College of Cardinals

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The College of Cardinals is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.[1]

A function of the college is to advise the Pope about church matters when he summons them to an ordinary consistory.[2] It also convenes on the death or resignation of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor.[3] The college has no ruling power except during the sede vacante (papal vacancy) period, and even then its powers are extremely limited by the terms of the current law, which is laid down in the Apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis and the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State.

Historically, cardinals were the clergy serving parishes of the city of Rome under its bishop, the Pope. The College acquired particular importance following the crowning of Henry IV as King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor at the age of six, after the unexpected death of Henry III in 1056. Until then, secular authorities had significant influence over who was to be appointed Pope, and the Holy Roman Emperor in particular had the special power to appoint him. This was significant as the aims and views of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Church did not always coincide. Churchmen involved in what was to become known as the Gregorian Reform took advantage of the new king's lack of power, and in 1059 reserved the election of the Pope to the clergy of the Church in Rome. This was part of a larger power struggle, which became known as the Investiture Controversy, as the Church and the Emperor each attempted to gain more control over the appointment of bishops, and in doing so wield more influence in the lands and governments they were appointed to. Reserving to the cardinals the election of the Pope represented a significant shift in the balance of power in the Early Medieval world. From the beginning of the 12th century, the College of Cardinals started to meet as such, when the cardinal bishops, cardinal priests, and cardinal deacons ceased acting as separate groups.[4]

The Dean of the College of Cardinals and the Sub-Dean are the president and vice-president of the college. Both are elected by and from the cardinals holding suburbicarian dioceses, but the election requires Papal confirmation. Except for presiding, the dean has no power of governance over the cardinals, instead acting as primus inter pares (first among equals).

The Secretary of State, the prefects of the Congregations of the Roman Curia, the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, the Vicar General of Rome, and the Patriarchs of Venice and Lisbon, are usually Cardinals, with few, usually temporary, exceptions. The Fundamental Law of Vatican City State requires that appointees to the state's legislative body, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, be cardinals.[5]

Origins[edit]

The Church cites Acts 6 as the formation of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Specifically, the seven assistants, Stephen, Philip, Nicanor, Timon, Nicholas, Parmenas, and Prochorus, selected by the Apostles to relieve them of the more mundane tasks of the Church so that they might concentrate more on prayer, contemplation, and preaching. As early as the third century, these assistants were defined as critical supporters of the papacy, and by the fourth century, the title of Cardinal was applied to these consultors of the Pope.[6]

The word cardinal itself is derived from the Latin Carda, translated as "hinge". The cardinals were believed to facilitate a relationship between the theological and governmental roles of the hierarchy of the Church as a sort of pivot; on them hung the relationship between Christ and His Church on Earth, headed by the pope. This definition of helper has not changed over the years, and popes have not ceased to depend on the College for advice on doctrine and government.[7]

Towards the end of the 600s, the title of Cardinal had become synonymous with an honor, and was no longer reserved to men who served the pope as special assistants. Sts. Augustine and Ambrose applied the term to truths of life and Christian virtues respectively. In 845 the Council of Meaux "required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and outlining districts."[8] At the same time, the popes began referring to the cardinal priests of Rome to serves as legates and delegates within Rome at ceremonies, synods, councils, etc., as well as abroad on diplomatic missions and councils. Those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere (Cardinal Legate) and Missus Specialis (Special Missions).[9]

During the pontificate of Stephen V (816-17), the three classes of the College that are present today began to form. Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to say Mass on rotation at the high altar at St. Peter's Basilica, one per Sunday. The first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct theological descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, and finally, the cardinal-bishops.[10]

The College played an integral part in various reforms within the Church as well, as early as the pontificate of Pope Leo IX (1050). In 759, the third Lateran Council declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, a requirement that has since lapsed. In 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections; up to this point, only cardinal-bishops had this role.[10]

By the end of the 1300s, the practice of solely Italian cardinals had ceased. Between the 1300s and 1600s, there was much struggle for the College between the cardinals of the day and the reigning popes. The most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals, promoting those who had nominated him. Those cardinals in power saw these actions as an attempt to weaken their influence. In 1517, Pope Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a supportive majority among the cardinalate. Paul IV brought the total to seventy. Pius IV raised an additional six. By the papacy of Sixtus V, the number was set at seventy, divided among fourteen cardinal-deacons, fifty cardinal-priests, and six cardinal-bishops.[10]

