Burj Khalifa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Burj dubai)
Jump to: navigation, search
Burj Khalifa
برج خليفة
Burj Khalifa.jpg
Former names Burj Dubai
Record height
Tallest in the world since 2010[I]
Preceded by Taipei 101
General information
Status Complete
Type Mixed-use
Location Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Coordinates 25°11′49.7″N 55°16′26.8″E / 25.197139°N 55.274111°E / 25.197139; 55.274111Coordinates: 25°11′49.7″N 55°16′26.8″E / 25.197139°N 55.274111°E / 25.197139; 55.274111
Construction started 6 January 2004
Completed 2010
Opening 4 January 2010[1]
Cost USD $ 1.5 billion[2]
Height
Architectural 828 m (2,717 ft)[3]
Tip 829.8 m (2,722 ft)[3]
Roof 828 m (2,717 ft)[3]
Top floor 584.5 m (1,918 ft)[3]
Observatory 452.1 m (1,483 ft)[3]
Technical details
Floor count 163 floors[3][4]
plus 46 maintenance levels in the spire[5] and 2 parking levels in the basement
Floor area 309,473 m2 (3,331,100 sq ft)[3]
Design and construction
Architect Adrian Smith at SOM
Developer Emaar Properties[3]
Structural engineer Bill Baker at SOM[6]
Main contractor Samsung Engineering and Construction Company, Besix and Arabtec
Supervision Consultant Engineer & Architect of Record Hyder Consulting
Construction Project Manager Turner Construction
Grocon[7]
Planning Bauer AG and Middle East Foundations[7]
Lift contractor Otis[7]
VT consultant Lerch Bates[7]
Website
www.burjkhalifa.ae

Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة‎, "Khalifa Tower"), known as Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is the tallest man-made structure in the world, at 829.8 m (2,722 ft).[3][8]

Construction began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010,[1][9] and is part of the new 2 km2 (490-acre) development called Downtown Dubai at the 'First Interchange' along Sheikh Zayed Road, near Dubai's main business district. The tower's architecture and engineering were performed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill of Chicago, with Adrian Smith as chief architect, and Bill Baker as chief structural engineer.[10][11] The primary contractor was Samsung C&T of South Korea.[12]

Conception[edit]

Burj Khalifa was designed to be the centerpiece of a large-scale, mixed-use development that would include 30,000 homes, nine hotels (including The Address Downtown Dubai), 3 hectares (7.4 acres) of parkland, at least 19 residential towers, the Dubai Mall, and the 12-hectare (30-acre) man-made Burj Khalifa Lake.

The decision to build Burj Khalifa is reportedly based on the government's decision to diversify from an oil based economy to one that is service and tourism based. According to officials, it is necessary for projects like Burj Khalifa to be built in the city to garner more international recognition, and hence investment. "He (Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum) wanted to put Dubai on the map with something really sensational," said Jacqui Josephson, a tourism and VIP delegations executive at Nakheel Properties.[13]

Height[edit]

Records[edit]

  • Tallest existing structure: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously KVLY-TV mast – 628.8 m or 2,063 ft)
  • Tallest structure ever built: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously Warsaw radio mast – 646.38 m or 2,121 ft)
  • Tallest freestanding structure: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously CN Tower – 553.3 m or 1,815 ft)
  • Tallest skyscraper (to top of spire): 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously Taipei 101 – 509.2 m or 1,671 ft)
  • Tallest skyscraper to top of antenna: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously the Willis (formerly Sears) Tower – 527 m or 1,729 ft)
  • Building with most floors: 163 (previously World Trade Center – 110)[14]
  • Building with world's highest occupied floor: 584.5 m (1,918 ft)[15][16]
  • World's highest elevator installation (situated inside a rod at the very top of the building)[17]
  • World's longest travel distance elevators: 504m (1,654 ft)[17][18]
  • Highest vertical concrete pumping (for a building): 606 m (1,988 ft)[19]
  • World's tallest structure that includes residential space[20]
  • World's second highest outdoor observation deck: 124th floor at 452 m (1,483 ft)[21][22] When it first opened, the observation deck was the highest outdoor observation deck in the World, but it has since been surpassed by Cloud Top 488 on top of Canton Tower.[23]
  • World's highest installation of an aluminium and glass façade: 512 m (1,680 ft)[24]
  • World's highest nightclub: 144th floor[25]
  • World's highest restaurant (At.mosphere): 122nd floor at 442 m (1,450 ft) (previously 360, at a height of 350 m (1,148 ft) in CN Tower)[26][27]
  • World's highest New Year display of fireworks.[28]
  • World's second highest swimming pool: 76th floor[29] (world's highest swimming pool is located on 118th floor of Ritz-Carlton Hotel at International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong).

History of height increases[edit]

Burj Khalifa compared with some other well-known tall structures

There are unconfirmed reports of several planned height increases since its inception. Originally proposed as a virtual clone of the 560 m (1,837 ft) Grollo Tower proposal for Melbourne, Australia's Docklands waterfront development, the tower was redesigned by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM).[30] Marshall Strabala, an SOM architect who worked on the project until 2006, in late 2008 said that Burj Khalifa was designed to be 808 m (2,651 ft) tall.[31]

The design architect, Adrian Smith, felt that the uppermost section of the building did not culminate elegantly with the rest of the structure, so he sought and received approval to increase it to the current height.[citation needed] It has been explicitly stated that this change did not include any added floors, which is fitting with Smith's attempts to make the crown more slender.[32]

Delay[edit]

Emaar Properties announced on 9 June 2008 that construction of Burj Khalifa was delayed by upgraded finishes and would be completed only in September 2009.[33] An Emaar spokesperson said "The luxury finishes that were decided on in 2004, when the tower was initially conceptualized, is now being replaced by upgraded finishes. The design of the apartments has also been enhanced to make them more aesthetically attractive and functionally superior."[34] A revised completion date of 2 December 2009 was then announced.[35] However, Burj Khalifa was opened on 4 January 2010, more than a month later.[1][9]

Architecture and design[edit]

Cross-section comparisons of various towers. From top to bottom: Burj Khalifa, Taipei 101, Willis Tower, World Trade Center.

