33d Operations Group
|33d Operations Group|
|Active||1941-1945; 1946-1952; 1955-1957; 1991—present|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Role||Fighter operations and training|
|Part of||33d Fighter Wing|
|Garrison/HQ||Eglin Air Force Base|
|Motto||Fire From the Clouds|
|Engagements||Mediterranean Theater of Operations
China Burma India Theater
|Decorations||Distinguished Unit Citation Air Force Outstanding Unit Award|
|General Elwood R. Quesada
General William W. Momyer
|33d Operations Group emblem (approved 21 February 1942)[note 1]|
|Patch with 33d Tactical Group emblem|
The 33d Operations Group (33 OG) is the flying component of the 33d Fighter Wing, assigned to Air Education and Training Command of the United States Air Force. The group is stationed at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.
The group was first activated in January 1941 as the 33d Pursuit Group and began training in fighter operations at Mitchel Field, New York. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor the group moved to Philadelphia, where it assumed an air defense role while training for combat. It moved to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations in November 1942 as part of Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa, flying its planes to its first base in Morocco from aircraft carriers of the United States Navy. The group served in North Africa and Italy until February 1944, earning a Distinguished Unit Citation in January 1943 for its defense of its base from attacks by German and Italian aircraft.
In 1944, the group departed Italy for the China-Burma-India Theater, leaving its Curtiss P-40 Warhawks behind for Lockheed P-38 Lightnings and Republic P-47 Thunderbolts. It continued combat operations until the surrender of Japan. In November 1945, it returned to the United States and was inactivated when it arrived at the Port of Embarkatiion.
The group was activated as part of the Occupation Forces at Neubiberg Air Base, Germany, where it took over the personnel and equipment of the 357th Fighter Group, which was inactivated and transferred to the National Guard. In July 1947, its personnel became the cadre for the 86th Composite Group, while the group made two moves without personnel or equipment before arriving at Roswell Army Air Field, where it equipped with North American P-51 Mustangs and became part of the fledgling Strategic Air Command. A year later, it received its first jet aircraft, the Republic F-84 Thunderjet. In 1948. the group moved to Otis Air Force Base, Massachusetts, where it assumed an air defense role, first under Continental Air Command, then under Air Defense Command (ADC). It was inactivated in February 1952 when ADC reorganized its forces on a geographic basis.
From its activation in December 1991, as part of the 33d Fighter Wing, the 33d Operations Group has deployed aircraft and personnel to Saudi Arabia, Canada, the Caribbean, South America, Jamaica, Iceland, Italy, and Puerto Rico and participated in Operation Southern Watch, Operation Coronet Macaw; Operation Restore Hope, Operation Support Justice IV, and Operation Uphold Democracy.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2012)|
The 33 OG (Tail Code: EG) commands two flying squadrons and one support squadron
- 58th Fighter Squadron "Gorillas" (Blue tail stripe)
- The 58th Fighter Squadron has a history that dates back to the aerial battles of World War II. Activated as the 58th Pursuit Squadron (part of the 33d Pursuit Group) stationed at Mitchel Field, New York, the squadron was charged with the ongoing mission of aerial defense of the United States. When the United States entered World War II, the 58th took an active role in the war effort by participating in several operations during a three year overseas tour.
- 60th Fighter Squadron "Fighting Crows" (Red tail stripe)
- Activated in 1940 at Mitchell Field, New York as the 60th Pursuit Squadron, the unit was attached to the 33d Pursuit Group on 15 January 1941. Re-designated as the 60th Fighter Squadron on 15 May 1942, the unit was responsible for the continual mission of air defense of the United States until October 1942.
- 33d Operations Support Squadron
- Responsible for all facets of airfield operations, or ops, air traffic control, weather, aircrew life support and training, intelligence analysis and support, weapons and tactics training, 33 FW battle staff operations, airspace scheduling, range ops and wing flying hour program.
World War II
The 33d Fighter Group was activated early in 1941 as the 33d Pursuit Group with the 58th, 59th, and 60th Pursuit Squadrons assigned. It trained with Bell P-39 Airacobras in 1941, but soon changed to Curtiss P-40s and served as part of the United States defense force for the east coast after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Its 58th and 59th squadrons were based on the West Coast in May and June 1942 to provide additional air defense there.
