|— City —|
|• Mayor||John Stromberg|
|• Total||6.59 sq mi (17.07 km2)|
|• Land||6.59 sq mi (17.07 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2)|
|Elevation||1,949 ft (594 m)|
|• Estimate (2011)||20,232|
|• Density||3,046.7/sq mi (1,176.3/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||Pacific (UTC-7)|
|Area code(s)||541 and 458|
|GNIS feature ID||1137318|
Ashland is a city in Jackson County, Oregon, United States, near Interstate 5 and the California border, and located in the south end of the Rogue Valley. It was named after Ashland County, Ohio, point of origin of Abel Helman and other founders, and secondarily for Ashland, Kentucky, where other founders had family connections. It officially became a town with the name Ashland Mills in 1855. As of July 1, 2011, the city had a total population of 20,255. It is the home of Southern Oregon University (SOU) and the Oregon Shakespeare Festival (OSF).
Prior to the arrival of settlers in mid-19th century, Shasta Indians lived in the valley along the creek approximately where Ashland is located. Early Hudson's Bay Company hunters and trappers, following the Siskiyou Trail, passed through the site in the 1820s. In the late 1840s, settlers (mostly American) following the Applegate Trail began passing through the area. By the early 1850s, the Donation Land Act brought many white settlers into the Rogue Valley and into conflict with its native people. These often violent clashes continued until 1856.
In 1851, gold was discovered at Rich Gulch, a tributary of Jackson Creek, and a tent city developed on its banks, the area later known as Jacksonville. Settlers arrived in the Ashland area in January 1852, including Robert B. Hargadine, Sylvester Pease, Abel D Helman, Eber Emery, and others. Helman and Hargadine filed the first donation land claims in Ashland. Helman and Emery built a sawmill along what they called Mill Creek (later renamed Ashland Creek) to turn timber into lumber for settlers.
Joined by M. B. Morris, in 1854, the two men built a second mill, Ashland Flouring Mills, to grind local wheat into flour. The community around the mill became known as Ashland Mills. A post office was established in Ashland Mills in 1855 with Helman as postmaster.
During the 1860s and 1870s the community grew, establishing a school, churches, businesses, and a large employer, Ashland Woolen Mills, which produced clothing and blankets from local wool. In 1871, the Post Office dropped "Mills" from Ashland's name. In 1872 Reverend J. H. Skidmore opened a college, Ashland Academy, a predecessor of Southern Oregon University.
In 1887, Portland, Oregon, and San Francisco, California, were joined by rail at Ashland. Until 1926, when most rail service began taking a different route (east through Klamath Falls to avoid the steep grade through the Siskiyou Mountains), Ashland thrived on rail trade of local products, including pears, peaches, and apples.
In 1908, the Women's Civic Improvement Club petitioned for the creation of a park—Ashland Canyon Park—along Ashland Creek. The discovery of lithia water near Emigrant Lake around the same time led to a plan to establish a mineral spa at the park. Voters approved bonds to pay for the project, which included piping the mineral water from its source to Ashland. The town engaged John McLaren, landscape architect of San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, to design the park, renamed Lithia Springs Park, later shortened to Lithia Park. Although the park was popular, the mineral spa plans proved too expensive for local taxpayers and were abandoned in 1916. Meanwhile, entrepreneurs took to bottling and selling mineral waters from the area's springs.
During the Fourth of July celebration in 1935, Angus L. Bowmer arranged the first performances of what would become the Oregon Shakespeare Festival (OSF). The festival grew during the 20th century, and has become an award-winning and internationally-known regional theater company.
Many of Ashland's historic buildings have been preserved and restored. The city has 48 individual structures and 2 historic districts (the Ashland Railroad Addition District and the Downtown District) on the National Register of Historic Places. The structures include the Enders Building (home of the Columbia Hotel), which from 1910 to 1928 contained the largest mercantile establishment between Sacramento and Portland.
