Walt Disney Imagineering
||This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (April 2014)|
|Founded||1952 (as WED Enterprises)|
|Headquarters||Glendale, California, U.S.|
|Products||Theme parks, resorts, attractions, cruise ships, real estate developments, entertainment venues|
|Parent||Walt Disney Parks and Resorts
(The Walt Disney Company)
|Website||Walt Disney Imagineering|
Walt Disney Imagineering (also known as WDI or simply Imagineering) is the design and development arm of The Walt Disney Company, responsible for the creation and construction of Disney theme parks worldwide. Founded by Walt Disney to oversee the production of Disneyland Park, it was originally known as WED Enterprises, from the initials meaning "Walter Elias Disney", the company founder's full name.
The term Imagineering, a portmanteau, was introduced in the 1940s by Alcoa to describe its blending of imagination and engineering, and used by Union Carbide in an in-house magazine in 1957, with an article by Richard F Sailer called BRAINSTORMING IS IMAGINation engINEERing. Disney filed for a copyright for the term in 1967, claiming first use of the term in 1962. Imagineering is responsible for designing and building Disney theme parks, resorts, cruise ships, and other entertainment venues at all levels of project development. Imagineers possess a broad range of skills and talents, and thus over 140 different job titles fall under the banner of Imagineering, including illustrators, architects, engineers, lighting designers, show writers, graphic designers, and many more. Most Imagineers work from the company’s headquarters in Glendale, California, but are often deployed to satellite branches within the theme parks for long periods of time.
- 1 Principles
- 2 Innovations
- 3 The art of the show
- 4 Theme park projects
- 5 Non-theme park projects
- 6 Walt Disney Imagineering Management
- 7 Books
- 8 Notes
- 9 Related pages
- 10 External links
Imagineers are governed by a few key principles when developing new concepts and improving existing attractions. Often new concepts and improvements are created to fulfill specific needs. Many ingenious solutions to problems are Imagineered in this way, such as the ride vehicle of the attraction Soarin' Over California. The Imagineers knew they wanted guests to experience the sensation of flight, but weren’t sure how to accomplish the task of loading the people on to a ride vehicle in an efficient manner where everyone had an optimal viewing position. One day, an Imagineer found an Erector set in his attic, and was able to envision and design a ride vehicle that would effectively simulate hang gliding.
Imagineers are also known for returning to ideas for attractions and shows that, for whatever reason, never came to fruition. These ideas are often reworked and appear in a different form – like the Museum of the Weird, a proposed walk-through wax museum that eventually became the Haunted Mansion.
Finally, there is the principle of “blue sky speculation,” a process where Imagineers generate ideas with no limitations. The custom at Imagineering has been to start the creative process with what is referred to as “eyewash” – the boldest, wildest, best idea one can come up with, presented in absolutely convincing detail. Many Imagineers consider this to be the true beginning of the design process and operate under the notion that if it can be dreamt, it can be built.
Imagineers are always seeking to improve upon their work – what Walt called “plussing.” He firmly believed that “Disneyland will never be completed as long as there’s imagination left in the world,” meaning there is always room for innovation and improvement. Imagineering also has created many ideas that have never been realized, although some, such as Country Bear Jamboree, do take form in one way or another later.
Over the years, Walt Disney Imagineering has been granted over 115 patents in areas such as ride systems, special effects, interactive technology, live entertainment, fiber optics, and advanced audio systems. WDI is responsible for technological advances such as the Circle-Vision 360° film technique and the FastPass virtual queuing system.
Imagineering is perhaps best known for its development of Audio-Animatronics, a form of robotics created for use in shows and attractions in the theme parks that allowed Disney to animate things in three dimensions instead of just two. The idea sprang from Disney’s fascination with a mechanical bird he purchased in New Orleans, which eventually led to the development of the attraction The Enchanted Tiki Room. The Tiki Room, which featured singing Audio Animatronic birds, was the first to use such technology. The 1964 World's Fair featured an Audio Animatronic figure of Abraham Lincoln that actually stood up and delivered part of the Gettysburg Address (which was incidentally just past its centennial at the time) for the “Great Moments With Mr. Lincoln” exhibit, the first human Audio Animatronic figure.
