1 (New York City Subway service)
|Broadway – Seventh Avenue Local|
|Northern end||Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street|
|Southern end||South Ferry|
|Stations||38 (incl. Cortlandt Street)|
|Rolling stock||R62, R62A|
|Depot||240th Street Yard|
The 1 Broadway – Seventh Avenue Local is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored tomato red since it uses the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line for its entire route. The 1 operates local at all times between Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street in Riverdale, Bronx and South Ferry in Lower Manhattan.
When the first subway opened between 1904 and 1908, one of the main service patterns was the West Side Branch, which the modern 1 train uses. Trains ran from Lower Manhattan to Van Cortlandt Park via what is now the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, 42nd Street Shuttle, and IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line. There was both local and express service with express trains using the express tracks south of 96th Street. Some express trains ran to Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn via the Joralemon Street Tunnel during rush hours while all other trains turned around at City Hall or South Ferry.
On June 3, 1917, the first portion of the Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line south of Times Square – 42nd Street, a shuttle to 34th Street – Penn Station, opened; a separate shuttle service to 34th Street was placed into service. This shuttle was extended south to South Ferry, with a shorter shuttle on the Brooklyn branch between Chambers Street and Wall Street, on July 1, 1918. Finally, the new "H" system was implemented on August 1, 1918, joining the two halves of the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line and sending all West Side trains south from Times Square.
As of 1934, 1 Express trains were running from 242nd Street to New Lots Avenue weekdays and Saturdays during the day, alternating to New Lots Avenue and Flatbush Avenue evenings and Sunday afternoons, and were split at Brooklyn Museum on Sunday morning with the south half going to New Lots Avenue and the north half to Flatbush Avenue. Late night service was not operated. 1 Local trains ran from 137th Street (Dyckman Street during weekday peak periods) to South Ferry during the day and evening, and 242nd Street to alternately New Lots Avenue and Flatbush Avenue late nights.
On September 5, 1937 the practice of splitting Sunday morning trains at Brooklyn Museum was ended, with the alternate trains going New Lots Avenue or Flatbush Avenue.
As of July 1, 1938 all evening and Sunday trains were routed to New Lots Avenue.
By 1945, 1 Local peak period trains were cut back from Dyckman Street to 137th Street
Beginning May 10, 1946, 1 Brooklyn trains were made express late nights. December 20, 1946 all late night trains were routed to Flatbush Avenue. Sunday service still alternated to Flatbush Avenue and New lots Avenue. On June 12, 1949, 137th Street to South Ferry Sunday locals were discontinued, but was resumed March 5, 1950, at which time Sunday service was also rerouted to New Lots Avenue. On March 15, 1954, weekend 137th Street to South Ferry locals were discontinued, and simultaneously weekend Brooklyn trains were rerouted to Flatbush Avenue.
An attempt was made to extend express service further north on January 4, 1955 when alternate rush trains were rerouted via the middle express track between 137th Street and 96th Street in the peak direction. This proved unsuccessful, and ended on June 28, 1956. Meanwhile, in Brooklyn, weekday trains were rerouted to Flatbush Avenue on December 20, 1957, and evening 137th Street to South Ferry locals were discontinued on May 23, 1958.
Under the new February 6, 1959, schedule, 1 trains ran between 242nd Street and South Ferry all times. Most trains made all stops, but alternate weekday rush trains ran express making no stops except 168th Street between Dyckman Street and 137th Street in the direction of heavy traffic. PM rush local/express service was discontinued on February 2, 1959, but morning rush express service was revised on January 8, 1962 to making no stops between 225th Street and Dyckman Street and 168th Street to 137th Street. This express service was discontinued on May 24, 1976.
On August 21, 1989, the 1/9 weekday skip-stop service started. The plan was to originally have skip-stop service operate north of 116th Street – Columbia University, but due to criticism, most notably that riders did not want 125th Street to be a skip-stop station, skip-stop service operated north of 137th Street – City College between the hours of 6:30 am and 7:00 pm. 1 trains skipped Marble Hill – 225th, 207th, 191st and 145th Streets while 9 trains skipped 238th, 215th, Dyckman and 157th Streets. On September 4, 1994, midday skip-stop service was discontinued, and 191st Street was no longer a skip-stop station.
After September 11, 2001, 1 trains had to be rerouted since the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line ran directly under the World Trade Center site and was heavily damaged in the collapse of the Twin Towers. It ran only between 242nd Street and 14th Street, making local stops north of and express stops south of 96th Street. The 9 train and skip-stop service were suspended. On September 19, after a few switching delays at 96th Street, service was changed. 1 trains made all stops from 242nd Street to New Lots Avenue via the Clark Street Tunnel and IRT Eastern Parkway Line, to replace 3 trains (which terminated at 14th Street) at all times except late nights, when it terminated at Chambers Street in Manhattan instead. On September 15, 2002, 1 trains returned to South Ferry and the 9 train and skip-stop service was restored, but Cortlandt Street, which was directly underneath the World Trade Center and dismantled as part of the clean-up, will remain closed until further notice.
On May 27, 2005, the 9 train was discontinued; 1 trains now made all stops. The skip-stop service made less sense by 2005 because of the increased number of trains being run and the higher ridership at the bypassed stations; the MTA estimated that eliminating skip-stop service only added 2 1/2 to 3 minutes of travel time (for passengers at the northernmost stations at 242nd Street and 238th Street) but many passengers would see trains frequencies double, resulting in decreased overall travel time (because of less time waiting for trains).
On March 16, 2009, the new South Ferry station opened, replacing the original loop station. However, 1 service was affected by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012, following serious flood damage at South Ferry. Rector Street served as a temporary terminal until April 4, 2013, when the 1 returned to the reopened loop station, also serving as a temporary terminal.
The 1 service uses the following lines with the same service pattern at all times.
|IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line||Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street||South Ferry||local|
The 1 operates local along the entire IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line, which includes crossing the Broadway Bridge between Marble HIll and Inwood, Manhattan and several portions north of 96th Street where an unused center track is present.
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops all times except late nights|
|Stops late nights only|
|Stops weekdays only|
|Stops weekdays in the peak direction only|
|Time period details|
- Commerce and Industry Association of New York, Pocket Guide to New York, 1906, pp. 19–26
- The New York Times, Bronx to Montauk; One Change of Cars, April 30, 1908, page 4
- Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac, 1916
- The New York Times, Three New Links of the Dual Subway System Opened, June 3, 1917, page 33
- The New York Times, Open New Subway to Regular Traffic, July 2, 1918, page 11
- The New York Times, Open New Subway Lines to Traffic, August 2, 1918, page 1
- "Announcing 1 and 9 skip-stop service on the Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line" (PDF). The Subway Nut. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- nycta1980s.html "The New York City Transit Authority in the 1980s". nycsubway.org. Archived from the original on 4 May 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2007.
- Chan, Sewell (January 12, 2005). "MTA Proposes Dropping No. 9 Train". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- Lueck, Thomas J. (September 15, 2002). "Old Service, Old Stops Restored on West Side". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- MTA Opens New South Ferry Station Retrieved April 13, 2010
- Restoring South Ferry Station Retrieved December 25, 2012
- South Ferry Loops Opened April 2013 Retrieved March 05, 2013
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1 (New York City Subway service).|
- MTA NYC Transit – 1 Broadway – Seventh Avenue Local
- "1 Subway Timetable, Effective December 7, 2014" (PDF). New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved 2015-01-02.