Indian Institutes of Management
The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are a group of 13 public, autonomous institutes of management education and research in India. They primarily offer postgraduate, doctoral and executive education programmes. The establishment of IIMs was initiated by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, based on the recommendation of the Planning Commission.
IIMs are registered as societies under the Indian Societies Registration Act. Each IIM is autonomous and exercises independent control over its day-to-day operations. However, the administration of all IIMs and the overall strategy of IIMs is overseen by the IIM council. The IIM Council is headed by India's Minister of Human Resource Development and consists of the chairpersons and directors of all IIMs and senior officials from the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government of India.
The two-year Post Graduate Programme in Management (PGP), offering the Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM), is the flagship programme across all IIMs. These post graduate diploma programmes are considered equivalent to regular MBA programmes. Some IIMs also offer a one-year Post Graduate diploma Programme for graduates with more work experience. Some IIMs offer the Fellow Programme in Management (FPM), a doctoral programme. The Fellowship is considered to be equivalent to PhD globally. Many IIMs also offer short-term executive education/EMBA courses and part-time programmes.
Indian Institute of Management Calcutta was the first IIM to be set up, on 13 November 1961. Its main campus is located in Joka, in the outskirts of the city of Kolkata. In addition to the regular PGDM programme, it offers a second two-year full-time postgraduate programme called the Post Graduate Diploma in Computer aided Management (PGDCM). As a member of Global Alliance in Management Education (CEMS), it offers the CEMS Master's in International Management (CEMS MIM) degree to its PGDM and PGDCM students. It also offers a specialized one-year postgraduate programme for executives in the manufacturing sector.
Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad was the second IIM to be set up, on 16 December 1961. In addition to the regular PGDM programme, it offers a two-year postgraduate programme in Agri-Business Management. It also offers a one-year postgraduate programme in Public Management and Policy.
Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, the third IIM to be established, was set up in 1973. Its main campus is located in Bilekahalli, Bangalore. Apart from its flagship full-time two-year PGP programme, it offers programmes in Enterprise Management (PGPEM), one-year full-time EPGP and Public Policy Management (PGPPM).
Indian Institute of Management Lucknow is the fourth IIM to be established, in 1984. In addition to its primary campus in Lucknow, it has an additional campus in Noida. The campus was established in 2007 and focuses on executive programmes. Like IIM Ahmedabad, IIM Lucknow offers a programme in Agribusiness Management.
Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode, the fifth IIM, was established in 1996 and started its first batch of students in 1997. IIM Kozhikode was the first institute in Asia to offer a distance learning programme in management for working executives.
Indian Institute of Management Indore, the sixth IIM, was established in 1996. Its 193 acres (78 ha) campus is located on at Rau, near Indore. IIM Indore offers a unique course for armed forces officers, designed particularly for mid-level defence officers. It has additional campuses in Mumbai and UAE. It offers a unique 5-year program IPM, and it is the only IIM to offer this course. The participants can directly take admission into this course after Class XII.
Indian Institute of Management Shillong, also known as Rajiv Gandhi Indian Institute of Management, was the seventh IIM established, following a 2005 decision by the Government of India. The foundation stone of the institute was laid on 1 December 2007 and started its academic session from 2008–'09.
Indian Institute of Management Rohtak, the eighth IIM to be inaugurated,[notes 1] was the first of the six IIMs established in 2010–2011 as part of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan It was inaugurated and started operation on 30 June 2010 with IIM Lucknow as mentor, from a temporary campus at Maharishi Dayanand University.
Indian Institute of Management Ranchi, the ninth IIM to be established in 2010 with IIM Calcutta as its mentor,[notes 1] started operations on 6 July 2010. It offers a specialized programme in Human resource management called Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM).
Indian Institute of Management Raipur, the tenth IIM, was inaugurated on 11 October 2010. It was mentored by IIM Indore. It currently operates at the Government Engineering College (GEC), Sejbahar. Construction of the permanent campus has started on August 2011.
Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, the eleventh IIM, was inaugurated on 4 January 2011. It is mentored by IIM Bangalore and operates temporarily from the campus of National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli. The classes of the first batch of students began on 15 June 2011.
Indian Institute of Management Kashipur, the twelfth IIM, started operation in July 2011, under the mentorship of IIM Lucknow. The foundation stone for the permanent campus in the Escorts Farm Area of Kashipur, Uttarakhand, was laid in April 2011. It currently operates from a temporary campus located at Ganna Sansthan in Kashipur.
Indian Institute of Management Udaipur, the thirteenth and youngest IIM, started operation in July 2011 from a temporary campus at the Mohanlal Sukhadia University. Initially proposed to be slated under the mentorship of IIM Indore, the institute is the first new IIM working autonomously since its inception in 2011. Construction of the permanent campus has began, and is expected to take between two and three years.
Planned future institutes
In Union Budget presented in July 2014, Government of India announced setting up 5 new IIMs in the States of Himachal Pradesh (possibly in Sirmaur), Punjab (possibly in Amritsar), Bihar (possibly in Gaya), Bhubaneswar (Odisha)  and Maharashtra. Another one will come up in state of Andhra Pradesh (possibly in Visakhapatnam).
Proposed IIM Bill
Since IIMs are not full-fledged universities, they do not give degrees. But the post graduate diplomas and fellowships granted by IIMs are considered as equivalent to Master's degrees and Doctorates, respectively. However, the Government of India is considering a legislative proposal to give IIMs the legal authority to grant degrees. Kapil Sibal, the former Union Minister of Human Resource Development of India, has asked officials to prepare an Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Bill that empowers IIMs to give degrees. The Bill plans expansion of the powers of the IIM Council as a coordinating body for the IIMs. However, the IIM Council will not have power to impose its decisions on Indian Institutes of Management, according to the human resource development ministry, allaying fears that a new law will erode the autonomy of the country's premier B-schools. A final decision on this matter will be taken in Monsoon Session of Indian Parliament in July / August 2013.
After India became independent in 1947, the Planning Commission was entrusted to oversee and direct the development of the nation. India grew rapidly in the 1950s, and in the late 1950s the Commission started facing difficulties in finding suitable managers for the large number of public sector enterprises that were being established in India as a part of its industrial policy. To solve this problem, the Planning Commission in 1959 invited Professor George Robbins of the University of California to help in setting up an All India Institute of Management Studies. Based on his recommendations, the Indian government decided to set up two elite management institutes, named Indian Institutes of Management. Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Ahmedabad were chosen as the locations for the two new institutes.
The institute at Calcutta was established first, on 13 November 1961, and was named Indian Institute of Management Calcutta or IIM Calcutta. It was set up in collaboration with the MIT Sloan School of Management, the government of West Bengal, the Ford Foundation and the Indian industry. The institute at Ahmedabad was established in the following month and was named Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. Like MIT Sloan in the case of IIM Calcutta, Harvard Business School played an important role in the initial stages of IIM Ahmedabad.
In 1972, a committee headed by Ravi J. Matthai took note of the success of two established IIMs and recommended the setting up of two more IIMs. Based on the committee's recommendation, a new IIM was established in Bangalore (IIM Bangalore) the next year, and was originally intended to cater exclusively to the needs of public sector enterprises. In 1981, the first IIM Review Committee was convened to examine the progress of the three existing IIMs and to make recommendations. The committee noted that the three IIMs were producing around 400 PGP graduates every year and that they had reached their optimum capacity. It proposed the opening of two more IIMs to meet the rising demand of management professionals. It also recommended expanding the Fellowship programmes to meet the growing demand of faculty in management schools in India. The fourth IIM (IIM Lucknow) was established in 1984 based on the committee's recommendation.
The IIMs mainly offer postgraduate, doctoral and executive education programmes. Some of the programmes offered by all IIMs are similar; however, some IIMs offer unique programmes for specialised purposes.