The tower was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, who also designed the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) in Chicago and the new One World Trade Center in New York City. The Burj Khalifa uses the bundled tube design.[36][37] Proportionally, the design uses half the amount of steel used in the construction of the Empire State Building thanks to the tubular system.[36][38] Its design is reminiscent of Frank Lloyd Wright's vision for The Illinois, a mile high skyscraper designed for Chicago. According to Marshall Strabala, a SOM architect who worked on the building's design team, Burj Khalifa was designed based on the 73 floor Tower Palace Three, an all residential building in Seoul. In its early planning, Burj Khalifa was intended to be entirely residential.[31]

Subsequent to the original design by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, Emaar Properties chose Hyder Consulting to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited chosen to supervise the architecture of the project.[39] Hyder was selected for its expertise in structural and MEP (mechanical, electrical and plumbing) engineering.[40] Hyder Consulting's role was to supervise construction, certify SOM's design, and be the engineer and architect of record to the UAE authorities.[39] NORR's role was the supervision of all architectural components including on site supervision during construction and design of a 6-storey addition to the Office Annex Building for architectural documentation. NORR was also responsible for the architectural integration drawings for the Armani Hotel included in the Tower. Emaar Properties also engaged GHD,[41] an international multidisciplinary consulting firm, to act as an independent verification and testing authority for concrete and steelwork.

The spiral minaret at the Great Mosque of Samarra

The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture.[17] According to the structural engineer, Bill Baker of SOM, the building's design incorporates cultural and historical elements particular to the region such as the spiral minaret. The spiral minaret spirals and grows slender as it rises.[42] The Y-shaped plan is ideal for residential and hotel usage, with the wings allowing maximum outward views and inward natural light.[17] As the tower rises from the flat desert base, there are 27 setbacks in a spiralling pattern, decreasing the cross section of the tower as it reaches toward the sky and creating convenient outdoor terraces. At the top, the central core emerges and is sculpted to form a finishing spire. At its tallest point, the tower sways a total of 1.5 m (4.9 ft).[43]

As part of a study which reveals the unnecessary "vanity space" added to the top of the world's tallest buildings by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, it was revealed that without its 244-metre spire, the 828-metre Burj Khalifa would drop to a substantially smaller 585-metre height without any reduction in usable space. As the report states, the spire "could be a skyscraper on its own".[15]

To support the unprecedented height of the building, the engineers developed a new structural system called the buttressed core, which consists of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form the ‘Y' shape. This structural system enables the building to support itself laterally and keeps it from twisting.[17]

The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tonnes (4,400 short tons; 3,900 long tons) of structural steel. The central pinnacle pipe weighing 350 tonnes (390 short tons; 340 long tons) was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 m (660 ft) using a strand jack system. The spire also houses communications equipment.[44]

In 2009, architects announced that more than 1,000 pieces of art would adorn the interiors of Burj Khalifa, while the residential lobby of Burj Khalifa would display the work of Jaume Plensa, featuring 196 bronze and brass alloy cymbals representing the 196 countries of the world.[45] It was planned that the visitors in this lobby would be able to hear a distinct timbre as the cymbals, plated with 18-carat gold, are struck by dripping water, intended to mimic the sound of water falling on leaves.[46]

The cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai's extreme summer temperatures, and consists of 142,000 m2 (1,528,000 sq ft) of reflective glazing, and aluminium and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins. Over 26,000 glass panels were used in the exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa, and more than 300 cladding specialists from China were brought in for the cladding work on the tower.[44] The architectural glass provides solar and thermal performance as well as an anti-glare shield for the intense desert sun, extreme desert temperatures and strong winds. In total the glass covers more than 174,000 m2 (1,870,000 sq ft).

The exterior temperature at the top of the building is thought to be 6 °C (11 °F) cooler than at its base.[47]

A 304-room Armani Hotel, the first of four by Armani, occupies 15 of the lower 39 floors.[3][48] The hotel was supposed to open on 18 March 2010,[49][50] but after several delays, it finally opened to the public on 27 April 2010.[51] The corporate suites and offices were also supposed to open from March onwards,[52] yet the hotel and observation deck remained the only parts of the building which were open in April 2010.

The sky lobbies on the 43rd and 76th floors house swimming pools.[53] Floors through to 108 have 900 private residential apartments (which, according to the developer, sold out within eight hours of being on the market). An outdoor zero-entry swimming pool is located on the 76th floor of the tower. Corporate offices and suites fill most of the remaining floors, except for a 122nd, 123rd and 124th floor where the At.mosphere restaurant, sky lobby and an indoor and outdoor observation deck is located respectively. In January 2010, it was planned that Burj Khalifa would receive its first residents from February 2010.[53][54]

A total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators are installed.[44] The elevators have a capacity of 12 to 14 people per cabin, the fastest rising and descending at up to 10 m/s (33 ft/s) for double-deck elevators. However, the world's fastest single-deck elevator still belongs to Taipei 101 at 16.83 m/s (55.2 ft/s). Engineers had considered installing the world's first triple-deck elevators, but the final design calls for double-deck elevators.[20] The double-deck elevators are equipped with entertainment features such as LCD displays to serve visitors during their travel to the observation deck.[55] The building has 2,909 stairs from the ground floor to the 160th floor.[56]

The graphic design identity work for Burj Khalifa is the responsibility of Brash Brands, who are based in Dubai. Design of the global launch events, communications, and visitors centers[57] for Burj Khalifa have also been created by Brash Brands as well as the roadshow exhibition for the Armani Residences, which are part of the Armani Hotel within Burj Khalifa, which toured Milan, London, Jeddah, Moscow and Delhi.[58]

Plumbing systems[edit]

The Burj Khalifa's water system supplies an average of 946,000 L (250,000 US gal) of water per day through 100 km (62 mi) of pipes.[17][59] An additional 213 km (132 mi) of piping serves the fire emergency system, and 34 km (21 mi) supplies chilled water for the air conditioning system.[59] The waste water system uses gravity to discharge water from plumbing fixtures, floor drains, mechanical equipment and storm water, to the city municipal sewer.[60]

Air conditioning[edit]