Today, Audio-Animatronics are featured prominently in many popular Disney attractions, including Pirates of the Caribbean, The Haunted Mansion, The Hall of Presidents, Country Bear Jamboree, Star Tours: The Adventures Continue and Muppet*Vision 3D. Guests also have the opportunity to interact with some Audio-Animatronic characters, such as Lucky the Dinosaur, WALL-E, and Remy from Ratatouille. The next wave of Audio-Animatronic development focuses on completely independent figures, or “Autonomatronics.” Otto, the first Autonomatronic figure, is capable of seeing, hearing, sensing a person’s presence, having a conversation, and even sensing and reacting to guests’ emotions.
The art of the show
Over the years, Imagineering has conceived a whole range of retail stores, galleries, and hotels that are designed to be experienced and to create and sustain a very specific mood – for example, the mood of Disney's Contemporary Resort could be called “the hello futuristic optimism,” and it’s readily apparent given the resort’s A-frame structure, futuristic building techniques, modern décor, and the monorail gliding quietly through the lobby every few minutes. Together, these details combine to tell the story of the hotel.
Imagineering is, first and foremost, a form of storytelling, and visiting a Disney theme park should feel like entering a show. Extensive theming, atmosphere, and attention to detail are the hallmarks of the Disney experience. The mood is distinct and identifiable, the story made clear by details and props. Pirates of the Caribbean evokes a “rollicking buccaneer adventure,” according to Imagineering legend John Hench, whereas the Disney Cruise Line’s ships create an elegant seafaring atmosphere. Even the shops and restaurants within the theme parks tell stories. Every detail is carefully considered, from the menus to the names of the dishes to the Cast Members’ costumes. Disney parks are meant to be experienced through all senses – for example, as guests walk down Main Street, U.S.A. they are likely to smell freshly baked cookies, a small detail that enhances the story of turn-of-the-century, small town America.
The story of Disney theme parks is often told visually, and the Imagineers design the guest experience in what they call “The Art of the Show.” Hench was fond of comparing theme park design to moviemaking, and often used filmmaking techniques in the Disney parks, such as the technique of forced perspective. Forced perspective is a design technique in which the designer plays with the scale of an object in order to affect the viewer’s perception of the object’s size. One of the most dramatic examples of forced perspective in the Disney Parks is Cinderella Castle. The scale of architectural elements is much smaller in the upper reaches of the castle compared to the foundation, making it seem significantly taller than its actual height of 189 feet.
Theme park projects
Since its 1952 inception, Walt Disney Imagineering has created eleven theme parks, a town, four cruise ships, dozens of resort hotels, water parks, shopping centers, sports complexes, and various other entertainment venues. Outside of the theme parks, a complete overhaul of Disney Stores was planned in 2009 with the help of Apple’s Steve Jobs. Disney was hoping to move away from the traditional retail model and toward more of an interactive entertainment hub.
In mid-July 2009, blueprints and concept art for a Fantasyland expansion leaked online, and Disney confirmed the rumors at the September D23 Expo in Anaheim, California. Some aspects of the refurbishment will be open as early as 2012, and was completed in 2013, barring the Seven Dwarfs Mine Train and Princess Fairytale Hall. The expansion, which doubled the current size of Fantasyland, features a greater focus on the Disney Princesses. Belle, Ariel, and Snow White all have dedicated sections within the land where guests can experience highly interactive character meet-and-greet sessions in immersive movie environments. There are two new restaurants, the full-service Be Our Guest Restaurant in the Beast’s Castle and the quick-service Gaston’s Tavern. The current Ariel's Grotto area was expanded to include a new attraction called The Little Mermaid: Ariel's Undersea Adventure. In the middle of the expansion is a new Seven Dwarfs Mine Train ride, featuring a new ride system that allows mine carts to swing back and forth. Snow White's Scary Adventures has been replaced by Princess Fairytale Hall, where Cinderella, Tiana, Snow White, Jasmine, Rapunzel, Aurora, Mulan, Anna, and Elsa are having meet and greets which was opened on September 18th, 2013. The expansion also features an updated Dumbo ride with a doubled guest capacity and an interactive queuing system that will keep guests entertained while they wait for one of the park’s most popular attractions, as well as a rethemed version of Goofy's Barnstormer known as "The Great Goofini".
