Hugh Childers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Right Honourable
Hugh Childers
Hugh Childers, Lock & Whitfield woodburytype, 1876-83.jpg
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
In office
9 August 1872 – 30 September 1873
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by The Earl of Dufferin
Succeeded by John Bright
Secretary of State for War
In office
28 April 1880 – 16 December 1882
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by Frederick Stanley
Succeeded by Marquess of Hartington
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
16 December 1882 – 9 June 1885
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by William Ewart Gladstone
Succeeded by Sir Michael Hicks Beach, Bt
Home Secretary
In office
6 February 1886 – 25 July 1886
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone
Preceded by R. A. Cross
Succeeded by Henry Matthews
Personal details
Born 25 June 1827 (2014-07-21UTC11:42:53)
London
Died 29 January 1896 (2014-07-21UTC11:42:54)
London
Nationality British
Political party Liberal
Spouse(s) Emily Walker (d. 1875)
Alma mater Wadham College, Oxford
Trinity College, Cambridge

Hugh Culling Eardley Childers (25 June 1827 – 29 January 1896) was a British and Australian Liberal statesman of the nineteenth century. He is perhaps best known for his reform efforts at the Admiralty and the War Office. Later in his career, as Chancellor of the Exchequer, his attempt to correct a budget shortfall led to the fall of the Liberal government led by William Ewart Gladstone.

Early life[edit]

Childers was born in London, the son of Reverend Eardley Childers and his wife Maria Charlotte (née Smith),[1] sister of Sir Culling Eardley, 3rd Baronet and granddaughter of Sampson Eardley, 1st Baron Eardley. He was educated at Cheam School and then both Wadham College, Oxford and Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating B.A. from the latter in 1850.[2] Childers then decided to seek a career in Australia and on 26 October 1850 arrived in Melbourne, Victoria along with his wife Emily Walker.[1]

Australia[edit]

Childers joined the government of Victoria and served as inspector of schools and immigration agent; in 1852 he became a director of the Melbourne, Mount Alexander and Murray River Railway Co. Childers became auditor-general in October 1852 and was nominated to the Victorian Legislative Council.[1] In 1852 he placed a bill before the state legislature proposing the establishment of a second university for Victoria, following the foundation of the University of Sydney in 1850. With the receipt of the Royal Assent in 1853, the University of Melbourne was founded, with Childers as its first vice-chancellor.[1]

Return to Britain[edit]

Childers retained the vice-chancellorship until his return to Britain in March 1857 and received a M.A. from Cambridge the same year.

Enters British politics[edit]

In 1860 he entered the House of Commons as a Liberal member for Pontefract, and within a few years joined the government of Lord Palmerston, becoming a Civil Lord of the Admiralty in 1864 and then Financial Secretary to the Treasury (a significant role) in 1865.

First Lord of the Admiralty[edit]

Caricature from Punch, 1882

With the election of Gladstone's government in December 1868 he rose to greater prominence, serving as First Lord of the Admiralty. Childers "had a reputation for being hardworking, but inept, autocratic and notoriously overbearing in his dealing with colleagues."[3] He "initiated a determined programme of cost and manpower reductions, fully backed by the Prime Minister, Gladstone described him [Childers] as 'a man likely to scan with a rigid eye the civil expenses of the Naval Service'. He got the naval estimates just below the psychologically important figure of £10,000,000. Childers strengthened his own position as First Lord by reducing the role of the Board of Admiralty to a purely formal one, making meetings rare and short and confining the Sea Lords rigidly to the administrative functions... Initially Childers had the support of the influential Controller of the Navy, Vice-Admiral Sir [Robert] Spencer Robinson."[4] "His re-organisation of the Admiralty was unpopular and poorly done."[3]

Childers was responsible for the construction of HMS Captain in defiance of the advice of his professional advisers, the Controller (Robinson) and the Chief Constructor (Edward James Reed). Captain was commissioned in April 1870, and sank on the night of 6/7 September 1870. She was, as predicted by Robison and Reed, insufficiently stable. "Shortly before Captain sank, Childers had moved his son, Midshipman Leonard Childers from Reed's designed HMS Monarch onto Captain; Leonard did not survive."[3] Childers "faced strong criticism following the Court Martial on the loss of Captain, and attempted to clear his name with a 359 page memorandum, a move described as "dubious public ethics". Vice Admiral Sir Robert Spencer Robinson wrote 'His endeavors were directed to throw the blame which might be supposed to attach to himself on those who had throughout expressed their disapproval of such methods of construction'." Childers unfairly blamed Robinson for the loss of the Captain, and as a result of this Robinson was replaced as Third Lord and Controller of the navy in February 1871.[5] "Following the loss of his son and the recriminations that followed, Childers resigned through ill health as First Lord in March 1871."[3]

1871-1880[edit]

Following his resignation he spent some months on the Continent,[3] and recovered sufficiently to take office in 1872 as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. The consequent ministerial by-election on 15 August 1872 was the first Parliamentary election to be held after the Ballot Act 1872 required the use of a secret ballot.[6]

Secretary for War[edit]

When the Liberals regained power in 1880, Childers was appointed Secretary for War, a position he accepted reluctantly. He therefore had to bear responsibility for cuts in arms expenditure, a policy that provoked controversy when Britain found itself fighting first the Boers in South Africa in 1880 and invading Egypt in 1882. Childers was also very unpopular with Horse Guards for his reinforcement and expansion of the Cardwell reforms. In 1 May 1881 he passed General Order 41, which made a series of improvements known as the Childers reforms.