The air conditioning system draws air from the upper floors where the air is cooler and cleaner than on the ground.[61] At peak cooling times, the tower's cooling is equivalent to that provided by 13,000 t (29,000,000 lb) of melting ice in one day.[59] The condensate collection system, which uses the hot and humid outside air, combined with the cooling requirements of the building, results in a significant amount of condensation of moisture from the air. The condensed water is collected and drained into a holding tank located in the basement car park; this water is then pumped into the site irrigation system for use on the Burj Khalifa park.[17]

Window cleaning[edit]

To wash the 24,348 windows, totaling 120,000 m2 (1,290,000 sq ft) of glass,[62] a horizontal track has been installed on the exterior of Burj Khalifa at levels 40, 73, and 109. Each track holds a 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) bucket machine which moves horizontally and then vertically using heavy cables. Above level 109, up to tier 27 traditional cradles from davits are used. The top of the spire, however, is reserved for specialist window cleaners, who brave the heights and high winds, dangling on ropes to clean and inspect the top of the pinnacle.[63] Under normal conditions, when all building maintenance units will be operational, it will take 36 workers three to four months to clean the entire exterior façade.[44][64]

Unmanned machines will clean the top 27 additional tiers and the glass spire. The cleaning system was developed in Melbourne, Australia at a cost of A$8 million.[64] The contract for building the state-of-the-art machines was won by Australian company Cox Gomyl.[62]

Features[edit]

The Dubai Fountain[edit]

Main article: The Dubai Fountain

Outside, WET Enterprises designed a fountain system at a cost of Dh 800 million (US$217 million). Illuminated by 6,600 lights and 50 coloured projectors, it is 275 m (902 ft) long and shoots water 150 m (490 ft) into the air, accompanied by a range of classical to contemporary Arabic and world music.[65] On 26 October 2008, Emaar announced that based on results of a naming contest the fountain would be called the Dubai Fountain.[66]

View from the observation deck looking north

Observation deck[edit]

View from the observation deck

An outdoor observation deck, named At the Top, opened on 5 January 2010 on the 124th floor.[67] It is the third-highest observation deck in the world and the second-highest outdoor observation deck in the world, at 452 m (1,483 ft).[23] The observation deck also features the Behold Telescope, an augmented reality device developed by gsmprjct° of Montréal, which allows visitors to view the surrounding landscape in real-time, and to view previously saved images such as those taken at different times of day or under different weather conditions.[68][69] To manage the daily rush of sightseers, visitors are able to purchase tickets in advance for a specific date and time and at a 75% discount over tickets purchased on the spot.[70]

On 8 February 2010, the observation deck was closed to the public after power-supply problems caused an elevator to become stuck between floors, trapping a group of tourists for 45 minutes.[71][72] Despite rumours of the observation deck reopening for St. Valentine's Day (14 February),[73] it remained closed until 4 April 2010.[74][75][76]

Burj Khalifa park[edit]

Burj Khalifa is surrounded by an 11 ha (27-acre) park designed by landscape architects SWA Group.[77] The design of the park is also inspired by the core design concepts of Burj Khalifa which is based on the symmetries of the desert flower, Hymenocallis.[78] The park has six water features, gardens, palm lined walkways, and flowering trees.[79] At the centre of the park and the base of Burj Khalifa is the water room, which is a series of pools and water jet fountains. In addition the railing, benches and signs incorporate images of Burj Khalifa and the Hymenocallis flower.

The plants and the shrubbery will be watered by the buildings's condensation collection system that uses water from the cooling system. The system will provide 68,000,000 L (15,000,000 imp gal) annually.[79] WET Enterprises, who also developed the Dubai Fountain, developed the park's six water features.[80]

Floor plans[edit]

The following is a breakdown of floors.[44][81]

Floors Use

Burj Khalifa floors.svg

Dimetric projection with floors colour-coded by function[82]

160 and above Mechanical
156–159 Communication and broadcast
155 Mechanical
139–154 Corporate suites
136–138 Mechanical
125–135 Corporate suites
124 At the Top observatory
123 Sky lobby
122 At.mosphere restaurant
111–121 Corporate suites
109–110 Mechanical
77–108 Residential
76 Sky lobby
73–75 Mechanical
44–72 Residential
43 Sky lobby
40–42 Mechanical
38–39 Armani Hotel suites
19–37 Residential
17–18 Mechanical
9–16 Armani Residences
1–8 Armani Hotel
Ground Armani Hotel
Concourse Armani Hotel
B1–B2 Parking, mechanical

Construction[edit]

Animation of construction process
Aerial closeup of Burj Khalifa under construction in March 2008

The tower was constructed by Samsung Engineering & Construction of South Korea, which also did work on the Petronas Twin Towers and Taipei 101.[83] Samsung Engineering & Construction built the tower in a joint venture with Besix from Belgium and Arabtec from UAE. Turner is the Project Manager on the main construction contract.[84]

Under UAE law, the Contractor and the Engineer of Record, Hyder Consulting, is jointly and severally liable for the performance of Burj Khalifa.

The primary structure is reinforced concrete. Putzmeister created a new, super high-pressure trailer concrete pump, the BSA 14000 SHP-D, for this project.[19] Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes (120,000 short tons; 110,000 long tons) were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles; each pile is 1.5 metre diameter x 43 m long, buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep.[20] Burj Khalifa's construction used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 55,000 tonnes (61,000 short tons; 54,000 long tons) of steel rebar, and construction took 22 million man-hours.[10] A high density, low permeability concrete was used in the foundations of Burj Khalifa. A cathodic protection system under the mat is used to minimize any detrimental effects from corrosive chemicals in local ground water.[44] In May 2008 Putzmeister pumped concrete to a then world record delivery height of 606 m (1,988 ft),[19] the 156th floor. Three tower cranes were used during construction of the uppermost levels, each capable of lifting a 25-tonne load.[85] The remaining structure above is constructed of lighter steel.