Current Imagineering projects
|Stitch Encounter||Tokyo Disneyland||Spring 2015|
|Shanghai Disneyland||Shanghai Disney Resort||End of 2015|
|Iron Man Experience||Hong Kong Disneyland||Fall 2016 |
|Pandora - World of Avatar||Disney's Animal Kingdom||2017|
Non-theme park projects
The Imagineers have been called on by many other divisions of the Walt Disney Company as well as being contracted by outside firms to design and build structures outside of the theme parks.
- The very first Disney Store opened in Glendale, California, near Imagineering headquarters, and was designed and constructed by a group of architectural Imagineers.
- Design and construction of the Disney Dream and the Disney Fantasy for Disney Cruise Lines
- Environmental and graphic design for The Disney Cruise Line and DCL's Castaway Cay
- Imagineering have co-operated with Walt Disney Consumer Products on four more occasions for Disney Stores. Firstly, WDI developed the Walt Disney Gallery at the Main Place Mall in Santa Ana, California (open for a short time in the 1990s, next to the still-operating Disney Store), and then a Roman themed Disney Store at The Forum Shops at Caesars in Las Vegas. Two more themed flagship Disney stores were opened in San Francisco, California, and New York City, New York - the latter having been developed into a World of Disney.
- After the purchase of the Disney Stores by The Children's Place in 2004, Disney developed a more exclusive chain of flagship Disney stores, called World of Disney (see above). Located in Lake Buena Vista, Florida (at the Walt Disney World Resort), Anaheim, California (at the Disneyland Resort) and New York City (now closed). Each have been designed by Walt Disney Imagineering. A fourth incarnation of the "World of Disney" brand arrived in Disney Village at Disneyland Paris in 2012.
- Imagineering designed the prototype 24,000 square feet (2,200 m2) 'Club Disney' interactive family fun center in Thousand Oaks, California. It was the first of several Disney Location Based Entertainment (LBE) venues of the mid to late 1990s that were eventually closed.
- Another Imagineering designed Location Based Entertainment product was DisneyQuest, a high-tech, virtual reality arcade of about 80,000 square feet (7,400 m2) located in Disney Village (now referred to as Downtown Disney, West Side) at Lake Buena Vista, Florida. DisneyQuest has themed areas called Score, Explore, Create, and Replay. DisneyQuest in Chicago no longer exists.
- Former Senior Vice President of Imagineering John Hench designed the "Tower of Nations" for the opening and closing ceremony of the 1960 Winter Olympics, where Walt Disney was Pageantry Committee Chairman.
- Imagineering designed galleries and exhibitions for the Autry Museum of Western Heritage in Los Angeles, California.
- Imagineering developed the Encounter Restaurant, a science fiction-esque redesign of the restaurant suspended at the top of the 135-foot parabolic arches of the Theme Building at the Los Angeles International Airport.
- Imagineering manufactured flight attendant uniforms for Northwest Airlines from Claude Montana designs in 1989 due in part to the fact that Northwest's then-CEO Al Checchi was also a member of The Walt Disney Company's board. The WDI-made uniforms only lasted until 1992.
- When Disney purchased ABC, the Imagineers remodeled the ABC Times Square Studios in New York City.
- Imagineering designed exhibits for the Port Discovery children's museum at the Inner Harbor in Baltimore, Maryland.
- Imagineering designed the "Below Deck" sound show depicting Blackbeard's final battle as part of the Pirate and Treasure Museum in St. Augustine, Florida.
- When Disney purchased the California Angels, they renamed the team to Anaheim Angels, and Walt Disney Imagineering and HOK Sport renovated the then-30-year-old Anaheim-owned Anaheim Stadium, adding modern amenities.
