola in the Caribbean. As a result, the Spanish prohibit English ships from trading at their new world ports.
- October 4 – English forces under Ambrose Dudley, 3rd Earl of Warwick, land at Le Havre to aid the Huguenots.
- October 26 – Rouen is captured by Royalist forces under Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, who is mortally wounded.
- November 5 – In Scotland, the rebellion of George Gordon, Earl of Huntly is crushed by James Stewart, Earl of Moray, at the Battle of Corrichie.
- November 20 – Maximilian of Bohemia is elected King of the Romans.
- December 19 – Battle of Dreux: Huguenot forces under Condé and Coligny, and Catholic forces under the ageing Anne, duc de Montmorency, and Francis, Duke of Guise, fight a bloody battle, narrowly won by the Catholic side. The official leaders of both armies (Condé and Montmorency) are captured in the battle.
Date unknown 
- The Mughal Emperor Akbar conquers Malwa and its last Sultan, Baz Bahadur, flees.
- The Church of England approves the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion, defining its doctrinal stance.
- Dudley Grammar School is established and Gresham's School is granted a royal charter in England.
- Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola publishes Regola delli cinque ordini d'architettura (Rules of the Five Orders of Architecture); it will become in succeeding centuries the most published book in architectural history.
- January – Penelope Blount, Countess of Devonshire (d. 1607)
- January 12 – Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy (d. 1630)
- January 13 – Mark Alexander Boyd, Scottish poet and soldier of fortune (d. 1601)
- January 20 – Ottavio Rinuccini, Italian composer (d. 1621)
- April or May – Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Dutch composer (d. 1621)
- May 6 – Pietro Bernini, Italian sculptor (d. 1629)
- July 25 – Katō Kiyomasa, Japanese samurai (d. 1611)
- August 17 – (baptised) – Hans Leo Hassler, German composer (d. 1612)
- October 4 – Christian Sørensen Longomontanus, Danish astronomer (d. 1647)
- October 19 – George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1633)
- November 25 – Lope de Vega, Spanish poet and dramatist (d. 1635)
- date unknown
- Isabella Andreini, Italian actress (d. 1604)
- John Bull, English composer (d. 1628)
- Henry Constable, English poet (d. 1613)
- Samuel Daniel, English poet and historian (d. 1619)
- Francis Godwin, English writer and prelate (d. 1633)
- George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly (d. 1636)
- Juan de Jáuregui, attempted assassin of William I of Orange (d. 1582)
- Natsuka Masaie, Japanese daimyo (d. 1600)
- Richard Neile, English churchman (d. 1640)
- Henry Spelman, English antiquary (d. 1641)
- Maeda Toshinaga, Japanese nobleman (d. 1614)
- Cornelis van Haarlem, Dutch painter (d. 1638)
- Xu Guangqi, Chinese agronomist, astronomer, and mathematician (d. 1633)
- January – Ilie II Rareş, Prince of Moldavia (b. 1531)
- January 9 – Amago Haruhisa, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1514)
- January 25 – Charles Wriothesley, officer of arms (b. 1508)
- May 14 – Lelio Sozzini, Italian Protestant theologian (b. 1525)
- October 9 – Gabriele Falloppio, Italian anatomist (b. 1523)
- October 13 – Claudin de Sermisy, French composer (b. 1495)
- October – George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly (b. 1514)
- November 12 – Pietro Martire Vermigli, Italian theologian (b. 1500)
- November 17 – Antoine de Bourbon, father of Henry IV of France (b. 1518)
- December 6 – Jan van Scorel, Dutch painter (b. 1495)
- December 7 – Adrian Willaert, Flemish composer (b. c. 1490)
- December 17 – Eleonora di Toledo, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (b. 1522)
- date unknown
- probable - Lutfi Pasha, poet and juridical scholar of slave origin
- Moody, T. W. et al., ed. (1989). A New History of Ireland. 8: A Chronology of Irish History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821744-2.
- "Gorboduc, or the Tragedy of Ferrex and Porrox". Archived from the original on 2007-09-17. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 223–226. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 153–156. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Evers, Vernd (2003). Architectural Theory: from the Renaissance to the present. Taschen. p. 845. ISBN 978-3-8228-1699-8.
- Vignola. Canon of the Five Orders of Architecture, translated with an introduction by Branko Mitrovic. New York: Acanthus Press, 1999). p. 17. ISBN 0-926494-16-3.