Burj Khalifa is highly compartmentalised. Pressurized, air-conditioned refuge floors are located approximately every 35 floors where people can shelter on their long walk down to safety in case of an emergency or fire.[44][86]

Special mixes of concrete are made to withstand the extreme pressures of the massive building weight; as is typical with reinforced concrete construction, each batch of concrete used was tested to ensure it could withstand certain pressures. CTLGroup, working for SOM, conducted the creep and shrinkage testing critical for the structural analysis of the building.[87]

The consistency of the concrete used in the project was essential. It was difficult to create a concrete that could withstand both the thousands of tonnes bearing down on it and Persian Gulf temperatures that can reach 50 °C (122 °F). To combat this problem, the concrete was not poured during the day. Instead, during the summer months ice was added to the mixture and it was poured at night when the air is cooler and the humidity is higher. A cooler concrete mixture cures evenly throughout and is therefore less likely to set too quickly and crack. Any significant cracks could have put the entire project in jeopardy.

The unique design and engineering challenges of building Burj Khalifa have been featured in a number of television documentaries, including the Big, Bigger, Biggest series on the National Geographic and Five channels, and the Mega Builders series on the Discovery Channel.

Milestones[edit]

Burj Khalifa and skyline of Dubai, 2010
  • January 2004: Excavation commences.[24]
  • February 2004: Piling starts.[24]
  • 21 September 2004: Emaar contractors begin construction.[88]
  • March 2005: Structure of Burj Khalifa starts rising.[24]
  • June 2006: Level 50 is reached.[24]
  • February 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower as the building with the most floors.
  • 13 May 2007: Sets record for vertical concrete pumping on any building at 452 m (1,483 ft), surpassing the 449.2 m (1,474 ft) to which concrete was pumped during the construction of Taipei 101, while Burj Khalifa reached the 130th floor.[24][89]
  • 21 July 2007: Surpasses Taipei 101, whose height of 509.2 m (1,671 ft) made it the world's tallest building, and level 141 reached.[24][90]
  • 12 August 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower antenna, which stands 527.3 m (1,730 ft).
  • 12 September 2007: At 555.3 m (1,822 ft), becomes the world's tallest freestanding structure, surpassing the CN Tower in Toronto, and level 150 reached.[24][91]
  • 7 April 2008: At 629 m (2,064 ft), surpasses the KVLY-TV Mast to become the tallest man-made structure, level 160 reached.[24][92]
  • 17 June 2008: Emaar announces that Burj Khalifa's height is over 636 m (2,087 ft) and that its final height will not be given until it is completed in September 2009.[33]
  • 1 September 2008: Height tops 688 m (2,257 ft), making it the tallest man-made structure ever built, surpassing the previous record-holder, the Warsaw Radio Mast in Konstantynów, Poland.[93]
  • 17 January 2009: Topped out at 829.8 m (2,722 ft).[94]
  • 1 October 2009: Emaar announces that the exterior of the building is completed.[95]
  • 4 January 2010: Burj Khalifa's official launch ceremony is held and Burj Khalifa is opened. Burj Dubai renamed Burj Khalifa in honour of the President of the UAE and ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed al Nahyan.[8]
  • 10 March 2010 Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) certifies Burj Khalifa as world's tallest building.[96]

Real estate values[edit]

In March 2009, Mohamed Ali Alabbar, chairman of the project's developer, Emaar Properties, said office space pricing at Burj Khalifa reached US$4,000 per sq ft (over US$43,000 per m²) and the Armani Residences, also in Burj Khalifa, sold for US$3,500 per sq ft (over US$37,500 per m²).[97] He estimated the total cost for the project to be about US$1.5 billion.[2]

The project's completion coincided with the global financial crisis of 2007–2012, and with vast overbuilding in the country; this led to high vacancies and foreclosures.[42] With Dubai mired in debt from its huge ambitions, the government was forced to seek multibillion dollar bailouts from its oil-rich neighbor Abu Dhabi. Subsequently, in a surprise move at its opening ceremony, the tower was renamed Burj Khalifa, said to honour the UAE President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan for his crucial support.[8][98]

Because of the slumping demand in Dubai's property market, the rents in the Burj Khalifa plummeted 40% some ten months after its opening. Out of 900 apartments in the tower, 825 were still empty at that time.[99][100] However, over the next two and a half years, overseas investors steadily began to purchase the available apartments and office space in Burj Khalifa.[101] By October 2012, Emaar reported that around 80% of the apartments were occupied.[102]

Official launch ceremony[edit]

The opening ceremony of Burj Khalifa

The opening of Burj Khalifa was held on 4 January 2010.[103] The ceremony featured a display of 10,000 fireworks, light beams projected on and around the tower, and further sound, light and water effects.[104] The celebratory lighting was designed by UK lighting designers Speirs and Major.[105] Using the 868 powerful stroboscope lights that are integrated into the façade and spire of the tower, different lighting sequences were choreographed, together with more than 50 different combinations of the other effects.

The event began with a short film which depicted the story of Dubai and the evolution of Burj Khalifa. The displays of sound, light, water and fireworks followed.[104] The portion of the show consisting of the various pyrotechnic, lighting, water and sound effects was divided into three. The first part was primarily a light and sound show, which took as its theme the link between desert flowers and the new tower, and was co-ordinated with the Dubai Fountain and pyrotechnics. The second portion, called 'Heart Beat', represented the construction of the tower in a dynamic light show with the help of 300 projectors which generated a shadow-like image of the tower. In the third act, sky tracers and space cannons enveloped the tower in a halo of white light, which expanded as the lighting rig on the spire activated.[104]

The ceremony was relayed live on a giant screen on Burj Park Island, as well as several television screens placed across the Downtown Dubai development. Hundreds of media outlets from around the world reported live from the scene.[104] In addition to the media presence, 6,000 guests were expected.[106]

Reception[edit]

Awards[edit]

In June 2010, Burj Khalifa was the recipient of the 2010 Best Tall Building Middle East & Africa award by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.[107] On 28 September 2010 Burj Khalifa won the award for best project of year at the Middle East Architect Awards 2010.[108]

The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat bestowed a new award for Burj Khalifa at its annual “Best Tall Buildings Awards Ceremony” on 25 October 2010 when Burj Khalifa honored as first recipient of CTBUH’s new Tall Building “Global Icon” Award. According to CTBUH the new “Global Icon” award recognizes those very special supertall skyscrapers that make a profound impact, not only on the local or regional context, but on the genre of tall buildings globally. Which is innovative in planning, design and execution, the building must have influenced and reshaped the field of tall building architecture, engineering, and urban planning. It is intended that the award will only be conferred on an occasional basis, when merited by an exceptional project perhaps every ten or fifteen years.[109]

