Fokker F27 Friendship
||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (June 2012)|
|First flight||24 November 1955|
|Introduction||19 November 1958|
|Status||Active, not in production|
|Developed into||Fokker 50|
Design and development
Design of the Fokker F27 started in the 1950s as a replacement to the successful Douglas DC-3 airliner. The manufacturer evaluated a number of different configurations before finally deciding on a high-wing twin Rolls-Royce Dart engine layout with a pressurised cabin for 28 passengers.
The first prototype, registered PH-NIV, first flew on 24 November 1955. The second prototype and initial production machines were 0.9 m (3 ft) longer, addressing the first aircraft's slightly tail-heavy handling and also providing space for four more passengers, bringing the total to 32. These aircraft also used the more powerful Dart Mk 528 engine.
In 1956, Fokker signed a licensing deal with the US aircraft manufacturer Fairchild for the latter to construct the F27 in the USA. The first U.S.-built aircraft flew on April 12, 1958. Fairchild also independently developed a stretched version, called the FH-227. Most sales by Fairchild were made in the North American market.
In the early 1980s, Fokker developed a successor to the Friendship, the Fokker 50. Although based on the F27-500 airframe, the Fokker 50 is virtually a new aircraft with Pratt & Whitney Canada engines and modern systems. Its general performance and passenger comfort were improved over the F27.
The first production model, the F27-100, was delivered to Aer Lingus in November 1958. Other early Friendship customers included Braathens SAFE and Luxair in Europe; New Zealand National Airways Corporation; Trans Australia Airlines and its Australian competitors Ansett and East-West Airlines; and Turkish Airlines.
Basic price for an RDa.6 powered F27 in 1960 was £239,000. At the end of the Fokker F27’s production in 1987, 586 units had been built (plus another 207 F-27s and FH-227s in the USA by Fairchild), more than any other western European civil turboprop airliner at the time.
Many aircraft have been modified from passenger service to cargo or express-package freighter roles. The last major cargo user of the F27 in the United States was FedEx Express, as cargo "feeder" aircraft. These were retired and replaced by ATR 42 and ATR 72 aircraft by the end of 2009, with the last of the aircraft being donated to the Hickory Aviation Museum. As of July 2010 a total of 65 F27s were in commercial service with almost 30 different airlines. By July 2013 only 25 Friendships remained in service, operated by 13 different airlines; most were F27-500s, with two -400s and a solitary -600 series aircraft in service. Italian cargo airline MiniLiner operated six F27s and Air Panama had four in its fleet. The United States Army Parachute Team has used a C-31A Troopship for its skydiving exhibitions since 1985.
- F27-100 - was the first production model; 44 passengers.
- F27-200 - uses the Dart Mk 532 engine.
- F27-300 Combiplane - Civil passenger/cargo aircraft.
- F27-300M Troopship - Military transport version for Royal Netherlands Air Force.
- F27-400 - "Combi" passenger/cargo aircraft, with two Rolls-Royce Dart 7 turboprop engines and large cargo door.
- F27-400M - Military version for US Army with designation C-31A Troopship, still in use in 2011.
- F27-500 - The -500, had a 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) longer fuselage, a return to the Dart Mk 528 engine, and accommodation for up to 52 passengers. It first flew in November 1967.
- F27-500M - Military version.
- F27-500F - A version of the -500 for Australia with smaller front and rear doors.
- F27-600 - Quick change cargo/passenger version of -200 with large cargo door.
- F27-700 - A F27-100 with a large cargo door.
- F27 200-MAR - Unarmed maritime reconnaissance version.
- F27 Maritime Enforcer - Armed maritime reconnaissance version.
- F-27 - license-built version manufactured by Fairchild Hiller in the United States
- FH-227 - stretched version of the F-27, independently developed and manufactured by Fairchild Hiller in the United States
Notable accidents and incidents
- Trans Australia Airlines Flight 538 - 10 June 1960 Mackay, Queensland, Australia: 29 fatalities - this is still the deadliest civilian Australian aircraft accident in history. The investigation was not able to determine a probable cause of this accident. The accident was critical in the development of the flight recorder to record parameters to aid investigations of future airliner accidents.