The group was requested as air support for the Western Task Force of Operation Torch and assigned on 19 September 1942. Its 77 P-40Es moved from Hampton Roads, Virginia, to North Africa on the deck of the USS Chenango as part of the invasion force on 8 November 1942. Pilots had been given brief training at Philadelphia in carrier launches but the Navy had serious misgivings about the aircraft's ability to withstand the strain and the pilot's ability to launch by catapult from the escort carrier. With securing of the Port Lyautey airfield on 10 November the launch from Chenango began and was successful but the airfield's runways were so damaged that the launch was discontinued and not completed until two days later. Two of the 77 aircraft were lost to a crash and vanishing in a fog with 17 damaged in landing with none getting into action.. The 35 planes of the group following on D+5 aboard the British carier HMS Archer also were launched to land at the Port Lyautey airfield and suffered four loses on landing due to pilot inexperience.
The unit operated with Twelfth Air Force in the Mediterranean theater until February 1944, providing close air support for ground forces, and bombing and strafing personnel concentrations, port installations, fuel dumps, bridges, highways, and rail lines. The 33d received a Distinguished Unit Citation for action on 15 January 1943 when nine German Ju 88 bombers escorted by four Italian MC.202 fighters attempted to knock out the group's base at Thelepte, Tunisia. The group drove off the escort and destroyed eight of the attackers. In May 1943 the 99th Fighter Squadron, the first AAF unit to enter combat with black personnel, was attached to the group, and again from August to October 1943. It took part in the reduction of Pantelleria and flew patrol missions while Allied troops landed after surrender of the enemy's garrison. It also participated in the invasion and conquest of Sicily by supporting landings at Salerno. The group supported additional landings in southern Italy, and the beachhead at Anzio.
After moving to India in February 1944, the group trained with Lockheed P-38 Lightnings and Republic P-47 Thunderbolts. It then moved to China where it continued training and flew patrol and intercept missions. Upon returning to India in September 1944, it flew dive bombing and strafing missions in Burma until the Allied campaigns in that area had been completed.
33d Ftr Gp
|Group Hq||11||[note 2]|
|58th Fighter Squadron||48.5|||
|59th Fighter Squadron||35|||
|60th Fighter Squadron||28|||
From August 1946, the 33d Fighter Group served as part of the US occupation force in Germany, being assigned to United States Air Forces Europe airfields at Neubiberg and Bad Kissingen, initially operating P-51 Mustangs. The group returned as a paper unit to United States in August 1947, and was reassigned to Strategic Air Command. Stationed nominally at Andrews Field, Maryland, it then was organized as an operational unit at Roswell Army Airfield, New Mexico on 16 August 1947 as part of Eighth Air Force. At Roswell, the group became part of what was called the Hobson Plan, which was intended to unify control at air bases under a single wing. As A result, the group was assigned to the 33d Fighter Wing. The test proved successful, and the wing-base plan was adopted by the Air Force.
Consisting of the 58th, 59th, and 60th Fighter Squadrons, the group was initially equipped at Roswell with P-51D Mustangs. In June 1948, it transitioned to the first-generation F-84C Thunderjet, receiving enough to equip the 58th FS. before the wing and group moved to Otis Air Force Base, Massachusetts and the 33d Fighter Wing was reassigned to the 26th Air Division of Air Defense Command (ADC) in late 1948.
There it trained to maintain tactical proficiency and participated in exercises and aerial demonstrations. In February 1949, the group transitioned to F-86A Sabres with the F-84s being sent to Republic Aircraft for refurbishment and reassignment to Air National Guard units. By December the group had completed its transition to Sabres and assumed an air defense mission, providing air defense in the northeastern US. Toward the end of 1949, ADC was inactivated and the group and its parent wing became elements of Continental Air Command. In December 1950 ADC was reactivated, and the group, which since spring had been designated as the 33d Fighter-Interceptor Group rejoined the command. Because of ADC's need to expand its coverage, the group dispersed the 60th FIS to Westover Air Force Base, Massachusetts in August 1950. It was inactivated in February 1952 along with the 33d Fighter Wing in a major reorganization of ADC responding to ADC's difficulty under the existing wing base organizational structure in deploying fighter squadrons to best advantage. Fighter-interceptor groups and wings were replaced by regionally organized air defense wings.