CTBUH Awards Chair Gordon Gill, of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture said:

"There was discussion amongst members of the jury that the existing ‘Best Tall Building of the Year’ award was not really appropriate for the Burj Khalifa. We are talking about a building here that has changed the landscape of what is possible in architecture a building that became internationally recognized as an icon long before it was even completed. ‘Building of the Century’ was thought a more appropriate title for it."[109]

Beside these awards, Burj Khalifa was the recipient of following awards.[110][111]

  • 2012 • Award of Merit for World Voices Sculpture, Burj Khalifa Lobby from Structural Engineers Association of Illinois, Chicago.
  • 2011 • Interior Architecture Award, Certificate of Merit from AIA - Chicago Chapter.
  • 2011 • Distinguished Building Award, Citation of Merit from AIA - Chicago Chapter.
  • 2011 • Interior Architecture Award: Special Recognition from AIA - Chicago Chapter.
  • 2011 • Design Excellence Award: Special Function Room.
  • 2011 • Excellence in Engineering from ASHRAE - Illinois Chapter.
  • 2011 • Outstanding Structure Award from International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering.
  • 2011 • Decade of Design, Presidential Commendation in Corporate Space Small from International Interior Design Association (IIDA).
  • 2011 • Decade of Design • Best of Category/Mixed Use Buildings from International Interior Design Association (IIDA).
  • 2011 • GCC Technical Building Project of the Year from MEED.
  • 2011 • Project of the Year from MEED.
  • 2010 • International Architecture Award.
  • 2010 • Arab Achievement Award 2010: Best Architecture Project from Arab Investment Summit.
  • 2010 • Architecture Award (Mixed Use) Dubai from Arabian Property Awards.
  • 2010 • Architecture Award (Mixed Use) Arabian Region from Arabian Property Awards.
  • 2010 • International Architecture Award from Chicago Athenaeum.
  • 2010 • American Architecture Award from Chicago Athenaeum.
  • 2010 • Commercial / Mixed Use Built from Cityscape.
  • 2010 • Best Mixed Use Built Development in Cityscape Abu Dhabi.
  • 2010 • Skyscraper Award: Silver Medal from Emporis.
  • 2010 • Award for Commercial or Retail Structure from Institution of Structural Engineers.
  • 2010 • International Architecture Award (Mixed Use) from International Commercial Property Awards.
  • 2010 • Special Recognition for Technological Advancement from International Highrise Awards.
  • 2010 • Best Structural Design of the Year from LEAF Award.
  • 2010 • International Projects Category: Outstanding Project from National Council of Structural Engineers Associations.
  • 2010 • Best of What's New from Popular Science Magazine.
  • 2010 • Spark Awards, Silver Award.
  • 2010 • Excellence in Structural Engineering: Most Innovative Structure from Structural Engineers Association of Illinois.

BASE jumping[edit]

The building has been used by several experienced BASE jumpers for both authorized and unauthorized BASE jumping:

  • In May 2008, Hervé Le Gallou and David McDonnell, dressed as engineers, illegally infiltrated Burj Khalifa (around 650 m at the time), and jumped off a balcony situated a couple of floors below the 160th floor.[112][113]
  • On 8 January 2010, with permission of the authorities, Nasr Al Niyadi and Omar Al Hegelan, from the Emirates Aviation Society, broke the world record for the highest BASE jump from a building after they leapt from a crane-suspended platform attached to the 160th floor at 672 m (2,205 ft). The two men descended the vertical drop at a speed of up to 220 km/h (140 mph), with enough time to open their parachutes 10 seconds into the 90-second jump.[114][115]
  • On 21 April 2014, with permission of the authorities and support from several sponsors, highly experienced French base jumpers Vince Reffet and Fred Fugen broke the Guinness world record for the highest BASE jump from a building after they leapt from a specially designed platform, built at the very top of the pinnacle, at 828 metres (2,717 ft).[116][117][118]

Climbing[edit]

On 28 March 2011, Alain "Spiderman" Robert scaled the outside of Burj Khalifa. The climb to the top of the spire took six hours. To comply with UAE safety laws, Robert, who usually climbs in free solo style, used a rope and harness for the climb.[119]

Suicide[edit]

Within 17 months of the building's official opening, a man described as "an Asian in his mid-30s" who worked at one of the companies in the tower, committed suicide on 10 May 2011 by jumping from the 147th floor. He fell 39 floors, landing on a deck on the 108th floor. Dubai police confirmed the act as a suicide, reporting that "We also came to know that the man decided to commit suicide as his company refused to grant leave."[120]

In popular culture[edit]

During the summer of 2009, while Burj Khalifa was still under construction, contestants from The Amazing Race 15 visited the 120th floor to collect a clue. The helipad of the building was later featured as the pitstop of the fourth leg of the race in the second season of the reality competition series The Amazing Race Australia.

  • A substantial part of the plot of Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol, the fourth of the Mission: Impossible film series, takes place in and around the Burj Khalifa and involves Tom Cruise's character Ethan Hunt having to scale a large section of the exterior using high-tech adhesive gloves in order to access and hack the building's security systems. Filming included stuntwork on the building's exterior with some scenes shot in the IMAX format.
  • In the 2012 video game Spec Ops: The Line, there is a prominent building referred to only as "the tallest building in Dubai". While it does not bear a particularly close likeness, its scale is a clear allusion to the Burj Khalifa.
  • In the History Channel show Life After People episode "Home Wrecked Homes", Burj Khalifa is shown to have been stripped of most of its glass facade due to high-speed desert winds, before it collapses from corrosion of its base, 250 years after the imagined extinction of humanity.
  • The music video for Imran Khan's song Satisfya had multiple scenes filmed at the Burj Khalifa.

