514th Air Defense Group
|514th Air Defense Group|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Part of||Air Defense Command|
The 514th Air Defense Group is a disbanded United States Air Force (USAF) organization. Its last assignment was with the 31st Air Division at Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport, Minnesota. It was inactivated on 18 August 1955. The group was originally activated as a support group for the 319th Bombardment Group in Italy at the end of World War II. After the end of combat in Europe, it deployed to Okinawa, where it was inactivated. The group was activated once again in 1953, when ADC established it as the headquarters for a dispersed fighter-interceptor squadron and the medical, maintenance, and administrative squadrons supporting it. It was replaced in 1955 when ADC transferred its mission, equipment, and personnel to the 475th Fighter Group in a project that replaced air defense groups commanding fighter squadrons with fighter groups with distinguished records during World War II.
World War II 
The group was activated as the 514th Air Service Group in late 1944, absorbing personnel and equipment from the inactivating 306th Service Group as part of a reorganization of Army Air Forces (AAF) support groups in which the AAF replaced Service Groups that included personnel from other branches of the Army and supported two combat groups with Air Service Groups including only Air Corps units. The group drew its personnel and equipment from the disbanded 306th Service Group It was designed to support a single combat group. Its 940th Air Engineering Squadron provided maintenance that was beyond the capability of the combat group, its 764th Air Materiel Squadron handled all supply matters, and its Headquarters & Base Services Squadron provided other support. Supported 319th Bombardment Group in Italy, then returned to the United States for transfer to the Pacific Theater. The group sailed from Naples, Italy to Boston, MA and Staged through Fort Lawton, WA and the Caroline Islands before arriving on Okinawa. Performed same mission on Okinawa. Awarded credit for participation in the Ryukus Campaign. Disbanded in 1948.
Cold War 
The unit was redesignated as an air defense group, reconstituted and activated at Minneapolis-St Paul International Airport in 1953. with responsibility for air defense for Upper Midwestern United States. Assigned the 18th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron (FIS), which was already stationed at Minneapolis-St Paul Airport, and flying World War II era North American F-51 Mustangs as its operational component. The 18th FIS had been assigned directly to the 31st Air Division. The group replaced the 72nd Air Base Squadron as host active duty USAF unit at Minneapolis-St Paul Airport. It was assigned three squadrons to perform its support responsibilities.
The 18th FIS upgraded to North American F-86 Sabres jet fighters in July then to a later model F-86 in December. It finally replaced its F-86s with airborne intercept radar equipped and HVAR rocket armed Northrop F-89 Scorpions in January 1954. In September 1954, the 18th FIS moved to Alaska and was reassigned. A second operational squadron, the 337th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, was activated and assigned to the group in 1954. The 337th FIS flew F-89s while assigned to the group. The group inactivated with its personnel and equipment being transferred to the 475th Fighter Group (Defense) in 1955 as part of Air Defense Command's Project Arrow which was designed to bring back on the active list the fighter units which had compiled memorable records in the two world wars. The group was disbanded once again in 1984.
- Constituted as 514th Air Service Group
- Activated on 27 Dec 1944
- Inactivated on 4 Jan 1946
- Disbanded on 8 Oct 1948
- Reconstituted and redesignated 514th Air Defense Group on 21 Jan 1953
- Activated on 18 Feb 1953
- Inactivated on 18 Aug 1955
- Disbanded on 27 Sep 1984
- Unknown, 27 Dec 1944 - Jul 1945 (probably Air Service Command, Mediterranean Theater of Operations until January 1945)
- VII Bomber Command, ca. 3 Jul 1945 - 4 Jan 1946
- 31st Air Division, 16 Feb 1953 – 18 Aug 1955
- Serragia Airfield, Corsica, France 27 Dec 1944 - 8 Jan 1945
- Capodichino Airport, Naples, Italy, 8 Jan 1945 - 16 Jan 1945
- Bradley Field, CT, ca. 25 Jan 1945 - ca. 25 Jan 1945
- Columbia Army Air Base, SC, ca. 25 Feb 1945 - 26 Apr 1945 (Group reassembled after members received 30 day leaves)
- Fort Lawton, WA, May 1945 - May 1945
- Kadena AB, Okinawa July 1945 - 33 July 1945
- Machinato AB, Okinawa 3 July 1945 - 4 Jan 1946.
- Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport, MN, 16 Feb 1953 – 18 Aug 1955
- F-51D Mustang 1953
- F-86A Sabre 1953
- F-86F Sabre 1953-1954
- F-89D Scorpion 1954-1955
See also 
- Abstract, History of 514th Air Service Group, Dec 1944-Jun 1945 (retrieved Jan 4, 2012)
- Coleman, John M (1950). The Development of Tactical Services in the Army Air Forces. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. p. 208.
- AF Pamphlet 900-2, Unit Decorations, Awards and Campaign Participation Credits, Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC, 15 Jun 71  (Part 1) , p. 415
- Department of the Air Force Letter, 322 (AFOOR 887e), 8 October 1948, Subject: Disbandment of Certain Inactive Air Force Units
- Cornett, Lloyd H; Johnson, Mildred W (1980). A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization, 1946 - 1980. Peterson AFB, CO: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. p. 82.
- Cornett & Johnson, p.114
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 99. ISBN 0-405-12194-6.
- Cornett & Johnson, p.147
- See Abstract, History of 514th USAF Infirmary, Jan-Jun 1953 (retrieved June 20, 2012)
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p.417
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 127
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 349. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
- Robertson, Patsy Fact Sheet, 53rd Weapons Evaluation Group (formerly 475th Fighter Group) 2/24/2009 (retrieved March 3, 2012)
- Buss, Lydus H.(ed), Sturm, Thomas A., Volan, Denys, and McMullen, Richard F., History of Continental Air Defense Command and Air Defense Command July to December 1955, Directorate of Historical Services, Air Defense Command, Ent AFB, CO, 1956., p.6
- Department of the Air Force/MPM Letter 575q, 27 Sep 1984, Subject: Disbandment of Units
- Fact Sheet, 18th Fighter Squadron 1/4/2006 (retrieved March 3 2012)
- Fact Sheet, 337th Flight Test Squadron 4/7/2008 (retrieved March 3, 2012)
- Abstract, History of 764th Air Materiel Squadron, Dec 1944-Jun 1945 (retrieved Jan 4, 2012)
- Buss, Lydus H.(ed), Sturm, Thomas A., Volan, Denys, and McMullen, Richard F., History of Continental Air Defense Command and Air Defense Command July to December 1955, Directorate of Historical Services, Air Defense Command, Ent AFB, CO, (1956)
- Coleman, John M (1950). The Development of Tactical Services in the Army Air Forces. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
- Cornett, Lloyd H; Johnson, Mildred W (1980). A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization, 1946–1980. Peterson AFB, CO: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6.
- AF Pamphlet 900-2, Unit Decorations, Awards and Campaign Participation Credits Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC, 15 Jun 71
- Grant, C.L., (1961) The Development of Continental Air Defense to 1 September 1954, USAF Historical Study No. 126
- Leonard, Barry (2009). History of Strategic Air and Ballistic Missile Defense. Vol I. 1945-1955. Fort McNair, DC: Center for Military History. ISBN 978-1-4379-2131-1.