The 564th Air Base Group was activated on 1 February 1952 to replace the support elements of the 33d Fighter-Interceptor Wing. The group became the 564th Air Defense Group in 1953 when it assumed control of fighter-interceptor squadrons at Otis on that date. The unit was replaced by the reactivated 33d Fighter Group (Air Defense) as part of ADC's "Project Arrow", which reactivated fighter units that had achieved distinction in the two world wars.
The 33d Fighter Group was assigned to ADC's 4707th Air Defense Wing, and in 1956 reunited with the 33d Fighter Wing (Air Defense). Again, it provided air defense in northeastern US flying F-89C Scorpions. It was also the host organization for USAF units until 1956, when the 33d Fighter Wing was activated and the group assigned to it once again, and was assigned several support organizations to fulfil this function. It was inactivated on 18 August 1957 and replaced by 4735th Air Defense Group when the 551st Airborne Early Warning and Control Wing assumed host responsibilities for Otis from the 33d Fighter-Interceptor Wing.
On 8 July 1963 the 33d Tactical Group and activated in Viet Nam. It was equipped primarily with cargo aircraft. Its mission was to maintain and operate base support facilities at Tan Son Nhut Air Base, supporting the 2d Air Division and subordinate units by performing reconnaissance of Vietnam from various detachments flying RB-26 Invaders, RB-57 Canberras, and RF-101 Voodoo aircraft.
The 33d Tactical Group performed administrative and maintenance tasks and set up detachments at smaller, outlying airfields, the 33d assuming responsibility for Can Tho and Nha Trang Air Bases. The group inactivated in July 1965, and its aircraft, personnel and equipment were transferred to the 6250th Combat Support Group. While the 33d Tactical Group was inactive, it was consolidated with the 33d Fighter Group as the 33d Tactical Fighter Group.
On 1 December 1991, the Group was activated as the 33d Operations Group (OG) as a result of the 33d Tactical Fighter Wing implementing the USAF objective wing organization. The 33d OG was assigned the 58th and 60th Fighter Squadrons upon activation, all equipped with the F-15C/D Eagle. From 1992–2002 the group deployed aircraft and personnel to Saudi Arabia, Canada, the Caribbean, South America, Jamaica, Iceland, Italy, and Puerto Rico and participated in various operations. The 33 OG lost 13 members in the bombing of Khobar Towers, Saudi Arabia on 25 June 1996.
The group is currently engaged in Air Expeditionary operations in various combat areas as part of the Global War on Terrorism
33d Operations Group
- Constituted as the 33d Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 20 November 1940
- Activated on 15 January 1941
- Redesignated 33d Fighter Group on 15 May 1942
- Inactivated on 8 December 1945
- Activated on 20 August 1946
- Redesignated 33d Fighter-Interceptor Group on 20 January 1950
- Inactivated on 6 February 1952
- Redesignated 33d Fighter Group (Air Defense) on 20 June 1955
- Activated on 18 August 1955
- Inactivated on 18 August 1957
- Consolidated with the 33d Tactical Group as the 33d Tactical Fighter Group on 31 July 1985 (remained inactive)
- Redesignated 33d Operations Group and activated, on 1 December 1991.
33d Tactical Group
- Constituted as the 33d Tactical Group and activated on 19 June 1963
- Organized on 8 July 1963
- Discontinued, and inactivated on 8 July 1965
- Consolidated with the 33d Fighter Group (Air Defense) as the 33d Tactical Fighter Group on 31 July 1985
- 58th Pursuit (later, 58th Fighter, 58th Fighter-Interceptor, 58th Fighter) Squadron: 15 January 1941 – 8 December 1945; 20 August 1946 – 6 February 1952; 18 August 1955 – 18 August 1957; 1 December 1991 – present
- 59th Pursuit (later, 59th Fighter, 59th Fighter-Interceptor, 59th Fighter) Squadron: 15 January 1941 – 8 December 1945; 20 August 1946 – 6 February 1952; 1 December 1991 – 15 April 1999
- 60th Pursuit (later, 60th Fighter, 60th Fighter-Interceptor, 60th Fighter) Squadron: 15 January 1941 – 8 December 1945; 20 August 1946 – 6 February 1952; 18 August 1955 – 18 August 1957; 1 December 1991 – present
- 99th Fighter Squadron (attached), 29 May 1943 - ca. 29 June 1943; 19 July 1943 – 16 October 1943.