Fireworks displays[edit]

  • 2010–2011, fireworks accompanied by lasers and lights were displayed from the Burj Khalifa, making it the highest New Year fireworks display in the world.[28] The theme of the 2011 New Year fireworks was the "New Year Gala", a tribute to the spirit of Dubai, which is home to over 200 nationalities. The display also marked the first anniversary of Burj Khalifa.[122]
  • 2011–2012, Burj Khalifa was fully illuminated in white, red and green colors, drawing on the colors of the UAE national flag, through the fireworks display. The celebrations were also a salute to the nation.[123]
  • 2012–2013, the fireworks display on Burj Khalifa, in a blaze of light and color, the fireworks engulfed the tower, synchronized and choreographed to a live performance by the Prague Philharmonic Orchestra. A window table for the New Year event was also arranged on the 122nd floor of the building at Atmosphere restaurant, at cost of 16,000 dirhams (4,300 dollars) per person.[124]
  • On 27 November 2013 Burj Khalifa was illuminated with lights and fireworks display following announcement of Dubai as winning city to host World Expo 2020.[125]
  • 2013–2014, the Burj Khalifa and surrounding areas were the site of a record-breaking fireworks display as part of the UAE's New Year celebrations, with a reported 400 thousand fireworks being set off continuously for six minutes.[126][127]

Labour controversy[edit]

Burj Khalifa was built primarily by workers from South Asia and East Asia.[128][129] This is generally because the current generation of UAE locals prefer government jobs and consider private sector jobs to be below them. Also, because of the benefits available from the UAE government, most locals would rather rely on these benefits and not go to work.[130] On 17 June 2008, there were 7,500 skilled workers employed at the construction site.[33] Press reports indicated in 2006 that skilled carpenters at the site earned £4.34 a day, and labourers earned £2.84.[128] According to a BBC investigation and a Human Rights Watch report, the workers were housed in abysmal conditions, and worked long hours for low pay.[131][132][133] During the construction of Burj Khalifa, only one construction-related death was reported.[134] However, workplace injuries and fatalities in the UAE are "poorly documented".[131]

On 21 March 2006, about 2,500 workers, who were upset over buses that were delayed for the end of their shifts, protested, damaged cars, offices, computers, and construction equipment.[128] A Dubai Interior Ministry official said the rioters caused almost £500,000 in damage.[128] Most of the workers involved in the riot returned the following day but refused to work.[128]

Gallery[edit]

