Iain Macleod

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The Right Honourable
Iain Macleod
Campaigning in 1970 general election
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
20 June 1970 – 20 July 1970
Prime Minister Edward Heath
Preceded by Roy Jenkins
Succeeded by Anthony Barber
Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
11 November 1965 – 20 June 1970
Leader Edward Heath
Preceded by Edward Heath
Succeeded by Roy Jenkins
Leader of the House of Commons
In office
9 October 1961 – 20 October 1963
Prime Minister Harold Macmillan
Alec Douglas-Home
Preceded by R. A. Butler
Succeeded by Selwyn Lloyd
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
9 October 1961 – 20 October 1963
Prime Minister Harold Macmillan
Alec Douglas-Home
Preceded by Charles Hill
Succeeded by The Lord Blakenham
Chairman of the Conservative Party
In office
9 October 1961 – 20 October 1963
Leader Harold Macmillan
Alec Douglas-Home
Preceded by R. A. Butler
Succeeded by The Lord Blakenham
Secretary of State for the Colonies
In office
14 October 1959 – 9 October 1961
Prime Minister Harold Macmillan
Preceded by Alan Lennox-Boyd
Succeeded by Reginald Maudling
Minister of Labour and National Service
In office
20 December 1955 – 14 October 1959
Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden
Harold Macmillan
Preceded by Walter Monckton
Succeeded by Edward Heath
Minister of Health
In office
7 May 1952 – 20 December 1955
Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill
Sir Anthony Eden
Preceded by Harry Crookshank
Succeeded by Robin Turton
Member of Parliament
for Enfield West
In office
23 February 1950 – 20 July 1970
Preceded by Ernest Davies
(Enfield)
Succeeded by Cecil Parkinson
Personal details
Born (1913-11-11)11 November 1913
Skipton, Yorkshire, England
Died 20 July 1970(1970-07-20) (aged 56)
Westminster, London, England
Political party Conservative
Alma mater Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge

Iain Norman Macleod (11 November 1913 – 20 July 1970) was a British Conservative Party politician and government minister.

Early life[edit]

Iain Macleod was born at Clifford House, Skipton, Yorkshire, on 11 November 1913. His parents were from the Isle of Lewis in the Western Isles of Scotland, belonging to the branch of the Macleods of Pabbay and Uig. They moved to Skipton in 1907. Macleod grew up with strong personal and cultural ties to Scotland, as his parents bought in 1917 part of the Leverhulme estate on the Isle of Lewis, where they often used to stay for family holidays. Macleod's father, Dr. Norman Alexander Macleod, was a well-respected general practitioner in Skipton, with a substantial poor-law practice.[1]

He was educated at Ermysted's Grammar School in Skipton and at Fettes College in Edinburgh. Macleod showed no great academic talent but did develop an enduring love of literature, especially poetry, which he read and memorised in great quantity. In 1932 he was admitted to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, where he obtained a Lower Second in History three years later.[2]

He was one of the great British bridge players. He won the Gold Cup in 1937, with teammates Maurice Harrison-Gray (Capt), Skid Simon, Jack Marx and Colin Harding. A bridge connection earned him a job offer with a printing company, but by the late 1930s he was living the life of a playboy off his bridge earnings; he only gave up playing seriously (and relying on his bridge earnings) in the early 1950s when his developing political career became his priority.[3] He wrote a book that contains a description of the Acol system of bidding: Bridge is an Easy Game, published in 1952 by Falcon Press, London.[4]

Macleod joined the Royal Fusiliers as a private in 1939 but was commissioned into the Duke of Wellington's Regiment and fought briefly in France in 1940, suffering a serious war wound to the thigh which, particularly when combined with a later spinal condition (ankylosing spondylitis),[5] was to leave him with pain and a limp for the rest of his life. Following his recovery from injury (and attendance at staff college), he landed in France on D-Day as Deputy Assistant Quartermaster-General (DAQMG) of the 50th (Northumbrian) Division and continued to serve in France until November 1944 when he returned to Yorkshire. He ended the war as a major.

