Clockwise from top: Jambukeswarar Temple, Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Our Lady of Lourdes Church, Rockfort, Kaveri river separating Tiruchirappalli from the Srirangam Island, Upper Anaicut
|Nickname(s): Rockfort city|
|• Mayor||A. Jaya|
|• City||167.23 km2 (64.57 sq mi)|
|• Metro||198.55 km2 (76.66 sq mi)|
|Elevation||88 m (289 ft)|
|• Density||5,500/km2 (14,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||TN-45, TN-48, TN-81|
|Website||Trichy City Municipal Corporation|
Tiruchirappalli (tiruccirāppaḷḷi)[b] ( pronunciation (help·info)) (formerly Trichinopoly in English), also called Tiruchi or Trichy, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District. It is the fourth largest municipal corporation and the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the state. Located 322 kilometres (200 mi) south of Chennai and 379 kilometres (235 mi) north of Kanyakumari, Tiruchirappalli sits almost at the geographic centre of the state. The Kaveri Delta begins 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west of the city as the Kaveri river splits into two, forming the island of Srirangam now incorporated into Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Occupying 167.23 square kilometres (64.57 sq mi), the city was home to 916,674 people as of 2011.[a]
Tiruchirappalli's recorded history begins in the 3rd century BC, when it was under the rule of the Cholas. The city has also been ruled by the Pandyas, Pallavas, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state and the British. The most prominent historical monuments in Tiruchirappalli include the Rockfort, the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam and the Jambukeswarar temple at Thiruvanaikaval. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur, capital of the Early Cholas, is now a suburb of Tiruchirappalli. The city played a critical role in the Carnatic Wars (1746–1763) between the British and the French East India companies.
The city is an important educational centre in the state of Tamil Nadu, and houses nationally recognised institutions such as the Anna University, Indian Institute of Management (IIMT), Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) National Institute of Technology (NITT),and Bharathidasan Institute of Management. Industrial units such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Golden Rock Railway Workshop and Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli (OFT) have their factories in Tiruchirappalli. The presence of a large number of energy equipment manufacturing units in and around the city has earned it the title of "Energy equipment and fabrication capital of India". Tiruchirappalli is internationally known for a brand of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar, which was exported in large quantities to the United Kingdom during the 19th century.
A major road and railway hub in the state, the city is served by an international airport which operates flights to Southeast Asia and the Middle East. According to the National Urban Sanitation Policy (2010), Tiruchirappalli was one of the ten cleanest cities in India.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Administration and politics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture
- 8 Landmarks
- 9 Education
- 10 Sports and recreation
- 11 Media
- 12 Utility services
- 13 Infrastructure
- 14 See also
- 15 Notes
- 16 References
- 17 Further reading
- 18 External links
According to Hindu mythology, Tiruchirappalli derives its name from the three-headed demon Trishira, who meditated on the Hindu god Shiva near the present-day city to obtain favours from the god. An alternative derivation, not universally accepted, is that the source of the city's name is the Sanskrit word "Trishirapuram"—Trishira, meaning "three-headed", and palli or puram meaning "city".
Telugu scholar C. P. Brown has proposed that Tiruchirappalli might be a derivative of the word Chiruta-palli meaning "little town". Orientalists Henry Yule and Arthur Coke Burnell have speculated that the name may derive from a rock inscription carved in the 16th century in which Tiruchirappalli is written as Tiru-ssila-palli, meaning "holy-rock-town" in Tamil. Other scholars have suggested that the name Tiruchirappalli is a rewording of Tiru-chinna-palli, meaning "holy little town". The Madras Glossary gives the root as Tiruććināppalli or the "holy (tiru) village (palli) of the shina (Cissampelos pareira) plant".
Early and medieval history
Tiruchirappalli is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Tamil Nadu; its earliest settlements date back to the second millennium BC. Uraiyur, the capital of the Early Cholas for 600 years from the 3rd century BC onwards, is a suburb of present-day Tiruchirappalli. The city is referred to as Orthoura by the historian Ptolemy in his 2nd-century work Geography. The world's oldest surviving dam, the Kallanai (Lower Anaicut) about 18 kilometres (11 mi) from Uraiyur, was built across the Kaveri River by Karikala Chola in the 2nd century AD.