1 February 2006
 
29 August 2006
 
21 March 2007
 
4 December 2007
 
10 December 2007
 
11 March 2008
 
31 March 2012
 
 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Official Opening of Iconic Burj Dubai Announced". Gulfnews. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2009. 
  2. ^ a b Stanglin, Douglas (2 January 2010). "Dubai opens world's tallest building". Dubai: USA Today. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Burj Khalifa - The Skyscraper Center". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 
  4. ^ Baldwin, Derek (1 May 2008). "No more habitable floors to Burj Dubai". Gulfnews. Retrieved 7 January 2010. 
  5. ^ "The Burj Khalifa". Glass, Steel and Stone. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  6. ^ Blum, Andrew (27 November 2007). "Engineer Bill Baker Is the King of Superstable 150-Story Structures". Wired. Retrieved 11 March 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Burj Dubai (Dubai Tower) and Dubai Mall, United Arab Emirates". designbuild-network.com. Retrieved 23 March 2009. 
  8. ^ a b c Bianchi, Stefania; Andrew Critchlow (4 January 2010). "World's Tallest Skyscraper Opens in Dubai". Dow Jones & Company, Inc. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  9. ^ a b "World's tallest building opens in Dubai". BBC News. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  10. ^ a b "Burj Dubai reaches a record high". Emaar Properties. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  11. ^ Keegan, Edward (15 October 2006). "Adrian Smith Leaves SOM, Longtime Skidmore partner bucks retirement to start new firm". ArchitectOnline. Retrieved 23 March 2009. 
  12. ^ "Burj Dubai, Dubai – SkyscraperPage.com". SkyscraperPage. Retrieved 23 March 2009. 
  13. ^ Stack, Megan (13 October 2005). "In Dubai, the Sky's No Limit". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 March 2006. 
  14. ^ "WTC Timeline". Silverstein Properties. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  15. ^ a b "the world's vainest skyscrapers". 
  16. ^ "Burj Khalifa". Construcitonweekonline.com. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g "Burj Khalifa: Towering challenge for builders". GulfNews.com. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  18. ^ "Burj Khalifa". Otis Elevator. Retrieved 15 April 2013. [dead link]
  19. ^ a b c Burj Khalifa -- Conquering the World's Tallest Building
  20. ^ a b c "Burj Dubai, Dubai, at Emporis.com". Emporis. Retrieved 1 March 2007. 
  21. ^ Emporis GmbH. "Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates". Emporis.com. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  22. ^ "'At The Top' – Burj Dubai's Observation Deck". BurjDubai.com. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  23. ^ a b "Cloud Top 488 on Canton Tower Opened to public". The People`s Government of Guangzhou Municipality. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Burj Dubai Construction Timeline". BurjDubai.com. Retrieved 31 December 2009. [dead link]
  25. ^ "World highest nightclub in Burj Khalifa". BurjDubai.com. Retrieved 20 November 2010. 
  26. ^ "And the world’s highest restaurant is ready to serve". Emirates 24/7. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  27. ^ "Foodie Gossip: At.mosphere Bar & Grill opens in Dubai". Foodiegossip.blogspot.com. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  28. ^ a b "Jaw-dropping Fireworks at Burj Khalifa Enthrall Thousands". Gulfnews.com. 31 December 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  29. ^ Landon Thomas Jr (5 January 2010). "Dubai's skyscraper has world's highest Mosque". Retrieved 5 January 2010. 
  30. ^ Robinson, Paul (27 February 2003). "Grollo tower to go ahead, in Dubai". Melbourne: The Age. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  31. ^ a b "Architect reveals Burj Dubai height". Arabian Business. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2008. 
  32. ^ Cityscape Daily News[dead link] PDF (264 KB) Cityscape, 18 September 2005. Retrieved on 5 May 2006.
  33. ^ a b c "Emaar increases height of Burj Dubai; completion in September 2009". Emaar Properties. 17 June 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008. 
  34. ^ Das Augustine, Babu (9 June 2008). "Burj Dubai completion delayed by another eight to nine months". Gulf News. Retrieved 21 June 2008. 
  35. ^ "Burj Dubai opening date announced". Homes Overseas. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2009. 
  36. ^ a b "Top 10 world's tallest steel buildings". Constructionweekonline.com. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  37. ^ "Burj Khalifa". AllAboutSkyscrapers.com. 2012-11-19. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  38. ^ Bayley, Stephen (5 January 2010). "Burj Dubai: The new pinnacle of vanity". Telegraph (London). 
  39. ^ a b "Burj Dubai becomes tallest manmade structure". Hyder Consulting. Retrieved 10 January 2010. [dead link]
  40. ^ "Hyder reinforces its reputation for unrivaled engineering ability with the opening of the Burj Khalifa – the world's tallest building". Hyder Consulting. Retrieved 10 January 2010. [dead link]
  41. ^ "GHD is playing a vital role in managing the long term structural integrity of the world’s tallest building, the Burj Dubai Tower.". GHD. Retrieved 11 April 2009. 
  42. ^ a b Christopher Hawthorne (1 January 2010). "The Burj Dubai and architecture's vacant stare". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  43. ^ Saberi, Mahmood (19 April 2008). "Burj Dubai is the height of success". Gulf News. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  44. ^ a b c d e f g "Structural Elements – Elevator, Spire, and More". BurjDubai.com. Retrieved 31 December 2009. [dead link]
  45. ^ "Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Leads Process for Art Program at Burj Dubai". 28 May 2009. 
  46. ^ "Burj Dubai will officially open for the UAE National Day". Dubai Chronicle. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2010. [dead link]
  47. ^ "Temperature and Elevation". United States Department of Energy. 21 May 2002. Retrieved 11 April 2009. 
  48. ^ "Armani Hotel Burj Dubai, United Arab Emirates". hotelmanagement-network.com. Retrieved 11 April 2009. 
  49. ^ "Worlds first Armani Hotel to open on 18 March 2010 in Dubai". EyeOfDubai.com. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  50. ^ Sambidge, Andy (4 January 2010). "Burj Dubai's Armani hotel to open on Mar 18". Arabian Business. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  51. ^ "Armani hotel opens in Dubai's Khalifa tower". The Jerusalem Post. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010. 
  52. ^ "Burj Dubai: Fact Sheet". Eyeofdubai.com. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  53. ^ a b "Burj Dubai to welcome residents in Feb 2010". Business Standard. 1 January 2010. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 
  54. ^ "Burj Dubai To Welcome First Residents From February 2010 Onwards". DubaiCityGuide. 31 December 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 
  55. ^ CW Staff. "How the Burj was built". ConstructionWeekOnline.com. Retrieved 11 May 2010. 
  56. ^ "Top 10 Burj Khalifa facts: Part 3". ConstructionWeekOnline.com. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  57. ^ "Burj Dubai Design work at Brash Brands". brashbrands.com. Retrieved 11 June 2009. 
  58. ^ "Burj Dubai Armani Residences Roadshow Brands". ida.us. Retrieved 11 June 2009. 
  59. ^ a b c "Escaping the Dubai Downturn: Voltas’s Latest Engineering Feat". Wharton, University of Pennsylvania. 20 April 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  60. ^ Frechette, Leung & Boyer (24–26 July 2006). "Mechanical and Electrical Systems for the Tallest Building/Man-Made Structure in the World: A Burj Dubai Case Study" (pdf). Fifteenth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates. Orlando, Florida. p. 7. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  61. ^ "Air Conditioning in Burj Khalifa". Timeoutdubai.com. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  62. ^ a b Malkin, Bonnie (5 January 2010). "Burj Khalifa: window cleaners to spend months on world's tallest building". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  63. ^ "A tall order: Burj Dubai all set to come clean". Gulf News. 25 August 2009. Retrieved 7 December 2009. 
  64. ^ a b Dobbin, Marika (5 January 2010). "So you think your windows are hard to keep clean?". Melbourne: The Age. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  65. ^ "Emaar brings world class water, light, and music spectacle to Burj Dubai Lake". Emaar Properties. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2008. 
  66. ^ "'Dubai Fountain' is winning name of Emaar's water spectacle in Downtown Burj Dubai". Emaar Properties. 26 October 2008. Retrieved 26 October 2008. 
  67. ^ "Burj Dubai Observation Deck Opens to The Public On Jan 5". Bayut.com. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  68. ^ "behold telescope – gsmprjct°". gsmprjct°. Retrieved 19 August 2010. [dead link]
  69. ^ "Une firme québécoise dans la plus haute tour du monde". Journal de Montréal (in French). 4 January 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2010. 