Since the 1960s, Imagineering's headquarters have been located in a nondescript office building on the former site of the Grand Central Airport in Glendale, California, about two miles (3.2 km) east of Disney's corporate headquarters and studio lot in Burbank.
There are two field offices at the Walt Disney World Resort, required for the sheer size of the resort. There are field offices located at;
- Epcot and Disney's Hollywood Studios, Walt Disney World Resort
- Tokyo Disney Resort Administration Building, Tokyo Disney Resort
- The former WDFA field office, Disneyland Resort Paris
- Walt Disney Imagineering Hong Kong Site Office, Hong Kong Disneyland Resort
- Walt Disney Imagineering Disneyland Field Office, Disneyland
- Walt Disney Imagineering Germany GmBH, Meyer Werft Papenburg, Germany
Walt Disney Imagineering Management
Walt Disney Imagineering
- Chief Creative Executive - Bruce Vaughn
- Chief Financial Officer - John Vandemore
- Chief Development and Delivery Executive - Craig Russell
- Principal Creative Adviser - John Lasseter
- Senior Vice President, Executive Designer - Joe Rohde
- Senior Vice President, Creative Development - Tony Baxter (retired)
- Senior Vice President, Creative Development - Eric Jacobson
- Senior Vice President, Chief Technology Officer - Scott Watson
- Executive Vice President, Senior Creative Executive - Tom Fitzgerald
- Executive Vice President, Resort Development - Don Goodman
- Executive Vice President, New Ship Development - Frank de Heer
- Executive Vice President, Creative Research and Development - Scott Trowbridge
- Executive Vice President, Producer - Kathy Mangum
- Executive Vice President, - Bob Weis
- Creative Vice President for Tokyo Disney Resort - Joe Lanzisero
- Technology Executive, Practice Technologies - Joseph Joseph
- Director of Theme Park Development for Shanghai DIsneyland - Mike Montague
- Director, Field Art - Jim Crouch
- Director, Project Integration - Rolando Mendoza
- Director, Art - Kim Irvine
- Executive Project Management - Paris France - Aslam Amlani
- Senior Concept Writer - Kevin P. Rafferty
- Senior Show Producer/Director - Kathy Rogers
- Senior Concept Designer - John Gritz
- Senior Concept Designer - Michel den Dulk
- Senior Concept Writer, Creative Development - Michael Sprout
- Senior Fabrication Designer - James George "Jim" Armagost
- Principal Concept Designer - Scot Drake
- Principal Concept Designer - Owen Yoshino
- Principal Show Artist - Heather Greene
- Principal Show Artist - Tod Mathias
- Show Writer, Creative Development - David Fisher
- Manager Prototype Fabrication - Patrick Krugh
- Mechanical Lead - Rick Taylor
- Senior Financial Analyst - Raya Sandjaja
- Sculpturer - Scott Goodard
Prior to 2007, Walt Disney Imagineering was headed by a President. After a corporate shake up, It was decided that the President role would be dropped. Bruce Vaughn and Craig Russell now both head the division. All creative executives now directly report to Vaughn and Russell.
Walt Disney Creative Entertainment
- Vice President, WDI Creative Entertainment - Kevin Eld
- Vice President, Creative Development; WDI Creative Entertainment - Michael Jung
- Creative Director and Vice President, Parades and Spectaculars - Steve Davison
Former Walt Disney Imagineering Management
- Vice Chairman and Principal Creative Executive, Walt Disney Imagineering 2000-2007 - Marty Sklar
- President, Walt Disney Imagineering 2000-2009 - Don Goodman
- Chairman, Walt Disney Imagineering 1995-1997 - Peter Rummell
- President, Walt Disney Imagineering 1997-1999 - Ken Wong
- President, Walt Disney Imagineering 1987-1996 - Marty Sklar
- President, Walt Disney Imagineering 1979-1989 - Carl Bongirno
- President, Walt Disney Imagineering 1952-1964 - Bill Cotrell
Notable Disney Imagineers
- John Decuir, Jr. - Project Designer on Contemporary Hotel, Polynesian Hotel, Space Ship Earth, Communicore and Master Planning for EPCOT-World Showcase.