Choosing the Pope[edit]

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Under the terms of Pope Paul VI's motu proprio Ingravescentem Aetatem, cardinals who reached the age of 80 before a conclave opened had no vote in papal elections. Pope John Paul II's Universi Dominici Gregis of 22 February 1996 modified that slightly, so that cardinals who have reached the age of 80 before the day the see becomes vacant do not have a vote.[3]

Although the canonical qualifications required of candidates for episcopacy[11] leave a broad field open to the cardinals, they have for over six centuries elected one of their own number to be Bishop of Rome. The last time they chose someone who was not a cardinal was at the 1378 election of Pope Urban VI. The conclave rules specify the procedures to be followed, should someone residing outside Vatican City or not yet a bishop be elected.[12]

Of the 117 Cardinals under the age of 80 at the time of Pope Benedict XVI's resignation, 115 participated in the conclave of March 2013 that elected his successor. The two who did not participate were Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja (for health reasons) and Keith O'Brien (for personal reasons). Of the 115 Cardinals who participated in the conclave that elected Pope Francis, 48 were appointed by Pope John Paul II, and 67 by Pope Benedict XVI.

As of 20 December 2014, there are a total of 208 cardinals, of whom 111 are under age 80. Of those 111, 34 were appointed by Pope John Paul II, 61 by Pope Benedict XVI, and 16 by Pope Francis. Giovanni Lajolo will be the next cardinal to reach the age of 80, on 3 January 2015, and lose his right to participate in a conclave.

Members of the College of Cardinals[edit]

The following is the list of all cardinals living as of 20 December 2014. Cardinals appear in order of precedence, based on seniority by date of appointment. Paulo Evaristo Arns is the most senior member of the College by length of service (the Protopriest) and the last survivor from the 1973 consistory. Angelo Sodano has the highest precedence as a Cardinal Bishop and Dean of the College of Cardinals. As of 20 December 2014, the oldest living cardinal is Loris Francesco Capovilla, born in 1915.

Within the College of Cardinals, there are three categories, the highest-ranked Cardinal Bishops, then Cardinal Priests, and finally Cardinal Deacons. Within each category, cardinals are ranked by seniority of appointment to that category. Despite these titles, almost every cardinal is, since the pontificate of Pope John XXIII (1958–1963), a bishop. Any one not a bishop when his appointment is announced has generally been consecrated bishop before his formal installation, although a few priests appointed cardinals when near or over 80 have obtained permission not to become bishops.

Most of the cardinals are from the Latin Church; those who are from the Eastern Catholic Churches have their church indicated.