All IIMs offer a two-year full-time Post Graduate Programme in Management (PGP). This programme is considered the flagship programme of IIMs, and awards the Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) to successful candidates. This diploma is equivalent to the Master of Business Administration (MBA) postgraduate degree. This programme usually starts in June and runs till April of the second year. The PGP is a general, fully integrated management programme with no specialisation, and typically includes courses in Accounting, Behavioural sciences, Finance, Economics, Human Resource Management (HRM), Management Sciences and Information Technology, Marketing, Business operations, Business Mathematics, Public Policy, Statistics and Decision Analysis, Strategy and General Management. It is usually structured into six trimesters spread across two years. The first year coursework generally consists of core courses in various management disciplines, while in the second year students are allowed to select courses from an exhaustive list of electives.
Since 2006, some IIMs have started offering flagship one-year full-time post graduate diploma programmes for professionals having approx. 5 years of experience or more. This program was necessitated because the normal 2 year program is primarily aimed at fresh graduates or graduates with less than 4–5 years of work experience. These 1 years programmes are general, fully integrated management programmes with no specialization, and typically includes courses in Accounting, Behavioural sciences, Finance, Economics, Human Resource Management (HRM), Management Sciences and Information Technology, Marketing, Business operations, Business Mathematics, Public Policy, Statistics and Decision Analysis, Strategy and General Management like a typical 2 year MBA program. These intensive programmes typically require 75 credits or around 750 hours of class room teaching along with projects and other course work as in a normal global 2 year MBA program.
Designed as a regular MBA programme which focuses on using the prior experience of the class, the one year MBA is named differently by different IIMs. It's called the Post Graduate Program for Executives by IIM Calcutta (PGPEX in short), IIM Ahmedabad (PGPX) and IIM Ranchi (PGEXP), Executive Post Graduate Programme (EPGP) by IIM Bangalore and IIM Indore, International Programme in Management for Executives (IPMX) by IIM Lucknow and . The exact structure, admission criteria and other details vary for these programmes. However, all these programmes admit only candidates with approx. 5 or more years of professional experience and usually use a combination of GMAT score, essays and personal interviews as the entry criteria similar to other globally reputed MBA programmes. The median GMAT score of the batches at IIM Bangalore is usually around 710.
IIM Calcutta offers a Post Graduate Diploma in Computer aided Management (PGDCM) programme. This course, which was started in 1994, is similar to the regular PGDM programme, but with a special emphasis on Information technology and its business applications. It is aimed at creating business professionals who know how to apply Information and communication technology (ICTs) in business management. Most of the PGDCM coursework is integrated with the regular PGDM framework, and both PGDM & PGDCM are considered as part of the PGP programme. IIM Ahmedabad and IIM Lucknow offer a two-year Post Graduate Programme in Agribusiness Management (PGP-ABM) programme. This is essentially a MBA programme with a specialisation in Agribusiness. IIM Ranchi offers a post graduate programme specialized in Human Resources, called the Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM).
Since July 2005, IIM Lucknow is also offering the Three Year Post-Graduate Programme in Management for Working Executives (also known as Working Managers Programme) from its Noida Campus. It aims at developing strong conceptual fundamentals and skills required to manage businesses of the future. The WMP aims to help to inculcate leadership and teamwork amongst participants, and foster the development of change agents to take leadership roles in the global area.
IIM Calcutta offers a specialised executive MBA programme called the Post Graduate Programme for Executives for Visionary Leadership in Manufacturing (PGPEX-VLM) jointly with IIT Kanpur and IIT Madras. It is a one-year, rigorous programme with a heavy focus on the manufacturing sector.
The Fellow Programme in Management (FPM) of IIMs is a full-time Doctoral level programme in management. This programme is aimed at preparing students for careers in teaching or research in different disciplines of management, as well as for careers outside academics that demand a high degree of research and analytical abilities. A student who completes this programme at any IIM, where (s)he is registered as a doctoral scholar, is awarded the title of Fellow of that institute (e.g. Fellow of the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta). This Fellow Program is equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy degree. However, students receiving such a fellowship every year, across all IIMs, work in close association with one another in a specific research area of their choice.