  70. ^ "'At The Top' Observation Deck Ticket Information". Emaar Properties. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  71. ^ "Emaar Says Burj Khalifa Observation Deck Closed for Maintenance". Bloomberg. 8 February 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  72. ^ Tomlinson, Hugh (10 February 2010). "Terrifying lift ordeal at Burj Khalifa tower, the world’s tallest building". UK: The Times. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  73. ^ "Burj Khalifa to Reopen Feb. 14". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 10 February 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  74. ^ "World's tallest building, Burj Khalifa, reopens observation deck". UK: The Guardian. 5 April 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010. 
  75. ^ "Burj Khalifa observation deck reopens". GulfNews.com. 5 April 2010. Retrieved 6 April 2010. 
  76. ^ Rackl, Lori (5 April 2010). "Machu Picchu and Burj Khalifa back in biz". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  77. ^ "An 11-hectare green oasis envelops the foot of Burj Dubai". Emaar Properties. 20 December 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2010. 
  78. ^ "An 11-hectare green oasis envelops the foot of Burj Dubai". BurjDubai.com. 20 December 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2010. [dead link]
  79. ^ a b Baxter, Elsa (20 December 2009). "11-hectare park unveiled at Burj Dubai site". Arabian Business. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 
  80. ^ "An 11-hectare green oasis envelops the foot of Burj Dubai". Emaar Properties. 20 December 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 
  81. ^ "Inside the Burj Dubai". Maktoob News. 28 December 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 
  82. ^ SOM rendering
  83. ^ "Samsung E&C Projects". Samsung Engineering & Construction. Retrieved 23 March 2009. [dead link]
  84. ^ "Turner International Projects – Burj Dubai". Turner Construction. Retrieved 23 March 2009. 
  85. ^ Croucher, Martin (11 November 2009). "Myth of ‘Babu Sassi’ Remains After Burj Cranes Come Down". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  86. ^ Puckett, Katie (3 October 2008). "Burj Dubai: Top of the world". Building. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  87. ^ "Clients & Projects – Burj Khalifa, the Tallest Building in the World". CTLGroup. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  88. ^ "Dubai skyscraper world's tallest". BBC News. 22 July 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  89. ^ "Burj Dubai: Unimix sets record for concrete pumping". Dubai News Online. 25 May 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2009. 
  90. ^ "Burj Dubai Official Website". Emaar Properties. Retrieved 8 March 2008. 
  91. ^ "CN Tower dethroned by Dubai building". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 12 September 2007. Retrieved 13 September 2007. 
  92. ^ "Burj Dubai surpasses KVLY-TV mast to become the world's tallest man-made structure". Emaar Properties. 7 April 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  93. ^ "Burj Dubai now a record 688m tall and continues to rise". Emaar Properties. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  94. ^ "Burj Dubai all set for 09/09/09 soft opening". Emirates Business 24-7. Retrieved 17 January 2009. 
  95. ^ "Burj Dubai exterior done, to open this year". Maktoob News. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  96. ^ "Tallest Trends and the Burj Khalifa". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 10 March 2010. 
  97. ^ "Burj Dubai offices to top US$4,000 per sq ft". Zawya. 5 March 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2009. 
  98. ^ "828-metre Burj Dubai renamed Burj Khalifa". Maktoob Group. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2010. 
  99. ^ Reagan, Brad (14 October 2010). "Burj Khalifa rents tumble 40%". The National. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  100. ^ McGinley, Shane (21 October 2010). "Armani Residences defy 70% Burj Khalifa price drop". Arabian Business. Retrieved 6 November 2010. 
  101. ^ "Offices stand empty in tallest tower, the Burj Khalifa". BBC. 21 July 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  102. ^ "Emaar Reports 80% Occupancy Levels In Burj Khalifa". REIDIN.com. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  103. ^ Huang, Carol (5 January 2010). "World's tallest building: What's it worth to have the Dubai tower – and what should people call it?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  104. ^ a b c d Sambidge, Andy (3 January 201). "Burj Dubai ceremony details revealed". Arabian Business. Retrieved 5 January 2010. 
  105. ^ Devine, Rachel (21 February 2010). "Designer's light touches far and wide". UK: The Times. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  106. ^ "Two billion to watch Burj Dubai opening". Maktoob Business. 3 January 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2010. 
  107. ^ "CTBUH 9th Annual Awards, 2010". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 15 June 2007. 
  108. ^ "Burj Khalifa won Best Project of Year at Middle East Architect Awards 2010". Constructionweekonline.com. Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  109. ^ a b "Burj Khalifa won "Global Icon" Award". Council on Tall Buildings And Urban Habitate. Retrieved 2 November 2010. 
  110. ^ "Burj Khalifa Project Awards". Skidmore, Owings & Merril LLP (SOM). Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  111. ^ "Jmhdezhdez.com". Burj Khalifa Project Awards. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  112. ^ Jan Bednarz; Robin Schmidt, Andy Harvey, DMC, Hervé Le Gallou (2008). "World record BASE jump". Current TV. Retrieved 4 January 2010.  Video documentary about the BASE jump from the Burj Dubai tower.
  113. ^ Tom Spender (24 November 2008). "Daredevils jumped off Burj Dubai undetected". The National. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  114. ^ Highest base jump-Nasr Al Niyadi and Omar Al Hegelan sets world record. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
  115. ^ Mansfield, Roddy (8 January 2010). "Daredevils Jump Off World's Tallest Building". Sky News. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  116. ^ "Highest BASE jump from a building". Guinness World Records Limited. Retrieved 26 Apr 2014. 
  117. ^ "Fred Fugen and Vincent Reffet took BASE jumping higher than ever before in Dubai.". Red Bull. Retrieved 26 Apr 2014. 
  118. ^ "Burj Khalifa Pinnacle BASE Jump - 4K". You tube. 24 April 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  119. ^ "'Spiderman' Alain Robert scales Burj Khalifa in Dubai". BBC. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  120. ^ "Man dies in jump from world's tallest building". News.blogs.cnn.com. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  121. ^ "First Indian Movie in Burj Khalifa : Lal Jose's 'Diamond Necklace'". CinemaScoop.in. 27 March 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2012. 
  122. ^ "Burj Khalifa to Ring in 2011". Uaeinteract.com. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  123. ^ "Burj Khalifa Fireworks 2012". Constructionweekonline.com. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  124. ^ "New Year fireworks illuminate world’s tallest building, Dubai's Burj Khalifa 2013". Alarabiya.net. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  125. ^ "Burj Khalifa fireworks after winning Expo 2020". Arabia.msn.com. Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  126. ^ "Dubai sees in New Year with largest fireworks display world record". Guinness World Records. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  127. ^ "Dubai ushers in New Year with fireworks world record 2020". Gulfnews.com. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 
  128. ^ a b c d e Whitaker, Brian (23 March 2006). "Riot by migrant workers halts construction of Dubai skyscraper". UK: The Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2006. 
  129. ^ "Burj Dubai opens tomorrow, final height still a secret!". India: The Hindu. 3 January 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  130. ^ Emiratisation won't work if people don't want to learn The National
  131. ^ a b "Building Towers, Cheating Workers Section V.". Human Rights Watch. 11 November 2006. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  132. ^ "Dark side of the Dubai dream". BBC. 6 April 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2013. 
  133. ^ "Behind the Glamorous Facade of the Burj Khalifa". Migrant-Rights.org. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  134. ^ "Keeping the Burj Dubai site safe for workers". gulfnews. 4 January 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 

External links[edit]

Records
Preceded by
Warsaw Radio Mast
646.38 m (2,120.67 ft)
World's tallest structure ever built
2008 – present
Incumbent
Preceded by
KVLY-TV mast
628.8 m (2,063 ft)
World's tallest structure
2008 – present
Preceded by
CN Tower
553.33 m (1,815.39 ft)
World's tallest free-standing structure
2007 – present
Preceded by
Taipei 101
509.2 m (1,670.6 ft)
World's tallest building
2010 – present
Preceded by
Willis Tower
108 floors
Building with the most floors
2007 – present