College of Cardinals (2014)
Consistory Name Country Born Age Title(s)
Cardinals of the Order of Bishops
Titular Bishops of Seven Suburbicarian Sees
28 June 1991 Angelo Sodano  Italy 23 November 1927 87 Bishop of Ostia and Cardinal Bishop of Albano, Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Secretary of State Emeritus
30 June 1979 Roger Etchegaray  France 25 September 1922 92 Cardinal Bishop of Porto-Santa Rufina, Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals, President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
21 February 2001 Giovanni Battista Re  Italy 30 January 1934 80 Cardinal Bishop of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops
25 May 1985 Francis Arinze  Nigeria 1 November 1932 82 Cardinal Bishop of Velletri-Segni, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
21 October 2003 Tarcisio Bertone, SDB  Italy 2 December 1934 80 Cardinal Bishop of Frascati, Camerlengo Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church and Cardinal Secretary of State Emeritus
21 February 2001 José Saraiva Martins, CMF  Portugal 6 January 1932 82 Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
Patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches
28 February 1994 Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir  Lebanon 15 May 1920 94 Patriarch Emeritus of Antioch (Maronite Catholic Church)
20 November 2010 Antonios Naguib  Egypt 18 March 1935 79 Patriarch Emeritus of Alexandria (Coptic Catholic Church)
24 November 2012 Bechara Boutros al-Rahi  Lebanon 25 February 1940 74 Patriarch of Antioch (Maronite Catholic Church)
Cardinals of the Order of Priests
5 March 1973 Paulo Evaristo Arns, OFM  Brazil 14 September 1921 93 Archbishop Emeritus of São Paulo, Cardinal Protopriest since July 2012
24 May 1976 William Wakefield Baum  United States 21 November 1926 88 Major Penitentiary Emeritus
30 June 1979 Franciszek Macharski  Poland 20 May 1927 87 Archbishop Emeritus of Kraków
2 February 1983
Michael Michai Kitbunchu  Thailand 26 January 1929 85 Archbishop Emeritus of Bangkok
Alexandre do Nascimento  Angola 1 March 1925 89 Archbishop Emeritus of Luanda
Godfried Danneels  Belgium 4 June 1933 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Mechelen-Brussels
Thomas Stafford Williams  New Zealand 20 March 1930 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Wellington
Joachim Meisner  Germany 25 December 1933 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Cologne
25 May 1985
Miguel Obando y Bravo, SDB  Nicaragua 2 February 1926 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Managua
Ricardo Vidal  Philippines 6 February 1931 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Cebu
Henryk Gulbinowicz  Poland 17 October 1923 91 Archbishop Emeritus of Wrocław
Jozef Tomko  Slovakia 11 March 1924 90 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses
Paul Poupard  France 30 August 1930 84 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Culture
Friedrich Wetter  Germany 20 February 1928 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Munich and Freising
Silvano Piovanelli  Italy 21 February 1924 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Florence
Adrianus Johannes Simonis  Netherlands 26 November 1931 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Utrecht
Bernard Francis Law  United States 4 November 1931 83 Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of St. Mary Major
Giacomo Biffi  Italy 13 June 1928 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Bologna
28 June 1988
Eduardo Martínez Somalo  Spain 31 March 1927 87 Camerlengo Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
Achille Silvestrini  Italy 25 October 1923 91 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
José Freire Falcão  Brazil 23 October 1925 89 Archbishop Emeritus of Brasília
Alexandre José Maria dos Santos, OFM  Mozambique 18 March 1924 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Maputo
Giovanni Canestri  Italy 30 September 1918 96 Archbishop Emeritus of Genoa
László Paskai, OFM  Hungary 8 May 1927 87 Archbishop Emeritus of Esztergom-Budapest
Christian Wiyghan Tumi  Cameroon 15 October 1930 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Douala
28 June 1991
Edward Idris Cassidy  Australia 5 July 1924 90 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez  Dominican Republic 31 October 1936 78 Archbishop of Santo Domingo, Primate of the Americas
Roger Mahony  United States 27 February 1936 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Los Angeles
Camillo Ruini  Italy 19 February 1931 83 Vicar General Emeritus for the Diocese of Rome
Ján Chryzostom Korec, SJ  Slovakia 22 January 1924 90 Bishop Emeritus of Nitra
Henri Schwery  Switzerland 14 June 1932 82 Bishop Emeritus of Sion
26 November 1994
Miloslav Vlk  Czech Republic 17 May 1932 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Prague
Carlo Furno  Italy 2 December 1921 93 Grand Master Emeritus of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of St. Mary Major
Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, SJ  Indonesia 20 December 1934 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Jakarta
Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino  Cuba 18 October 1936 78 Archbishop of San Cristóbal de la Habana
Gilberto Agustoni  Switzerland 26 July 1922 92 Prefect Emeritus of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