The medieval history of Tiruchirappalli begins with the reign of the Pallava king Mahendravarman I, who ruled over South India in the 6th century AD and constructed the rock-cut cave-temples within the Rockfort. Following the downfall of the Pallavas in the 8th century, the city was conquered by the Medieval Cholas, who ruled until the 13th century.
After the decline of the Cholas, Tiruchirappalli was conquered by the Pandyas, who ruled from 1216 until their defeat in 1311 by Malik Kafur, the commander of Allauddin Khilji. The victorious armies of the Delhi Sultanate are believed to have plundered and ravaged the region. The idol of the Hindu god Ranganatha in the temple of Srirangam vanished at about this time and was not recovered and reinstated for more than fifty years. Tiruchirappalli was ruled by the Delhi and Madurai sultanates from 1311 to 1378, but by the middle of the 14th century the Madurai Sultanate had begun to fall apart. Gradually, the Vijayanagar Empire established supremacy over the northern parts of the kingdom, and Tiruchirappalli was taken by the Vijayanagar prince Kumara Kampanna Udaiyar in 1371. The Vijayanagar Empire ruled the region from 1378 until the 1530s, and played a prominent role in reviving Hinduism by reconstructing temples and monuments destroyed by the previous Muslim rulers. Following the collapse of the Vijayanagar Empire in the early part of the 16th century, the Madurai Nayak kingdom began to assert its independence. The city flourished during the reign of Vishwanatha Nayak (c. 1529–1564), who is said to have protected the area by constructing the Teppakulam and building walls around the Srirangam temple. His successor Kumara Krishnappa Nayaka made Tiruchirappalli his capital, and it served as the capital of the Madurai Nayak kingdom from 1616 to 1634 and from 1665 to 1736.
In 1736 the last Madurai Nayak ruler, Meenakshi, committed suicide, and Tiruchirappalli was conquered by Chanda Sahib. He ruled the kingdom from 1736 to 1741, when he was captured and imprisoned by the Marathas in the siege of Tiruchirappalli (1741) led by general Raghuji Bhonsle under the orders of Chhattrapati Shahu. Chanda Sahib remained prisoner for about eight years before making his escape from the Maratha Empire. Tiruchirappalli was administered by the Maratha general Murari Rao from 1741 to 1743, when it was acquired by the Nizam of Hyderabad, who bribed Rao to hand over the city. Nizam appointed Khwaja Abdullah as the ruler and returned to Golkonda. When the Nawab of the Carnatic Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah was dethroned by Chanda Sahib after the Battle of Ambur (1749), the former fled to Tiruchirappalli, where he set up his base. The subsequent siege of Tiruchirappalli (1751–1752) by Chanda Sahib took place during the Second Carnatic War between the British East India Company and Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah on one side and Chanda Sahib and the French East India Company on the other. The British were victorious and Wallajah was restored to the throne. During his reign he proposed renaming the city Natharnagar after the Sufi saint Nathar Vali, who is thought to have lived there in the 12th century AD. Tiruchirappalli was invaded by Nanjaraja Wodeyar in 1753 and Hyder Ali of the Mysore kingdom in 1780, both attacks repulsed by the troops of the British East India Company. A third invasion attempt, by Tipu Sultan—son of Hyder Ali—in 1793, was also unsuccessful; he was pursued by British forces led by William Medows, who thwarted the attack.
The Carnatic kingdom was annexed by the British in July 1801 as a consequence of the discovery of collusion between Tipu Sultan—an enemy of the British—and Umdat Ul-Umra, son of Wallajah and the Nawab at the time, during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War. Trichinopoly was incorporated into the Madras Presidency the same year, and the district of Trichinopoly was formed, with the city of Trichinopoly (or Tiruchirappalli) as its capital.