Many IIMs offer executive education certificate programmes targeted at working professionals. These are often short-term and/or part-time programmes and are known by various names such as Management Development Programme (MDP), Advanced Masters Program in Management of Global Enterprises (AMPM), and Executive General Management Programme (EGMP). The certificate programmes at IIMs are not considered as equivalent to the MBA or EMBA. Only the diploma level programmes are considered as equivalent to an MBA or EMBA depending on whether it is full-time or part-time.
Some IIMs offer specialised programmes targeted at various segments. IIM Ahmedabad offers a six-month, full-time programme called the Armed Forces Programme (AFP) aimed at military personnel. IIM Ahmedabad and IIM Bangalore offer full-time programmes in public management and are called the Post Graduate Programme in Public Management and Policy (PGP-PMP) and Post Graduate Programme in Public Policy Management (PGPPM) respectively. IIM Bangalore offers a two-year, part-time programme called the Post-Graduate Programme in Software Enterprise Management (PGPSEM), an executive general management education programme designed for the specific needs of professionals working in the software and information technology industry. IIM Indore offers a 5-year Integrated program in Management (IPM) that is a combined undergraduate-cum-graduate diploma. IIM Ranchi is the first and only IIM to offer a full-time Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM) programme.
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Different programmes of IIMs follow different admission processes. Admission for residents of India to the flagship two-year PGP programmes at all IIMs is based on the Common Admission Test (CAT). CAT scores are often used as the primary short-listing criteria for admissions. International/overseas applicants have the option to apply using GMAT scores in lieu of CAT scores. GMAT scores are a prerequisite short-listing criteria used for admission to the one year full-time programme for experienced executives. Test requirements for doctoral programmes vary, some IIMs require candidates to make a presentation of a broad research idea or take a 'Research Aptitude Test (RAT)' followed by round(s) of interview while all compulsorily accept scores from standardised tests such as the CAT, GATE, GMAT and GRE. The overall profiles of candidates including past academic and professional accomplishments are considered for all programmes along with valid standard test scores. Some programmes require essays and academic and/or professional recommendations. The final round of admission evaluations involve an interview, before which some IIMs conduct other evaluation processes like written assessment tests and group discussions.
The Common Admission Test (CAT) is a management aptitude test conducted by the IIMs primarily as an evaluation tool for admission to their two-year PGP programmes. It is widely considered as one of the most competitive exams in the world, with a success rate of around one in two hundred. Even with the addition of new colleges, in 2013 the acceptance rate at IIM was 1.714%, one of the lowest kind in the world 
Originally conducted as a paper-and-pencil test on a particular date all over India, CAT is now conducted as a computer-based assessment operated by Prometric since 2009. The online test is now spread over a few weeks period. From 2014 TCS has been selected to conduct the test.
In August 2011, the six newer IIMs (Raipur, Rohtak, Ranchi, Udaipur, Tiruchirapalli and Kashipur) announced that in the coming year they will eliminate the GD round. replacing it with a common written analysis test to evaluate communication and comprehensive skill. The seven older IIMs did not announce plans to change the admission process.
The admissions for the one year full-time programme is done by shortlisting based on GMAT scores in conjunction with candidate profile suitability. This is followed by evaluation of essays and a panel interview round. The quality of prior work experience and future leadership potential is a critical factor in the selections.
IIMs also follow the affirmative action policy as per the provisions of the Indian constitution. As per the provisions, 15% of the seats are reserved for students of Scheduled Castes, and 7.5% seats for Scheduled Tribes. The Other Backward Classes have also been given 27% reservation since 2008 after the Supreme Court of India upheld the validity of government regulation. It is being implemented in a phased manner due to resource constraints. All aspirants have to appear for Common Admission Test which consists of an Objective type Exam, Group Discussion and Personal Interviews, though the requirements for reserved category candidates can be lower than the general cut-off standard. Once admitted to the course, a reserved category student also has to meet all the criteria for completing the course as a General category student. Regular counselling sessions, extra-classes and tutorials from senior students for needy students are a regular feature of IIMs. IIMs also provide financial support to the needy and deserving students in the form of scholarships.
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