Emmanuel Wamala  Uganda 15 December 1926 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Kampala
William Henry Keeler  United States 4 March 1931 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Baltimore
Jean-Claude Turcotte  Canada 26 June 1936 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Montreal
Adam Joseph Maida  United States 18 March 1930 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Detroit
Vinko Puljić  Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 September 1945 69 Archbishop of Vrhbosna (Sarajevo)
Juan Sandoval Íñiguez  Mexico 28 March 1933 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Guadalajara
21 February 1998
Jorge Medina Estévez  Chile 23 December 1926 88 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
Darío Castrillón Hoyos  Colombia 4 July 1929 85 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei and Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy
James Francis Stafford  United States 26 July 1932 82 Major Penitentiary Emeritus
Salvatore De Giorgi  Italy 6 September 1930 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Palermo
Serafim Fernandes de Araújo  Brazil 13 August 1924 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Belo Horizonte
Antonio María Rouco Varela  Spain 24 August 1936 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Madrid
Dionigi Tettamanzi  Italy 14 March 1934 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Milan
Polycarp Pengo  Tanzania 5 August 1944 70 Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam
Christoph Schönborn, OP  Austria 22 January 1945 69 Archbishop of Vienna
Norberto Rivera Carrera  Mexico 6 June 1942 72 Archbishop of Mexico
Francis Eugene George, OMI  United States 16 January 1937 77 Archbishop Emeritus of Chicago
Marian Jaworski  Ukraine 21 August 1926 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Lviv
Jānis Pujāts  Latvia 14 November 1930 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Riga
21 February 2001
Agostino Cacciavillan  Italy 14 August 1926 88 President Emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
Sergio Sebastiani  Italy 11 April 1931 83 President Emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
Zenon Grocholewski  Poland 11 October 1939 75 Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education
Crescenzio Sepe  Italy 2 June 1943 71 Archbishop of Naples
Walter Kasper  Germany 5 March 1933 81 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Ivan Dias  India 14 April 1936 78 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Geraldo Majella Agnelo  Brazil 19 October 1933 81 Archbishop Emeritus of São Salvador da Bahia
Pedro Rubiano Sáenz  Colombia 13 September 1932 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Bogotá
Theodore Edgar McCarrick  United States 7 July 1930 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Washington
Desmond Connell  Ireland 24 March 1926 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Dublin
Audrys Juozas Bačkis  Lithuania 1 February 1937 77 Archbishop Emeritus of Vilnius
Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, PSchoenstatt  Chile 5 September 1933 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Santiago de Chile
Julio Terrazas Sandoval, CSsR  Bolivia 7 March 1936 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Wilfrid Fox Napier, OFM  South Africa 8 March 1941 73 Archbishop of Durban
Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga, SDB  Honduras 29 December 1942 71 Archbishop of Tegucigalpa
Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne  Peru 28 December 1943 71 Archbishop of Lima
Francisco Álvarez Martínez  Spain 14 July 1925 89 Archbishop Emeritus of Toledo
Cláudio Hummes, OFM  Brazil 8 August 1934 80 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy
Severino Poletto  Italy 18 March 1933 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Turin
Cormac Murphy-O'Connor  United Kingdom 24 August 1932 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Westminster
Edward Michael Egan  United States 2 April 1932 82 Archbishop Emeritus of New York
Lubomyr Husar, MSU  Ukraine 26 February 1933 81 Major Archbishop Emeritus of Kyiv-Halych (Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church)
Karl Lehmann  Germany 16 May 1936 78 Bishop of Mainz
Roberto Tucci, SJ  Italy 19 April 1921 93 President Emeritus of the Administrative Committee of Radio Vatican
21 October 2003[13]
Jean-Louis Tauran  France 3 April 1943 71 Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue
Julián Herranz Casado  Spain 31 March 1930 84 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
Javier Lozano Barragán  Mexico 26 January 1933 81 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers
Attilio Nicora  Italy 16 March 1937 77 President Emeritus of the Financial Information Authority
Angelo Scola  Italy 7 November 1941 73 Archbishop of Milan
Anthony Olubumni Okogie  Nigeria 16 June 1936 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Lagos
Bernard Panafieu  France 26 January 1931 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Marseille
Gabriel Zubeir Wako  Sudan 27 February 1939 75 Archbishop of Khartoum
Carlos Amigo Vallejo, OFM  Spain 23 August 1934 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Seville