Ashland is at 1,949 feet (594 m) above sea level in the foothills of the Siskiyou and Cascade ranges, about 15 miles (24 km) north of the California border on Interstate 5 (I-5). It is about 12 miles (19 km) south of Medford and about 300 miles (480 km) south of Portland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of about 6.6 square miles (17.1 km2), all land.
Ashland Creek flows through the city to meet Bear Creek, which roughly parallels I-5, running southeast–northwest along the east side of Ashland. The creek and its tributaries begin on the flanks of Mount Ashland, at 7,533 feet (2,296 m) above sea level in the Siskiyou Mountains south of the city. Upstream (south) of the city boundary, these streams flow mainly through the Rogue River – Siskiyou National Forest. Oregon Route 99, running roughly parallel to I-5, passes through downtown Ashland. Oregon Route 66 enters Ashland from the east and intersects Route 99 near the city center.
Cloud cover in nearby Medford, in the southwest interior of Oregon, varies from an average of 21 percent in July to 86 percent in December. On average, precipitation falls in Ashland on 114 days each year. Annual precipitation amounts to about 20 inches (510 mm). The average annual snowfall is only 1.4 inches (3.6 cm). The average relative humidity, measured at 4 p.m. daily, is 47 percent in Medford, varying from 26 percent in July to 76 percent in December.
The coolest month is December, with an average high temperature of 47 °F (8 °C), and the warmest month is July, with an average high of about 88 °F (31 °C). The highest temperature ever recorded in Ashland was 108 °F (42 °C), observed in August 1981, and the record low of −4 °F (−20 °C) occurred in December 1972.
|Climate data for Ashland, Oregon (1981–2010 normals)|
|Record high °F (°C)||71
|Average high °F (°C)||49.0
|Daily mean °F (°C)||39.4
|Average low °F (°C)||29.9
|Record low °F (°C)||−1
|Precipitation inches (mm)||2.36
|Snowfall inches (cm)||0.3
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||14.1||11.9||13.4||12.7||9.6||5.3||2.5||2.6||3.9||7.5||15.2||15.0||113.7|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.5||0.4||0.1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.3||1.3|
|Source: NOAA |
As of the census of 2010, there were 20,078 people, 9,409 households, and 4,542 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,047 inhabitants per square mile (1,176 /km2). There were 10,455 housing units at an average density of 1,587 per square mile (613 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was about 90% White, 1% African American, 1% Native American, 2% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, and 4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were about 5% of the population.
There were 9,409 households out of which about 21% had children under the age of 18 living with them. About 34% were married couples living together; 10% had a female householder with no husband present, about 4% had a male householder with no wife present, and about 52% were non-families. About 38% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.63.
The median age in the city was 42.9 years. About 16% of residents were under the age of 18, and about 16% were between the ages of 18 and 24. Rounded to the nearest whole number, 21% were from 25 to 44 years old; 30% were from 45 to 64; and 18% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was about 46% male and 54% female.
In 2010, the median income for a household in the city was $41,334, and the median income for a family was $58,409. Males had a median income of $50,368 versus $34,202 for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,941. About 21% of the population and 13% of families had incomes below the poverty line. Out of the total population, about 30% of those under the age of 18 and 3.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
Income from tourism is important to Ashland's economy. A large number of restaurants, galleries, and retail stores cater to thousands of visitors who attend plays each year at the OSF. In 2011, OSF sold more than 390,000 tickets to its theater productions.
The town's largest employer is Southern Oregon University (SOU), which has a faculty and staff of more than 750. In addition to OSF and the university, health-service providers make significant contributions to the economy. Businesses related to outdoor recreation, transportation, technology, and light manufacturing are also important. The Bathroom Readers' Press, which produces the Uncle John's Bathroom Reader books, is based in Ashland and San Diego. Brammo, specializing in battery-electric motorcycles, is based in Ashland.