- On 7 May 1964, Pacific Air Lines Flight 773 crashed into a hill in San Ramon, California, after a suicidal passenger killed both pilots and then turned the gun on himself. All 44 people on board were killed.
- On December 2, 1968, Wien Consolidated Airlines F27B, N4905B, encountered severe to extreme turbulence Near Pedro Bay, Alaska, resulting in separation of right wing, killing all 39 on board. Pre-existing wing fatigue cracks contributed to wing failure. (NTSB DCA69A0006)
- On 6 August 1970 a Pakistan International Airlines Fokker F27 turboprop aircraft crashes while attempting to take off from Islamabad in a thunderstorm, killing all 30 people on board.
- On 30 January 1971 Indian Airlines Fokker Friendship aircraft Ganga was hijacked by Hashim Quereshi and his cousin Ashraf Butt and was flown to Lahore, Pakistan where the passengers and crew were released and plane was burnt on February 1, 1971.
- Pakistan International Airlines Flight 631 crashed on 8 December 1972 Gilgit, Pakistan: 26 fatalities.
- On August 8, 1975, Wien Air Alaska, F27B, N4904 crashed on approach in bad weather, Gamble Alaska. 10 fatalities, 20 serious injuries. (NTSB DCA76AZ004)
- On 15 September 1978 a Philippine Air Force F-27 crashed due to windshear. 15 of the 24 people on board were killed, as well as 17 people on the ground.
- On 29 March 1979 the F-27 of Quebecair Flight 255 crashed minutes after taking off from Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport. 17 people died and 7 were injured.
- On 26 May 1980 a Nigerian Air Force F-27 crashed due to a thunderstorm, killing all 30 people on board. The aircraft was carrying a delegation of military and government officials on a diplomatic mission.
- On 20 July 1981 Somali Airlines Flight 40 crashed near Balad Somalia. All 50 passengers and crew on board were killed.
- On 5 August, 1984, A Biman Bangladesh Airlines Fokker F27-600 crashed into a marsh near Zia International Airport (now Shahjalal International Airport) in Dhaka, Bangladesh while landing in poor weather. With a total death toll of 49 people, it is the deadliest aviation disaster to occur on Bangladeshi soil.
- On 23 October 1986 a PIA Fokker F27 crashes while coming in to land in the northwestern city of Peshawar, killing 13 of the 54 people on board
- On 8 December 1987 the Alianza Lima air disaster in which a Naval F27 that was transporting the Alianza Lima football club crashed in Lima, Peru, killing the whole team.
- On 25 August 1989 a PIA Fokker carrying 54 people disappears after leaving Gilgit in northern Pakistan. The wreckage was never found.
- On 12 February 1990 a TAM Airlines Fokker F27 registration PT-LCG operating a flight from São Paulo-Congonhas to Bauru, due to faulty approach procedures touched down at Bauru 775m past the runway threshold. The pilot was unable to initiate a go around procedure and went past the end of the runway hitting a car that was passing on a road nearby. One crew member and 2 occupants of the car died.
- On 8 November 1995 an Argentine Air Force F27 registration TC-72 operating from Comodoro Rivadavia to Córdoba, crashed on mount Champaquí in Córdoba, killing all 52 people, many of them children.
- On 12 January 1999 an F27 (registration: G-CHNL) operating a cargo flight for Channel Express arriving in Guernsey from Luton crashed short of runway 27 after deploying full flap on approach. As the flap deployed, the cargo moved aft and exited the aeroplane's mass and balance limits, the flight crew initiated a go-around which further exacerbated problem by raising the gear and applying power. The aeroplane pitched up uncontrollably and stalled which resulted in the aircraft impacting the conservatory of a house located under the flight path. Fortunately no one on the ground was injured, however both flight crew were killed by the resulting fire which engulfed the aircraft. The investigation concluded the aeroplane was not loaded in accordance with the loadsheet. .
- On 11 November 2002 Laoag International Airlines Flight 585 crashed into Manila Bay. 19 of the 34 people on board are killed.
- On 20 February 2003 a military F27 crashed in northwestern Pakistan killing Pakistan Air Force Chief, Air Chief Marshal Mushaf Ali Mir, his wife and 15 others.