- Alice Estes Davis - Designed Costumes for Audio-Animatronics in many rides including "it's a small world" and Flight to the Moon
- Bill Justice - Programmed figures for several Disney attractions such as Pirates of the Caribbean, the Haunted Mansion, and Country Bear Jamboree.
- Bill Martin - Helped Design the Monorail, Fantasyland attractions, Pirates of the Caribbean and Walt Disney World.
- Bill Novey - Helped create the special effects business for themed attractions by creating a special effects department for WED Enterprises in the 1970s. Oversaw the effects for Epcot Center and Tokyo Disneyland. At Disney he invented over 300 projectors and helped inspire a new wave of special effects and innovations including first use of holograms and vector-scanning laser projections in a theme park.
- Bill Cottrell - Known as 'Uncle Bill'. He was the First President of WDI and later became President of Retlaw
- Blaine Gibson - Chief sculptor who created many Audio-Animatronics figures, including most in the Hall of Presidents, as well as the "Partners" statue found in the hubs of Disneyland and Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom
- Bob Gurr - Responsible for the designing of ride vehicles for much of Disneyland's history.
- Bob Weis - Lead designer of Disney's Hollywood Studios, Shanghai Disneyland, and the $1.1 billion renovation of Disney California Adventure Park
- Bran Ferren - Disney bought his consulting firm Associates & Ferren in 1993 and merged it into Imagineering, where he rose to President of Research and Development by 1999. Ferren left in 2000 to start Applied Minds around the block from Imagineering with fellow Imagineer Danny Hillis.
- Carl Bongirno - Joined Walt Disney at The Celebrity Sports Center in Denver, CO. He worked at The Studio, Disneyland and Walt Disney World in finance positions until 1979 when he became president of WED/MAPO, the original name of Imagineering, which he changed in 1986. He led the Imagineers during the time of creating and building Tokyo Disneyland and EPCOT and the beginning of Disneyland Paris. He retired in 1989 and was inducted as a Disney Legend in later years.
- Claude Coats - Designed the sets for Pirates of the Caribbean, The Haunted Mansion, Adventure Through Inner Space, If You Had Wings, and many other classic attractions
- Frank Armitage - Helped to design the Disney theme parks; inspired and designed the Wonders of Life Pavilion in Epcot and was a muralist in Tokyo DisneySea and Walt Disney World.
- Harriet Burns - WDI's first female Imagineer; helped design Audio-Animatronics attractions like The Enchanted Tiki Room and designed The Plaza Inn - official website
- Herb Ryman - Noted for his numerous and distinctive conceptual renderings, many of which served as the principally guiding concepts for Disney attractions and environments
- Jim Crouch - Significant contributions to all Disney Parks in regards to paint and sculptures. He is one of the doomed groomsmen in the Haunted Mansion attractions attic scene. His production paintings in the park include the Ghost Host in the Walt Disney World Haunted Mansion and paintings of infamous pirates along the Disneyland attractions queue walls, among others.
- Joe Fowler - Helped design both Disneyland and Walt Disney World
- Joe Rohde - Chief designer for Disney's Animal Kingdom, as well as many of Disney's resort hotels; noted for his distinctly exotic style, use of elaborate detail, and penchant for cultural accuracy
- John Hench - Most famous work is Space Mountain's exterior design; also worked on Pirates of the Caribbean, Haunted Mansion, Spaceship Earth, and the overall design of EPCOT Center, in addition to multiple other projects. Worked also on the selection of color palettes for many of the projects during his lifetime.
- Ken Anderson - Worked on most of the original Disneyland Fantasyland attractions
- Marc Davis - Distinguished Imagineer noted for his stylized character design and comedic "sight gags;" designed most of the characters in The Jungle Cruise, The Enchanted Tiki Room, Pirates of the Caribbean, Haunted Mansion, Carousel of Progress, Country Bear Jamboree, America Sings, and many other classic attractions.