Arts and culture 
The OSF has grown from a summer outdoor series in the 1930s to a season that stretches from February to October, incorporating Shakespeareean and non-Shakespearean plays at three theaters. OSF has become the largest regional repertory theater in the United States.
The Ashland Independent Film Festival, which shows international and domestic films of almost every genre, takes place each April in the Varsity Theatre downtown. About 80 films are shown during the five days of the festival.
The annual Ashland New Plays Festival (ANPF) is a nonprofit organization that encourages playwrights to develop new work through public readings. Each year, the ANPF holds an international competition that winnows hundreds of submissions to four plays that are read to live audiences by professional actors during a five-day festival in October.
Museums and other points of interest 
The National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory in Ashland is the world's only laboratory dedicated to solving crimes against wildlife. Using forensic science, experts at the laboratory help wildlife officers to investigate possible crimes against animals and to establish links between victims and suspects in cases that go to court. The laboratory has assisted the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and foreign agencies concerned with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITIES).
The Ashland City Band (ACB) was organized in the late 19th century as the Ashland Brass Band. ACB used an octagonal gazebo-style bandstand in Lithia Park until the Butler Memorial Band Shell was built in Lithia Park in 1946. The ACB gives public concerts there each summer between June and August.
Lithia Park is a 93-acre (38 ha) park, including 42 acres (17 ha) on the National Register of Historic Places, that extends upstream along Ashland Creek near the center of the city. It includes two ponds, a Japanese garden, tennis courts, two public greens, a bandshell (outdoor stage) and miles of hiking trails. The name Lithia comes from natural mineral water found in the Ashland area. It has a strong mineral taste and slight effervescence, and the lithia water fountains found on the town plaza are frequently tasted by unsuspecting tourists (often at the behest of residents or frequent visitors who use the fountains as a cheap, humorous Ashland initiation rite).
A hiking and biking path, the Bear Creek Greenway, begins in Ashland near the intersection of West Nevada Street with Helman Street, close to the confluence of Ashland Creek (which flows through Lithia Park). with Bear Creek. The 25-mile (40 km) path follows Bear Creek between Ashland and Central Point and passes through Talent, Phoenix, and Medford.
The Ashland School District oversees three elementary schools—one of which is a magnet school focused on science and the arts—one middle school, one high school, and a community learning center. Ashland High School was ranked 1,090th best among the nation's public high schools and 14th best in Oregon by U.S. News & World Report based on statistics for the 2009–10 school year.
SOU, a public four-year university, offers programs in science and liberal arts. With an enrollment of nearly 7,000 students, Southern offers undergraduate- and graduate-level programs in business, education, and the arts and sciences.
The Ashland Daily Tidings publishes on weekday afternoons and Saturday mornings. The Mail Tribune, a regional morning daily newspaper from Medford, also serves Ashland. Radio stations in Ashland include Jefferson Public Radio; KSKQ, an independent non-profit broadcasting at 89.5 FM, and KSOC, managed by SOU students. Rogue Valley Community Television is based at SOU.
Infrastructure and public services 
The Ashland Public Library building was expanded from the city's original Carnegie library. In 2003, the historic Carnegie portion of the library was restored. In 2006, Jackson County budget problems led to the closing, in April 2007, of the Ashland Library and 14 others in Jackson County. The event, which lasted until October 2007, was the largest library closure in U.S. history. When the library reopened, it was no longer a public institution, instead handled by a private company.
Rogue Valley Transportation District (RVTD) Route 10 and Route 15 provides bus service to much of the city, both routes running every 30 minutes providing a combined service frequency of 15 minutes. Route 10 also provides service to Medford, where passengers can connect to any of the other six RVTD routes as well as to Southwest Point, a daily shuttle operated by Klamath Shuttle carrying passengers between Brookings and the Amtrak station in Klamath Falls. The Klamath Falls Amtrak Station serves the Coast Starlight long-haul passenger train. Ashland Municipal Airport, with a 3,600-foot (1,100 m) asphalt runway, offers general aviation services.