- Pakistan International Airlines Flight 688 carrying 45 people crashed 2–3 minutes after take off from Multan airport on 10 July 2006. There were no survivors. Engine fire was suspected as the cause of the crash.
- On 6 April 2009 an Indonesian Air Force F27 crashed in Bandung, Indonesia killing all 24 occupants on board. The cause of the incident was said to be heavy rain. The plane reportedly crashed into a hangar during its landing procedure and killed all on board. The casualties include: 6 crews, an instructor and 17 special forces trainee personnel
- On 21 June 2012 an Indonesian Air Force F27 crashed into a housing complex in the capital Jakarta, setting 6 houses on fire and killing at least 11 people.
Aircraft on display
- (PH-FHF) The first production Fokker F27 Friendship preserved at the Aviodrome Lelystad, Netherlands marked in colours of NLM
- Air UK - G-BHMY Preserved at the Norwich Aviation Museum
- remake of first prototype PH-NIV, marking the entrance of the Fokker Logistics Park as Fokker Tribute, the former factory location at Schiphol/Oude Meer
Fokker F.27-200 TF-SYN, c/n 10545, formerly of Landhelgisgæsla Íslands (Icelandic Coast Guard) is on permanent display in Flugsafn Íslands (Icelandic Aviation Museum), Akureyri Airport, Akureyri, Iceland.
- F-27-100 ZK-BXH, cn 10190 Wanaka Transport and Toy Museum, Wanaka, Otago, New Zealand
- F-27-100 ZK-BXG, cn 10189 at Ferrymead Aeronautical Society Ferymead Heritage Park, Christchurch, New Zealand in NZ National Airways Corporation colours. At time of writing, wings still to be re-attached.
- F27-100 ZK-BXI, cn10286 at Chatham Islands Aviation Museum. Under restoration.
- F27-109 VH-CAT at South Australian Aviation Museum Adelaide, South Australia in CSIRO Atmospheric Research configuration.
Data from 
- Crew: 2 or 3
- Capacity: 48-56 passengers
- Length: 25.06 m (82 ft 3 in)
- Wingspan: 29 m (95 ft 2 in)
- Height: 8.72 m (28 ft 7 in)
- Wing area: 70 m2 (750 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 11,204 kg (24,701 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 19,773 kg (43,592 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Dart Mk.532-7 two-stage centrifugal compressor turboprop, 1,678 kW (2,250 hp) each
- Cruising speed: 460 km/h (286 mph; 248 kn)
- Range: 2,600 km (1,616 mi; 1,404 nmi)
- Rate of climb: 7.37 m/s (1,451 ft/min)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "2010 World Airliner Census", p. 44.
- "2013 World Airliner Census", p. 57.
- "Aircraft". U.S. Army Parachute Team "Golden Knights". Retrieved 2014-01-19.
- Who was behind hijacking of IA plane 'Ganga'?
- "Did India plant 1965 war plans?". Rediff.com. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- "Hijack into terror". The Times Of India. October 6, 2001.
- Accident description for S2-ABJ at the Aviation Safety Network
- "AROUND THE WORLD; 49 Die in Bangladesh As Plane Plunges". The New York Times. 6 August 1984. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
- Dayafterindia.com[dead link]
- "Air Disaster.com". Air Disaster.com. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- Crossette, Barbara (1990-02-15). "NY Times". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- "Accident description PT-LCG". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- "Article about TC-72". Diario Crónica, Comodoro Rivadavia.
- "South Asia | No survivors in Pakistani crash". BBC News. 2006-07-10. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- Govindasamy, Siva (2009-04-07). "VIDEO: Indonesian military Fokker F-27 crashes in Bandung - Asian Skies". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- "detikNews : Korban Rumah Terbakar Akibat Fokker 27 Ngungsi ke Rumah Dinas TNI AU". News.detik.com. 2012-06-22. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- Green, William, The Observers Book of Aircraft, Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd, 1970. ISBN 0-7232-0087-4
- Flight International 2010 World Airliner census retrieved 21 January 2014
- "World Airliner Census". Flight International, Volume 184, Number 5403, 13–19 August 2013, pp. 40–58.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fokker F-27.|
- Stork Aerospace Homepage
- F27 Friendship Association *Photo Gallery (in Dutch and English)
- Fokker F27 Info