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|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1560s 1570s 1580s – 1590s – 1600s 1610s 1620s|
|Years:||1587 1588 1589 – 1590 – 1591 1592 1593|
|1590 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2343|
|English Regnal year||32 Eliz. 1 – 33 Eliz. 1|
— to —庚寅年十二月初五日
|- Vikram Samvat||1646–1647|
|- Shaka Samvat||1512–1513|
|- Kali Yuga||4691–4692|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||590–591|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 18
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||322 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2133|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1590|
- January 11 – The Cortes of Castile approves a new subsidy, the "millones".
- March – Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, takes Breda by concealing 68 of his best men in a peat-boat to get through the impregnable defences.
- March 14 – Battle of Ivry: Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne.
- May–August – Henry IV of France unsuccessfully attempts to besiege Paris. Henry is forced to raise the siege when the Duke of Parma comes to its rescue with a Spanish army.
- May 17 – Anne of Denmark is crowned queen of Scotland.
- May 21 – The Treaty of Istanbul is signed.
- August 18 – John White, governor of the Colony of Roanoke, returns from a supply-trip to England and finds his settlement deserted. After the unsuccessful search, he returns to England on October 24.
- September 15 – Urban VII succeeds Sixtus V as the 228th pope; he dies of malaria twelve days later.
- September 15 – The Neulengbach earthquake causes significant damage and some loss of life in Lower Austria and Vienna; the effects are felt as far as Bohemia and Silesia.
- December 5 – Gregory XIV succeeds Urban VII as the 229th pope.
- December 7 – Agnes Sampson is questioned by King James VI of Scotland and confesses to practising witchcraft.
Date unknown 
- Orthodox Patriarch Meletius I of Alexandria succeeds Silvester.
- Japan is united by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
- The Spanish are pushed out of southern Gelderland by the Dutch forces.
- A group of English merchants gains the right to trade in Ottoman territory in return for supplying the sultan with iron, steel, brass and tin for his war with Persia.
- January 9 – Simon Vouet, French painter (d. 1649)
- January 30 – Lady Anne Clifford, English noblewoman (d. 1676)
- March 18 – Manuel de Faria e Sousa, Spanish and Portuguese historian and poet (d. 1649)
- April 18 – Ahmed I, Ottoman Emperor (d. 1617)
- May – William Cecil, 17th Baron de Ros (d. 1618)
- May 5 – Jakub Sobieski, Polish noble (d. 1646)
- May 12 – Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (d. 1621)
- July 13 – Pope Clement X (d. 1676)
- July 26 – Johannes Crellius, Polish–German theologian (d. 1633)
- August 19 – Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, English soldier (d. 1649)
- date unknown
- William Bradford, English leader of Plymouth Colony (d. 1657)
- Francis Burgersdyk, Dutch logician (d. 1629)
- Isaac de Caus, French landscaper (d. 1648)
- Theophilus Eaton, Puritan colonial merchant (d. 1658)
- Isaac Manasses de Pas, Marquis de Feuquieres, French soldier (d. 1640)
- Roger Ludlow, one of the founders of the colony (later the state) of Connecticut (d. 1664)
- Boris Morozov, Russian statesman and boyar (d. 1661)
- Yamada Nagamasa, Japanese adventurer (d. 1630)
- January 7 – Jakob Andreae, German theologian (b. 1528)
- February 1
- February 4 – Gioseffo Zarlino, Italian music theorist and composer (b. 1517)
- February 12 – François Hotman, French Protestant lawyer and writer (b. 1524)
- February 18 – Asahi no kata, Japanese lady, Toyotomi Hideyoshi's sister (b. 1543)
- February 21 – Ambrose Dudley, 3rd Earl of Warwick, English nobleman and general (b. 1528)
- April 6 – Francis Walsingham, English spymaster (b. 1530)
- May 9 – Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon French church leader and pretender to the throne (b. 1523)
- May 27 – Richard Hill, Richard Holiday, John Hogg and Edmund Duke, executed Roman Catholic priests
- June 19 – Mogami Yoshimori, Japanese warlord (b. 1521)
- June 28 – Hori Hidemasa, Japanese warlord (b. 1553)
- July 10 – Archduke Charles II of Austria, regent of Inner Austria (b. 1540)
- August 10
- August 27 – Pope Sixtus V (b. 1521)
- September 20 – Lodovico Agostini, Italian composer (b. 1534)
- September 27 – Pope Urban VII (b. 1521)
- September 29 – Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert, Dutch politician and theologian (b. 1522)
- October 4 – Jacques Cujas, French legal expert (b. 1520)
- October 12 – Kano Eitoku, Japanese painter (b. 1543)
- October 23 – Bernardino de Sahagún, Franciscan missionary (b. 1499)
- November 18 – George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, English statesman (b. 1528)
- November 29 – Philipp Nikodemus Frischlin, German philologist and poet (b. 1547)
- December 20 – Ambroise Paré, French surgeon (b. 1510)
- date unknown
- probable – Bernard Palissy, French potter (b. 1510)