Justin Francis Rigali  United States 19 April 1935 79 Archbishop Emeritus of Philadelphia
Keith O'Brien  United Kingdom 17 March 1938 76 Archbishop Emeritus of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh
Eusebio Oscar Scheid, SCI  Brazil 8 December 1932 82 Archbishop Emeritus of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro
Ennio Antonelli  Italy 18 November 1936 78 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family
Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson  Ghana 11 October 1948 66 President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
Telesphore Placidus Toppo  India 13 October 1939 75 Archbishop of Ranchi
George Pell  Australia 8 April 1941 73 Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy
Josip Bozanić  Croatia 20 March 1949 65 Archbishop of Zagreb
Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn  Vietnam 5 March 1934[14] 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Ho Chi Minh City
Philippe Barbarin  France 17 October 1950 64 Archbishop of Lyon
Péter Erdő  Hungary 25 June 1952 62 Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest
Marc Ouellet, PSS  Canada 8 June 1944 70 Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops
Georges Marie Martin Cottier, OP  Switzerland 25 April 1922 92 Former Titular Archbishop of Tullia, retired as Pro-Theologian of the Pontifical Household and as Secretary-General of the International Theological Commission
24 March 2006
Agostino Vallini  Italy 17 April 1940 74 Vicar General of Rome
Jorge Urosa  Venezuela 28 August 1942 72 Archbishop of Caracas
Gaudencio Borbon Rosales  Philippines 10 August 1932 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Manila
Jean-Pierre Ricard  France 25 September 1944 70 Archbishop of Bordeaux
Antonio Cañizares Llovera  Spain 15 October 1945 69 Archbishop of Valencia
Nicolas Cheong Jin-suk  South Korea 7 December 1931 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Seoul
Seán Patrick O'Malley, OFM Cap  United States 29 June 1944 70 Archbishop of Boston
Stanisław Dziwisz  Poland 27 April 1939 75 Archbishop of Kraków
Carlo Caffarra  Italy 1 June 1938 76 Archbishop of Bologna
Joseph Zen Ze-Kiun, SDB  Hong Kong[15] 13 January 1932 82 Bishop Emeritus of Hong Kong
24 November 2007
Seán Brady  Ireland 16 August 1939 75 Archbishop Emeritus of Armagh
Lluís Martínez Sistach  Spain 29 April 1937 77 Archbishop of Barcelona
André Armand Vingt-Trois  France 7 November 1942 72 Archbishop of Paris
Angelo Bagnasco  Italy 14 January 1943 71 Archbishop of Genoa
Théodore-Adrien Sarr  Senegal 28 November 1936 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Dakar
Oswald Gracias  India 24 December 1944 70 Archbishop of Bombay
Francisco Robles Ortega  Mexico 2 March 1949 65 Archbishop of Guadalajara
Daniel DiNardo  United States 23 May 1949 65 Archbishop of Galveston-Houston
Odilo Pedro Scherer  Brazil 21 September 1949 65 Archbishop of São Paulo
John Njue  Kenya 31 December 1944[16] 69 Archbishop of Nairobi
Estanislao Esteban Karlic  Argentina 7 February 1926 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Paraná
20 November 2010
Raúl Eduardo Vela Chiriboga  Ecuador 1 January 1934 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Quito
Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya  Democratic Republic of the Congo 7 October 1939 75 Archbishop of Kinshasa
Paolo Romeo  Italy 20 February 1938 76 Archbishop of Palermo
Donald William Wuerl  United States 12 November 1940 74 Archbishop of Washington
Raymundo Damasceno Assis  Brazil 15 February 1937 77 Archbishop of Aparecida
Kazimierz Nycz  Poland 1 February 1950 64 Archbishop of Warsaw
Malcolm Ranjith  Sri Lanka 15 November 1947 67 Archbishop of Colombo
Reinhard Marx  Germany 21 September 1953 61 Archbishop of Munich and Freising
José Manuel Estepa Llaurens  Spain 1 January 1926 88 Military Archbishop Emeritus of Spain
18 February 2012
George Alencherry  India 19 April 1945 69 Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly (Syro-Malabar Catholic Church)
Thomas Christopher Collins  Canada 16 January 1947 67 Archbishop of Toronto
Dominik Duka, OP  Czech Republic 26 April 1943 71 Archbishop of Prague
Wim Eijk  Netherlands 22 June 1953 61 Archbishop of Utrecht
Giuseppe Betori  Italy 25 February 1947 67 Archbishop of Florence
Timothy Michael Dolan  United States 6 February 1950 64 Archbishop of New York
Rainer Maria Woelki  Germany 18 August 1956 58 Archbishop of Cologne
John Tong Hon  Hong Kong 31 July 1939 75 Bishop of Hong Kong
Lucian Mureșan  Romania 23 May 1931 83 Major Archbishop of Făgăraş and Alba Iulia (Romanian Greek-Catholic Church)
24 November 2012
Baselios Cleemis  India 15 June 1959 55 Major Archbishop of Trivandrum (Syro-Malankara Catholic Church)
John Onaiyekan  Nigeria 29 January 1944 70 Archbishop of Abuja
Rubén Salazar Gómez  Colombia 22 September 1942 72 Archbishop of Bogotá
Luis Antonio Tagle  Philippines 21 June 1957 57 Archbishop of Manila
22 February 2014
Pietro Parolin  Italy 17 January 1955 59 Cardinal Secretary of State
Vincent Gerard Nichols  United Kingdom 8 November 1945 69 Archbishop of Westminster
Leopoldo José Brenes Solórzano  Nicaragua 7 March 1949 65 Archbishop of Managua
Gérald Cyprien Lacroix, ISPX  Canada 27 July 1957 57 Archbishop of Québec
Jean-Pierre Kutwa  Côte d'Ivoire 22 December 1945 69 Archbishop of Abidjan