Ashland's city-owned electric company moved to improve the city's broadband Internet access in 1999 by creating the Ashland Fiber Network (AFN), which built a $8.5 million fiber optic ring inside the city boundaries. This supports 3,700 cable modem customers (an estimated three-quarters of the market), and splits the local cable television market with Charter Communications. However, in 2006, the city faced difficulties servicing AFN's debt load, which was approaching $15.5 million. The city hired a new AFN director, Joe Franell, who suggested scrapping cable television service while retaining the more-profitable high-speed Internet access. In October, 2006, the cable television service was transferred to a local company, Ashland Home Net, while the City retained both the infrastructure and the wholesale Internet business.
Sister city 
Ashland has one sister city:
Notable people 
- Les AuCoin, former U.S. Representative
- Tai Babilonia, champion pairs figure skater
- John Backus, computer scientist who created Fortran
- Dallen Bounds, serial killer
- Angus L. Bowmer, founder of the Oregon Shakespeare Festival
- Ty Burrell, actor
- Erskine Caldwell, author, never lived in Ashland, but is buried there.
- Gretchen Corbett, actress, debuted as Desdemona at the OSF.
- Chad Cota, former National Football League player
- Alex Cox, film director
- Ann Curry, anchor on The Today Show
- Gay Jacobsen D'Asaro, fencing champion
- Emilio Delgado, actor: Luís from Sesame Street
- Alice Di Micele, musician
- Jack Elam, actor
- David Fincher, film director
- Gangaji, spiritual teacher
- Johnny Gruelle, creator of Raggedy Ann
- Jeremy Guthrie, pitcher for the Kansas City Royals
- Anthony Heald, television, film and stage actor
- Abel Helman, town founder
- Frank C. High, Medal of Honor recipient
- Gary "Chicken" Hirsh, former drummer for Country Joe and the Fish
- Jean Houston, author, lecturer, known for her work in human potentials, Mystery School and Social Artistry
- Dean Ing, author
- Coraline Jones, fantasy character in the film version of Coraline
- Scott Kelly, musician
- Forrest Kline, musician
- Otto Klum, football and basketball coach.
- Winona LaDuke, Native American activist and vice-presidential candidate for Ralph Nader's 2000 campaign
- Leonard Levy, Pulitzer Prize winner
- Lisa Loomer, playwright, Pulitzer Prize nominee
- Rose Maddox, country western musician
- Steve Mason, "Poet Laureate" of the Vietnam War
- Joel Moore, actor
- Vladimir Nabokov, author of Lolita
- Mark Parent, former baseball player and currently bench coach for the Chicago White Sox
- Alfred Peet, founder, Peet's Coffee & Tea
- Ron Rezek, industrial designer and inventor
- Sonny Sixkiller, former Washington Huskies Quarterback, actor
- Jon Micah Sumrall, Christian rock musician
- Erika Thormahlen, TV actress and writer
- Jerry Turner, stage designer and director
- Neale Donald Walsch, author of the Conversations with God series
- Henry Woronicz, actor and director
- "Incorporated Cities: Ashland". Oregon Blue Book. Oregon Secretary of State. 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "U.S. Gazetteer Files 2010: Place List". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
- "Ashland". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. November 28, 1980. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
- "American FactFinder". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- "Geographic Identifiers: Ashland City, Oregon". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "2011 Certified Population Estimates". Portland State University. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Davidson, p. 137
- "History of Ashland". City of Ashland. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
- Dickinson, p. 138
- "Ashland Oregon: From Stage Coach to Center Stage: Ashland Depot Hotel, South Wing". National Park Service. 2001. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- Davidson, pp. 35–45
- Peterson, p. 93
- "Ashland Oregon: From Stage Coach to Center Stage: Introduction". National Park Service. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
- "Ashland, Oregon: From Stage Coach to Center Stage: Enders Building". National Park Service. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- The 2013 Road Atlas. Chicago: Rand McNally. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-528-00622-7.