Chancellor of the Exchequer[edit]

Childers became Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1882, a post he had coveted. As such, he attempted to implement a conversion of Consols in 1884. Although the scheme proved a failure, it paved the way for the subsequent conversion in 1888. He attempted to resolve a budget shortfall in June 1885 by increasing alcohol duty and income tax. His budget was rejected by Parliament, and the government - already unpopular due to events in Egypt - was forced out of office. Childers's colleague the Earl of Rosebery commented resignedly: "So far as I know the budget is as good a question to go out upon as any other, and Tuesday as good a day."

Home Secretary[edit]

At the subsequent election in December 1885 Childers lost his Pontefract seat, but returned as an independent Home Ruler for Edinburgh South (one of the few Liberals who adopted this policy before Gladstone's conversion in 1886). He then served as Home Secretary in the short-lived ministry of 1886. He was critical of the financial clauses of the first Home Rule Bill, and their withdrawal was largely due to his threat of resignation. Nevertheless, the Bill still failed to pass, and its rejection brought down the Liberal government.

Retirement and the Childers Commission[edit]

Painting of Hugh Childers by Milly Childers

He retired from parliament in 1892, and his last piece of work was the drafting of a report for the 1894 "Financial Relations Commission" on Irish financial matters, of which he was chairman (generally known as the Childers Commission). This found that, compared to the rest of the United Kingdom, Ireland had been overtaxed on a per capita basis by some £2 or £3 million annually in previous decades. The matter was finally debated in March 1897.[7] In the following decades Irish nationalists frequently quoted the report as proof that some form of fiscal freedom was needed to end imperial over-taxation, which was prolonging Irish poverty. Their opponents noted that the extra tax received had come from an unduly high consumption of tea, stout, whiskey and tobacco, and not from income tax. His younger cousin Erskine Childers wrote a book on the matter in 1911.[8]

Childers' 1894 report was still considered influential in 1925 in considering the mutual financial positions between the new Irish Free State and the United Kingdom.[9] In 1926 an Irish Senate debate included claims by some Senators that, with compound interest, Ireland was owed as much as £1.2 billion by Britain.[10]

Family[edit]

Childers married Emily Walker in 1850. They had six sons and two daughters. One of their daughters, Emily Milly Childers, was a portrait and landscape painter. Emily died in 1875. Childers married Katherine Anne Gilbert in 1879. He died in January 1896, aged 68. Towards the end of his ministerial career "HCE" Childers was known for his girth, and so acquired the nickname "Here Comes Everybody", which was later used as a motif in Finnegans Wake by James Joyce. A cousin, Robert Erskine Childers, was the author of the famous spy novel The Riddle of the Sands and father of the fourth President of Ireland, Erskine Childers.

See also[edit]

Biography[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Hall, H. L. (1969). "Childers, Hugh Culling Eardley (1827 - 1896)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  2. ^ "Childers, Hugh Culling Eardley (CHLS847HC)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  3. ^ a b c d e HMS Captain website biography of Hugh Childers.
  4. ^ Page 14, Smith, Paul (editor), Government and the Armed Forces in Britain, 1856-1990, pub Hambledon Press, 1996, ISBN 1-85285-144-9
    Note that the original anachronistically says 'Sea Lord'; at the time the title was Naval Lord.
  5. ^ Online biography Robert Spencer Robinson
  6. ^ Pontefract's secret ballot box, 1872.
  7. ^ Hansard 31 March 1897
  8. ^ Online link to RE Childers' book on Home Rule
  9. ^ Financial analysis November 1925
  10. ^ Senate debates, 15 December 1926, p.49

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Richard Monckton Milnes
William Overend
Member of Parliament for Pontefract
18601885
With: Richard Monckton Milnes 1860–1863
Samuel Waterhouse, 1863–1880
Sidney Woolf 1880–1885
Succeeded by
Rowland Winn
Preceded by
Sir George Harrison
Member of Parliament for Edinburgh South
18861892
Succeeded by
Herbert Woodfield Paul
Political offices
Preceded by
James Stansfeld
Civil Lord of the Admiralty
1864–1866
Succeeded by
Henry Fenwick
Preceded by
Frederick Peel
Financial Secretary to the Treasury
1865–1866
Succeeded by
George Ward Hunt
Preceded by
Henry Lowry-Corry
First Lord of the Admiralty
1868 – 1871
Succeeded by
George Goschen
Preceded by
The Earl of Dufferin
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1872 – 1873
Succeeded by
John Bright
Paymaster-General
1872 – 1873
Succeeded by
William Patrick Adam
Preceded by
Hon. Sir Frederick Stanley
Secretary of State for War
1880 – 1882
Succeeded by
Marquess of Hartington
Preceded by
William Ewart Gladstone
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1882 – 1885
Succeeded by
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach
Preceded by
Sir R. A. Cross
Home Secretary
1886
Succeeded by
Henry Matthews