He unsuccessfully contested the Western Isles constituency at the 1945 general election (there was no Conservative Party in the seat, so his father appointed himself Association Chairman). Macleod came bottom of the poll, obtaining 2756 votes out of 13,000.[6]

In 1946, he joined the Conservative Parliamentary Secretariat, subsequently merged into the Conservative Research Department. Here he became close friends with Enoch Powell, but the two fell out over Powell's 1968 Rivers of Blood speech, and Macleod refused to speak to Powell again after the speech. Macleod's subsequent dealings with him were, Powell said, as if he was a pariah though Macleod 'knew what I said was not motivated by what is crudely called racialism, but he behaved as if he did not know'.[7]

Political career[edit]

At the general election of February 1950 he won in the parliamentary constituency of Enfield, West. Though not initially appointed to ministerial office, a brilliant Commons performance in March 1952 against Aneurin Bevan in a debate on health caught Churchill's attention, and six weeks later, on 7 May, Macleod was appointed Minister of Health. In this position, later in 1952, he famously made the announcement that British clinician Richard Doll had proved the link between smoking and lung cancer at a press conference throughout which he chain-smoked.

Macleod and Julius Nyerere at the Constitutional Conference, Tanganyika, March 1961

In the Eden and Macmillan governments he served first as Minister of Labour and National Service (1955-59) and then as Secretary of State for the Colonies (1959–61). Here he presided over considerable decolonisation, seeing Nigeria, British Somaliland, Tanganyika, Sierra Leone, Kuwait and British Cameroon become independent, and in Kenya ending the state of emergency and freeing Kenyatta. He made a tour of Sub-Saharan Africa in 1960. His work in promoting decolonisation, though it enjoyed Macmillan's personal support, was resisted by the Conservative Right; his role in negotiations over the future of Rhodesia attracted the damaging and much-remembered description of Macleod by the party grandee, the Marquess of Salisbury, as "too clever by half".

Not helping his acceptance by the more right-wing elements of his own party at the time, Macleod was against the death penalty and supported legalisation of abortion and homosexuality. Indicative of his centrist leanings, Macleod established good personal relations with several of his Labour opposite numbers, including both Aneurin Bevan[citation needed] and James Callaghan, even though he clashed with Callaghan numerous times at the dispatch box while serving as Shadow Chancellor in the 1960s (by contrast, he did not get on with Callaghan's successor, Roy Jenkins, after the November 1967 government reshuffle, considering him vain and arrogant).

In 1961 he became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, leader of the House of Commons, and chairman of the Conservative Party organization. When Harold Macmillan resigned as Prime Minister in 1963, Macleod, despite his ability, was not considered a serious prospect for the leadership. Having lent his support to Rab Butler, and strongly opposed the successful candidacy of the Earl of Home (later Sir Alec Douglas-Home), Macleod (along with Enoch Powell) refused to serve under the latter as Prime Minister (though he did return to the shadow cabinet under Home after the 1964 election). Macleod did not contest the first ever party leadership election in 1965, but backed Edward Heath.

The coinage of the word stagflation is attributed to him. Speaking in the House of Commons on November 17, 1965, he said: "We now have the worst of both worlds—not just inflation on the one side or stagnation on the other, but both of them together. We have a sort of 'stagflation' situation. And history, in modern terms, is indeed being made."[8]

While out of office in the mid-1960s he served as editor of The Spectator, where he caused further controversy by publishing in January 1964 a candid account of the 1963 party leadership contest, claiming perhaps unfairly, that it was a stitch up by an Etonian 'magic circle.'[9] As Shadow Chancellor in 1967 Iain Macleod helped to found the homeless charity Crisis[10]

On 20 June 1970, two days after the Conservative Party's election victory, Macleod was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer by Prime Minister Edward Heath. However, on 7 July 1970 he was rushed to hospital with appendicitis. He was discharged 11 days later but at 10.30pm on 20 July 1970, while in 11 Downing Street, Iain Macleod suffered a severe heart attack and died at 11.35pm. There seems little doubt that the long years of illness and pain had shortened his life. Cecil King (in "The Cecil King Diary 1970-1974") states that according to mutual friends, he was killed by terminal cancer which by the time of his death was affecting his spine. However, Macleod's own doctor, a Dr Forster, said there was no evidence that he was suffering from cancer at the time of his death.