Orani João Tempesta, OCist  Brazil 23 June 1950 64 Archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro
Gualtiero Bassetti  Italy 7 April 1942 72 Archbishop of Perugia-Città della Pieve
Mario Aurelio Poli  Argentina 29 November 1947 67 Archbishop of Buenos Aires
Andrew Yeom Soo-jung  South Korea 5 December 1943 71 Archbishop of Seoul
Ricardo Ezzati Andrello, SDB  Chile 7 January 1942 72 Archbishop of Santiago de Chile
Philippe Nakellentuba Ouédraogo  Burkina Faso 31 December 1945 68 Archbishop of Ouagadougou
Orlando Beltrán Quevedo, OMI  Philippines 11 March 1939 75 Archbishop of Cotabato
Chibly Langlois  Haiti 29 November 1958 56 Bishop of Les Cayes
Loris Francesco Capovilla  Italy 14 October 1915 99 Prelate Emeritus of Loreto
Fernando Sebastián Aguilar, CMF  Spain 14 December 1929 85 Archbishop Emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela
Kelvin Edward Felix  Saint Lucia 15 February 1933 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Castries
Cardinals of the Order of Deacons[17]
21 October 2003[13] Renato Raffaele Martino  Italy 23 November 1932 82 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Cardinal Protodeacon since 12 June 2014
24 March 2006
William Joseph Levada  United States 15 June 1936 78 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Franc Rode, CM  Slovenia 23 September 1934 80 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo  Italy 27 August 1925 89 Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls
Albert Vanhoye, SJ  France 23 July 1923 91 formerly rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute and secretary of the Pontifical Biblical Commission
24 November 2007
Leonardo Sandri  Argentina 18 November 1943 71 Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
Giovanni Lajolo  Italy 3 January 1935 79 President Emeritus of the Governorate of Vatican City State
Paul Josef Cordes  Germany 5 September 1934 80 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum
Angelo Comastri  Italy 17 September 1943 71 Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica, Vicar General for the Vatican City State, and President of the Fabric of St. Peter
Stanisław Ryłko  Poland 4 July 1945 69 President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity
Raffaele Farina, SDB  Italy 24 September 1933 81 Librarian and Archivist Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
Giovanni Coppa  Italy 9 November 1925 89 Apostolic Nuncio Emeritus to Czech Republic
20 November 2010
Angelo Amato, SDB  Italy 8 June 1938 76 Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
Robert Sarah  Guinea 15 June 1945 69 Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
Francesco Monterisi  Italy 28 May 1934 80 Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
Raymond Leo Burke  United States 30 June 1948 66 Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Kurt Koch  Switzerland 15 March 1950 64 President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Paolo Sardi  Italy 1 September 1934 80 Patron Emeritus of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Mauro Piacenza  Italy 15 September 1944 70 Major Penitentiary
Velasio de Paolis, CS  Italy 19 September 1935 79 President Emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
Gianfranco Ravasi  Italy 18 October 1942 72 President of the Pontifical Council for Culture
Elio Sgreccia  Italy 6 June 1928 86 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Academy for Life
Walter Brandmüller  Germany 26 January 1929 85 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences
18 February 2012
Fernando Filoni  Italy 15 April 1946 68 Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Manuel Monteiro de Castro  Portugal 29 March 1938 76 Major Penitentiary Emeritus
Santos Abril y Castelló  Spain 21 September 1935 79 Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
Antonio Maria Vegliò  Italy 3 February 1938 76 President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants
Giuseppe Bertello  Italy 1 October 1942 72 President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State
Francesco Coccopalmerio  Italy 6 March 1938 76 President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
João Braz de Aviz  Brazil 24 April 1947 67 Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
Edwin Frederick O'Brien  United States 8 April 1939 75 Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem
Domenico Calcagno  Italy 3 February 1943 71 President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
Giuseppe Versaldi  Italy 30 July 1943 71 President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
Prosper Grech, OSA  Malta 24 December 1925 89 Docent at various Roman universities and Consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Karl Josef Becker, SJ  Germany 18 April 1928 86 Docent Emeritus at the Pontifical Gregorian University, and Consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
24 November 2012
James Michael Harvey  United States 20 October 1949 65 Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
22 February 2014
Lorenzo Baldisseri  Italy 29 September 1940 74 Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops
Gerhard Ludwig Müller  Germany 31 December 1947 66 Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Beniamino Stella  Italy 18 August 1941 73 Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy

Cardinals from Italy over time (percentage)[edit]

Italian cardinals as percentage of total College of Cardinals (1903–2013)
February 2013 22.60
April 2005 17.09
October 1978 22.50
August 1978 22.80
1963 35.36
1958 35.80
1939 54.80
1922 51.60
1914 50.76
1903 56.25


Cardinals vs. geographic distribution of Catholics[edit]

2013 World Representation in the College of Cardinals
Region Total Population Catholics  % Catholic  % of Catholic total  % of College of Cardinals
Africa 885,103,542 135,211,325 15.27% 12.57% 8.17%
Asia and Middle East 3,889,093,723 123,851,272 3.18% 11.51% 9.62%
Europe 750,072,510 283,916,457 37.85% 26.37% 57.65%
Central America 42,883,849 32,317,384 75.36% 3.00% 1.00%
North America and Caribbean 472,952,469 192,274,838 40.65% 17.88% 12.98%
South America 371,363,897 299,570,011 80.66% 27.87% 10.58%
Oceania 30,686,468 7,747,654 25.24% 0.72% 1.92%

Cardinals by nationality[edit]

Number of cardinals Nationality
48 Italy
18 United States
10 Brazil, Germany, Spain
8 France
6 Poland
5 India
4 Canada, Mexico, Philippines, Switzerland
3 Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Nigeria, United Kingdom
2 Australia, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Lebanon, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Portugal, Slovakia, South Korea, Ukraine
1 Angola, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Mozambique, New Zealand, Peru, Romania, Saint Lucia, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam

Size of the College of Cardinals[edit]

As of 1 January 2014, the College had 199 members, 106 of whom were eligible to participate in a conclave.[18] The group's size has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself. From 1099 to 1986, the total number of cardinals appointed was approximately 2900 (excluding possible undocumented 12th-century cardinals, cardinals appointed during the Western Schism by pontiffs now considered to be antipopes, and subject to some other sources of uncertainty), nearly half of whom were created after 1655.[19]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 1983 CIC, Bk. II, Pt. II, Sec. I, Chap. III The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
  2. ^ CIC 1983, can. 349
  3. ^ a b John Paul II, Ap. Const. Universi Dominici Gregis in AAS 88 (1996)
  4. ^ Broderick, J.F. 1987. "The Sacred College of Cardinals: Size and Geographical Composition (1099–1986)." Archivum historiae Pontificiae, 25: 8.
  5. ^ Pope John Paul II (26 November 2000). "Fundamental Law of Vatican City State". Retrieved 2008-04-11. 
  6. ^ Noonan, James-Charles (2012). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Catholic Church, Revised Edition. New York, NY: Sterling Ethos. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-1-4027-8730-0. 
  7. ^ Noonan, James-Charles (2012). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Catholic Church, Revised Edition. New York, NY: Sterling Ethos. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-4027-8730-0. 
  8. ^ van Lierde, Peter C. (1964). What Is a Cardinal?. New York: Hawthorne Books Inc. p. 14. 
  9. ^ Noonan, James-Charles (2012). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church, Revised Edition. New York: Sterling Ethos. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-40278730-0. 
  10. ^ a b c Jr, James-Charles Noonan, (2012). The church visible : the ceremonial life and protocol of the Roman Catholic Church. New York: Sterling Ethos. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4027-8730-0. 
  11. ^ canon 378
  12. ^ Universi Dominici gregis, 88–90
  13. ^ a b In 2003 Pope John Paul II announced he was also creating one cardinal secretly (in pectore). This appointment would have taken effect if it had been announced before the Pope's death. There was press speculation that it was his senior personal secretary, Stanisław Dziwisz, or a resident of the mainland of the People's Republic of China. On 6 April 2005 the Vatican spokesman revealed that Pope John Paul II had not announced the name of this cardinal before witnesses prior to his death and that the appointment was therefore without effect.
  14. ^ Metropolitan Archbishops of Thành-Phô Hô Chí Minh GigaCatholic.com
  15. ^ Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, with which the Holy See does not currently maintain diplomatic relations.
  16. ^ "Cardinal Njue" at catholic-pages.com
  17. ^ Cardinal-Deacons have the right to apply to become Cardinal-Priests after ten years as a Cardinal-Deacon. All living eligible Cardinal-Deacons have exercised this right.
  18. ^ "Holy See Press Office: The College of Cardinals Statistics". 31 January 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  19. ^ Broderick, 1987, p. 11.

External links[edit]