- Marty Sklar - served as scriptwriter and various other leadership roles in Walt Disney Imagineering; had a hand in the design of nearly every Disney theme park ever built
- Mary Blair - Distinctly stylistic Imagineer, known for designs for "it's a small world," the massive murals in Disney's Contemporary Resort, and the murals overlooking Disneyland's Tomorrowland of 1967
- Michael Valentina - Helped with Expedition Everest lighting.
- Morgan "Bill" Evans - served as Chief of Landscape for Disneyland, especially noted for his unusual and innovative landscape design for Disneyland's Jungle Cruise
- Sam McKim - Responsible for creating sketches of the early Disneyland attractions including Main Street, U.S.A.
- Steve Davison - Most noted for his work on Disney entertainment spectaculars, such as parades, firework displays, and Disney California Adventure Park's World of Color
- Steve Kirk - The lead designer of Tokyo DisneySea, considered by many to be the finest theme park ever built.
- Stanley "Mickey" Steinberg—served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Walt Disney Imagineering responsible for the development, design and construction of all Disney theme parks during a huge construction boom in the late 1980s - mid 1990's.
- Randy Pausch - A former Imagineer and professor of human-computer interaction, he worked on the The Magic Carpets of Aladdin ride, during his sabbatical year from Carnegie Mellon University. Afterwards, he continued working with WDI as a consultant. Randy talks about his childhood dream of becoming an imagineer for Walt Disney in his book The Last Lecture.
- Richard Irvine - Master of Planning and designing attractions.
- Robert (Bob) Jani - Best known for the creation of the Main Street Electrical Parade and the Electrical Water Pageant
- Roger E. Broggie - Oversaw development of Audio-Animatronics, CircleVision 360, WedWay Peoplemover, Viewliner, the Santa Fe & Disneyland Railroad, the Disneyland Monorail, the Matterhorn Bobsleds and dark ride transportation systems.
- Richard and Robert Sherman - Created musical scores such as "There's a Great Big Beautiful Tomorrow" from the Carousel of Progress, "it's a small world" from the attraction of the same name, and "In the Tiki Tiki Tiki Room" from Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room.
- Rolly Crump - Known for his re-design of Disneyland's Adventureland Bazaar, the Tower of the Four Winds kinetic sculpture, and much of Epcot; noted for his richly stylized design style
- Thierry Coup - a former imagineer, now working Senior Vice President of Universal Creative. Coup worked on the 1990s redevelopment of Tomorrowland at Disneyland, as well as working on the original designs of Discoveryland at Disneyland Paris, Space Mountain: De la Terre à la Lune, Armageddon – Les Effets Speciaux and Moteurs... Action! Stunt Show Spectacular.
- Tony Baxter - Oversaw the design of some of Disney's most famous modern attractions, such as Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, Splash Mountain, Indiana Jones Adventure, Journey into Imagination, and Disneyland Paris
- Wathel Rogers - Known for programming and designing Audio-Animatronics
- Xavier "X" Atencio - Most famous works include the songs "Yo Ho (A Pirate's Life for Me)" for, Pirates of the Caribbean and "Grim Grinning Ghosts" for the Haunted Mansion
- Yale Gracey - Best known for the invention of special effects and new attraction technologies, most famously for the Haunted Mansion.
- Wing Chao - The lead designer for decades' worth of Disney-owned hotels, including many of those at the Walt Disney World Resort, as well as the ships of Disney Cruise Line
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- Walt Disney Imagineering
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- Coup, Thierry (September 2010). Interview With Thierry Coup, VP of Universal Creative. (Interview). DIS Unplugged.
- Walt Disney Imagineering website
- Walt Disney Imagineering internship opportunities
- Imagineer Harriet website The official website of Disney's first female Imagineer, Harriet Burns
- Rebuilding Tomorrowland, Scott Kirsner, Wired Magazine vol 10.12, September 2002.
- Harriet Burns, who help create Disney rides, dies, Associated Press, Sfgate (San Francisco Chronicle), 29 July 2008. Burns was the first female Imagineer.