Iain Macleod left behind him an outline budget which some observers found surprisingly hard-line in its proposals for control of public spending. This included the infamous abolition of free school milk, which became the first significant Ministerial act of the new Education Secretary and future Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher—she would come to be known as "Margaret Thatcher, Milk Snatcher", as a result.[11][12] He also bequeathed his successors a detailed plan for tax reform, much of which was put into action.

Orator[edit]

Many Conservative politicians of generations following Macleod recalled him as a highly effective speaker. He said of the Labour Party under Gaitskell that, when offered their choice of weapons, they invariably chose boomerangs. He was reputed to be the only speaker that prime minister Harold Wilson was afraid of—he compared Wilson to a kipper, which has two faces. John Major specifically cited his example on taking office. On another occasion he said: "John Fitzgerald Kennedy described himself in a brilliant phrase as an idealist without illusions. I would describe the Prime Minister as an illusionist without ideals."[13]

Family[edit]

He married Evelyn Hester Mason (née Blois) on 25 January 1941. They had a son and a daughter, Torquil and Diana, who were born in 1942 and 1944. Evelyn Macleod was struck down in the summer of 1952 by meningitis and polio, but subsequently managed to walk again with the aid of sticks and worked hard to support her husband's career. After her husband's death she accepted a peerage in 1971 and took her seat in the House of Lords as Baroness Macleod of Borve. Macleod's daughter Diana Heimann was a UK Independence Party candidate at Banbury in the 2005 general election.

He is buried in the churchyard of Gargrave Church in North Yorkshire.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Richard Shepherd, Iain Macleod (London: Hutchinson, 1994), p. 6.
  2. ^ Shepherd, pp. 17–21.
  3. ^ Shepherd, p. 102.
  4. ^ "Bridge is an easy game". WorldCat. Retrieved 29 May 2014. It was revised by one Peter Donovan and reissued by Ashford Press in 1988 as Bridge is Still an Easy Game. OCLC 18324799.
  5. ^ Nigel Fisher (1973). Iain Macleod. Deutsch. p. 46. ISBN 0-233-96324-3. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  6. ^ Shepherd, pp. 39–40.
  7. ^ Simon Heffer, Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1998), p. 457.
  8. ^ Iain Macleod. Column 1165. "Economic Affairs". House of Commons Debate 17 November 1965. Hansard. Volume 720. Columns 1155–284. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
  9. ^ Vernon Bogdanor (18 January 2014). "The Spectator book review that brought down Macmillan's government". The Spectator. Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  10. ^ "Crisis history". Crisis (crisis.org.uk).
  11. ^ "Education: The Milk Snatcher". TIME. 28 February 1972. 
  12. ^ Smith, Rebecca (8 August 2010). "How Margaret Thatcher became known as 'Milk Snatcher'". The Daily Telegraph. 
  13. ^ Iain Macleod. Contribution by Mr Iain Macleod (Enfield West). "Economic Situation". House of Commons Debate 1 March 1966. TheyWorkForYou. Retrieved 15 January 2014.

Other sources[edit]

  • The Macleods - The Genealogy of a Clan, Section Four by Alick Morrison, M.A., by Associated Clan Macleod Societies, Edinburgh, 1974
  • The MacLeods - The Genealogy of a Clan, Section Four by The Late Major Loudoun Hector Davenport MacLeod, RM, 1988

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
New constituency Member of Parliament for Enfield West
19501970
Succeeded by
Cecil Parkinson
Political offices
Preceded by
Harry Crookshank
Minister of Health
1952 – 1955
Succeeded by
Robin Turton
Preceded by
Walter Monckton
Minister of Labour and National Service
1955 – 1959
Succeeded by
Edward Heath
Preceded by
Alan Lennox-Boyd
Secretary of State for the Colonies
1959 – 1961
Succeeded by
Reginald Maudling
Preceded by
Rab Butler
Leader of the House of Commons
1961 – 1963
Succeeded by
Selwyn Lloyd
Preceded by
Charles Hill
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1961 – 1963
Succeeded by
The Viscount Blakenham
Preceded by
Roy Jenkins
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1970
Succeeded by
Anthony Barber
Party political offices
Preceded by
Rab Butler
Chairman of the Conservative Party
1963: jointly with Lord Poole

1961 – 1963
Succeeded by
The Lord Blakenham
Media offices
Preceded by
Iain Hamilton
Editor of The Spectator
1963 – 1965
Succeeded by
Nigel Lawson