Awards and campaigns
|Distinguished Unit Citation||15 January 1943||33d Fighter Group, Central Tunisia|
|Air Force Outstanding Unit Award||1 June 1998–31 May 1999||33d Operations Group|
|Algeria-French Morocco||10 November 1942-11 November 1942||33d Fighter Group|
|Tunisia||12 November 1942-13 May 1943||33d Fighter Group|
|Sicily||14 May 1943-17 August 1943||33d Fighter Group|
|Naples-Foggia||18 August 1943-21 January 1944||33d Fighter Group|
|Anzio||22 January 1944-February 1944||33d Fighter Group|
|Rome-Arno||22 January 1944-February 1944||33d Fighter Group|
|Air Combat, EAME Theater||10 November 1942-February 1944||33d Fighter Group|
|India-Burma||20 February 1944-28 January 1945||33d Fighter Group|
|Central Burma||29 January 1945-15 July 1945||33d Fighter Group|
|China Defensive||4 July 1942-4 May 1945||33d Fighter Group|
|Vietnam Advisory||8 July 1963-1 March 1965||33d Tactical Group|
|Vietnam Defensive||2 March 1965-8 July 1965||33d Tactical Group|
- The emblem was approved for the 33d Fighter Wing on 5 October 1965. Ravenstein, p. 60. While the group is assigned to the wing, it uses the form approved for the wing with the group designation on the scroll. Bailey, AFHRA Factsheet 33 Operations Group
- 8 of the 11 victories by the Group Hq were credited to the commander, Lt Col. William W. Momyer
- Aircraft is P-84C-2-RE Thunderjet serial 47-1994
- Maurer, Combat Units, pp. 86–87
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons, pp. 230–231
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons, pp. 233-234
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons. pp, 235-236
- Craven & Cate, Vol. 2 Europe, Torch to Pointblank, August 1942 to December 1943 pp. 58, 77
- Robertson, Patsy (January 12, 2009). "Factsheet 99 Flying Training Squadron (AETC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
- Newton & Senning, p. 541
- Newton & Senning, pp. 555-556
- Newton & Senning, pp. 556
- Goss, p. 59 (note)
- Ravenstein, p. 10
- Bailey, Carl E. (November 28, 2007). "Factsheet 33 Operations Group (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved April 27, 2012.
- "Factsheet 60 Fighter Squadron". Air Force Historical Research Agency. March 7, 2007. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2014.
- Grant, p. 33
- Cornett & Johnson,[page needed]
- Buss, et al., p. 6
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 132
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 136
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 151
- See "Abstract, History 33 Hospital Jul-Dec 1955". Air Force History Index. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- AFOMO Letter 660j, 20 June 1955, Subject: Activation of Headquarters, 1st Fighter Group (Air Defense); Inactivation, Activation and Reorganization of Certain Other USAF Units
- "Abstract, History 26 Air Division Jul-Dec 1957". Air Force History Index. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
- "Abstract, History 6250 Combat Support Group Jul-Dec 1965". Air Force History Index. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
- Robertson, Patsy (May 23, 2011). "Factsheet 33 Operations Group (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved April 27, 2012.
- Haulman, Daniel L. (November 8, 2011). "Factsheet 59 Test and Evaluation Squadron (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved April 27, 2012.
- Kane, Robert B. (June 9, 2010). "Factsheet 33 Maintenance Squadron (AETC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- Buss, Lydus H.(ed), Sturm, Thomas A., Volan, Denys, and McMullen, Richard F., History of Continental Air Defense Command and Air Defense Command July to December 1955, Directorate of Historical Services, Air Defense Command, Ent AFB, CO, 1956
- Cornett, Lloyd H; Johnson, Mildred W (1980). A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization, 1946–1980. Peterson AFB, CO: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center.
- Craven, Wesley Frank; Cate, James Lea (1983). Europe, Torch to Pointblank, August 1942 to December 1943. The Army Air Forces In World War II. Volume 2. Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 091279903X. LCCN 83017288.
- Goss, William A (1955). "The Organization and its Responsibilities, Chapter 2 The AAF". In Craven, Wesley F & Cate, James L. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. VI, Men & Planes. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. p. 59 (note). LCCN 48-3657.
- Grant, C.L., The Development of Continental Air Defense to 1 September 1954, (1961), USAF Historical Study No. 126
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556.
- Newton, Wesley P., Jr. and Senning, Calvin F., (1963) USAF Credits for the Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, World War II, USAF Historical Study No. 85
- Ravenstein, Charles A. Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.