- "Ashland Community Profile". Oregon Infrastructure Finance Authority. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Oregon Atlas & Gazetteer (7th ed.). Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. 2008. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-89933-347-2.
- Taylor, p. 38
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- Taylor, p. 35
- "Monthly Averages for Ashland, Oregon". The Weather Channel Interactive. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Moffatt, Riley Moore (1996). Population History of Western U.S. Cities and Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-8108-3033-2.
- "The Ashland Economy". Ashland Chamber of Commerce. 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- "About Us". The Bathroom Reader's Institute. 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- "Company Overview of Brammo, Inc.". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- Davidson, pp. 11, 18
- "Oregon Cabaret Theatre: Our History". Oregoncabaret.com. 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- Davidson, p. 25
- "About AIFF". Ashland Independent Film Festival. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
- "About Us". Ashland New Plays Festival. February 5, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- "About the Laboratory". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. February 4, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- Davidson, pp. 130–34
- Davidson, p. 55–59
- Graves, Kathy. "Ashland City Band: A Short History". Ashland City Band. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Wloszczyna, Susan (February 5, 2009). "Coraline Is the Perfect Young Heroine for Hard Times". USA Today. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Lithia Park". National Park Service. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- O'Harra, Marjorie; Scriptor, Eldon (1986). Lithia Park. Ashland, Oregon: Ashland Parks and Recreation Department. OCLC 19118066.
- Miller, Bill (August 5, 2007). "A Drink of Water and a Puckered Face". Mail Tribune. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
- Aldous, Vickie (November 21, 2007). "City Council Approves 'Green' Subdivision". Ashland Daily Tidings. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Drake, F.B., III (June 30, 2009). "Fowl Play: Water You Waiting For?". Ashland Daily Tidings. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Aldous, Vickie (December 11, 2007). "Verde Village Offers Shades of Green". Ashland Daily Tidings. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "Bear Creek Greenway Guide". Mail Tribune. Archived from the original on June 26, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "About the District". Ashland School District. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- "Ashland High School". U.S. News: Education. U.S. News & World Report. 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- "Southern Oregon University". U.S News & World Report. 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
- "Ashland Community Hospital Details". U.S. News and World Report. 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- "JCLS Ashland Library Branch". Jackson County Library Services. 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- Batistella, Edwin (March 1, 2010). "BackTalk: What a Library Closure Taught Me". Library Journal. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Public Library Privatization - A Case Study | League of Women Voters". Lwv.org. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
- "Bus Schedules". Rogue Valley Transportation District. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- "Southwest Point". Klamath Shuttle. 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
- "Revitalizing America's Train Stations: Klamath Falls, OR (KFS)". Amtrak. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- "Airport Master Record: Ashland Muni Sumner Parker Field" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- Aldous, Vickie (March 9, 2006). "New AFN Director Approved". Ashland Daily Tidings. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- Aldous, Vickie (May 3, 2006). "City to Keep AFN, Dump TV". Ashland Daily Tidings. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- Aldous, Vicky (October 20, 2006). "City Hands Over TV". Ashland Daily Tidings. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- Guanajuato Room to be Dedicated. Release date: June 7, 2004. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- State of the City. Ashland State of the City - 2005. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- Ashland's Sister City. City of Ashland, Oregon website. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
Works cited 
- Davidson, Janelle (1995). Ashland—An Oregon Oasis. Medford, Oregon: Webb Research Group Publishers. ISBN 0-936738-89-8.
- Peterson, Joe (2009). Images of America: Ashland. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-7102-7.
- Taylor, George H., and Hannan, Chris (1999). The Climate of Oregon: From Rain Forest to Desert. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87071-468-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ashland, Oregon|
|Wikivoyage has travel information related to: Ashland, Oregon|
- Ashland in the Oregon Blue Book
- Ashland Chamber of Commerce
- Friends of the Ashland Public Library
- LaLande, Jeff. Ashland in the Oregon Encyclopedia