1 (New York City Subway service)
|Broadway – Seventh Avenue Local|
|Northern end||Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street|
|Southern end||South Ferry|
|Stations||38 (incl. Cortlandt Street)|
The 1 Broadway – Seventh Avenue Local is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. It is colored tomato red on station signs, route signs and the official subway map, since it uses the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line for its entire route.
The 1 service operates local at all times between Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street in Riverdale, Bronx and South Ferry in Lower Manhattan. It is the only service in the system that has elevated stations in Manhattan (125th Street and all stations north of Dyckman Street; Dyckman Street is located on an embankment right next to a tunnel portal).
When the first subway opened between 1904 and 1908, one of the main service patterns was the West Side Branch, running from Lower Manhattan to Van Cortlandt Park via what is now the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, 42nd Street Shuttle, and IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line. There was both local and express service with express trains using the express tracks south of 96th Street. Some express trains ran to Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn via the Joralemon Street Tunnel during rush hours while all other trains turned around at City Hall or South Ferry.
The first portion of the Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line south of Times Square – 42nd Street, a shuttle to 34th Street – Penn Station, opened on June 3, 1917. This shuttle was extended south to South Ferry, with a shorter shuttle on the Brooklyn branch between Chambers Street and Wall Street, on July 1, 1918. Finally, the new "H" system was implemented on August 1, 1918, joining the two halves of the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line and sending all West Side trains south from Times Square.
The local tracks ran to South Ferry, while the express tracks used the Brooklyn branch to Wall Street, extended to Atlantic Avenue via the Clark Street Tunnel on April 15, 1919. Extensions of the Eastern Parkway Line and the connecting Nostrand Avenue Line and New Lots Line opened in the next few years with the end result being that West Side trains ran to Flatbush Avenue or New Lots Avenue.
On February 6, 1959, the 1 train became the West Side local. Previously, 1 trains ran express along the West Side and into Brooklyn, and the 3 was the local service to South Ferry. Since then, 1 train service has remained consistent.
On August 21, 1989, the 1/9 weekday skip-stop service was formed. The plan was to originally have skip-stop servive operate north of 116th Street – Columbia University, but due to criticism, most notably that riders did not want 125th Street to be a skip-stop station, skip-stop service operated north of 137th Street – City College between the hours of 6:30 am and 7:00 pm. 1 trains skipped Marble Hill – 225th, 207th, 191st and 145th Streets while 9 trains skipped 238th, 215th, Dyckman and 157th Streets. 
After September 11, 2001, 1 trains had to be rerouted since the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line ran directly under the World Trade Center site and was heavily damaged in the collapse of the Twin Towers. It ran only between 242nd Street and 14th Street, making local stops north of and express stops south of 96th Street. The 9 train and skip-stop service were suspended. On September 19, after a few switching delays at 96th Street, service was changed. 1 trains made all stops from 242nd Street to New Lots Avenue via the Clark Street Tunnel and IRT Eastern Parkway Line, to replace 3 trains (which terminated at 14th Street) at all times except late nights, when it terminated at Chambers Street in Manhattan instead. On September 15, 2002, 1 trains returned to South Ferry and the 9 train and skip-stop service was restored, but Cortlandt Street, which was directly underneath the World Trade Center and dismantled as part of the clean-up, will remain closed until further notice.
On May 27, 2005, the 9 train and skip-stop service were discontinued. The skip-stop service made less sense by 2005 because of the increased number of trains being run and the higher ridership at the bypassed stations; the MTA estimated that eliminating skip-stop service only added 2 1/2 to 3 minutes of travel time (for passengers at the northernmost stations at 242nd Street and 238th Street) but many passengers would see trains frequencies double, resulting in decreased overall travel time (because of less time waiting for trains).
1 service was affected by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 following serious flood damage at South Ferry. Rector Street served as a temporary terminal until April 4, 2013, when the 1 returned to the reopened loop station.
1 train approaching 125th Street in Manhattan
The 1 service uses the following lines with the same service pattern at all times.
|IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line||Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street||South Ferry||local|
The 1 operates local along the entire IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line, which includes crossing the Broadway Bridge between Marble HIll and Inwood, Manhattan and several portions north of 96th Street where an unused center track is present.
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops all times except late nights|
|Stops late nights only|
|Stops weekdays only|
|Stops weekdays in the peak direction only|
|Time period details|
- Commerce and Industry Association of New York, Pocket Guide to New York, 1906, pp. 19–26
- The New York Times, Bronx to Montauk; One Change of Cars, April 30, 1908, page 4
- Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac, 1916
- The New York Times, Three New Links of the Dual Subway System Opened, June 3, 1917, page 33
- The New York Times, Open New Subway to Regular Traffic, July 2, 1918, page 11
- The New York Times, Open New Subway Lines to Traffic, August 2, 1918, page 1
- The New York Times, Open Clark Street Line, April 16, 1919, page 18
- "Announcing 1 and 9 skip-stop service on the Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line". The Subway Nut. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- nycta1980s.html "The New York City Transit Authority in the 1980s". nycsubway.org. Archived from the original on 4 May 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2007.
- Chan, Sewell (January 12, 2005). "MTA Proposes Dropping No. 9 Train". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- Lueck, Thomas J. (September 15, 2002). "Old Service, Old Stops Restored on West Side". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- MTA Opens New South Ferry Station Retrieved April 13, 2010
- Restoring South Ferry Station Retrieved December 25, 2012
- South Ferry Loops Opened April 2013 Retrieved March 05, 2013
- MTA NYC Transit – 1 Broadway – Seventh Avenue Local
- "1 Train Timetable, Effective December 15, 2013". New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved 2014-09-15.