During the Company Raj and later the British Raj, Tiruchirappalli emerged as one of the most important cities in India. According to the 1871 Indian census—the first in British India—Tiruchirappalli had a population of 76,530, making it the second largest city in the presidency after the capital of Madras. It was known throughout the British Empire for its unique variety of cheroot, known as the Trichinopoly cigar. Tiruchirappalli was the first headquarters for the newly formed South Indian Railway Company in 1874 until its relocation to Madras in the early 20th century.[c]
Contemporary and modern history
Tiruchirappalli played an active role during the pre-independence era; there were a number of strikes and non-violent protests during the Quit India Movement, notably the South Indian Railway Strike that took place in 1928. The city was the base for the Vedaranyam salt march initiated by C. Rajagopalachari in parallel with the Dandi March in 1930. Tiruchirappalli was an epicentre of the anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu when a team of Tamil language supporters gathered and organised a rally from the city to Madras in 1938. Later in 1965, Tiruchirappalli was made the base of the "Madras state Anti-Hindi Conference" convened by C. Rajagopalachari. The population of Tiruchirappalli continued to grow rapidly, achieving a growth rate of 36.9% during the period 1941–51. After independence in 1947, Tiruchirappalli fell behind other cities such as Salem and Coimbatore in terms of growth. Tiruchirappalli remained a part of Madras State, which was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969. The city underwent extensive economic development in the 1960s with the commissioning of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited. In the early 1980s, M. G. Ramachandran, then Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu drafted a plan to move the state's administrative headquarters to Tiruchirappalli. A satellite town was developed near Navalpattu on the outskirts of the city, but the proposed move was shelved by successive governments.
Like much of Tamil Nadu, Tiruchirappalli remains prone to communal tensions based on religion and ethnicity. There have been occasional outbreaks of violence against Sri Lankans. In 2009, the offices of a Sri Lankan airline were attacked in the city. In September 2012, two groups of Sri Lankan pilgrims who had visited the Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health in Velankanni and the Poondi Madha Basilica had their buses attacked in Tiruchirappalli by a group of Tamil activists. Owing to a series of terrorist attacks in Indian cities since 2000, security has been increased at sites such as Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple.
Geography and climate
Tiruchirappalli is situated in central south-eastern India, almost at the geographic centre of the state of Tamil Nadu. The Kaveri Delta begins to form 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west of the city where the river divides into two streams—the Kaveri and the Kollidam—to form the island of Srirangam. By road it is 912 kilometres (567 mi) south of Hyderabad, 322 kilometres (200 mi) south-west of Chennai and 341 kilometres (212 mi) south-east of Bangalore. The topology of Tiruchirappalli is almost flat, with an average elevation of 88 metres (289 ft). A few isolated hillocks rise above the surface, the highest of which is the Rockfort; its estimated age of 3,800 million years makes it one of the oldest rocks in the world. Other prominent hillocks include the Golden Rock, Khajamalai, and one each at Uyyakondan Thirumalai and Thiruverumbur.
The two major rivers draining Tiruchirappalli are the Kaveri and its tributary the Kollidam, but the city is also drained by the Uyyakondan Channel, Koraiyar and Kudamuritti river channels. The land immediately surrounding the Kaveri River—which crosses Tiruchirappalli from west to east—consists of deposits of fertile alluvial soil on which crops such as finger millet and maize are cultivated. Further south, the surface is covered by poor-quality black soil. A belt of Cretaceous rock known as the Trichinopoly Group runs to the north-east of the city, and to the south-east there are layers of archaean rocks, granite and gneiss covered by a thin bed of conglomeratic laterite. The region falls under Seismic Zone III, which is moderately vulnerable to earthquakes.
The city of Tiruchirappalli lies on the plains between the Shevaroy Hills to the north and the Palni Hills to the south and south-west. Tiruchirappalli is completely surrounded by agricultural fields. Densely populated industrial and residential areas have recently been built in the northern part of the city, and the southern edge also has residential areas. The older part of Tiruchirappalli, within the Rockfort, is unplanned and congested while the adjoining newer sections are better executed. Many of the old houses in Srirangam were constructed according to the shilpa sastras, the canonical texts of Hindu temple architecture.
Tiruchirappalli experiences a tropical savanna climate—designated "Aw" under the Köppen climate classification—with no major change in temperature between summer and winter. The climate is generally characterised by high temperature and low humidity. With an annual mean temperature of 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) and monthly average temperatures ranging between 25 °C (77 °F) and 32 °C (90 °F), the city is the hottest in the state. The warmest months are from April to June, when the city experiences frequent dust storms. As of November 2013[update], the highest temperature ever recorded in Tiruchirappalli was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F), which occurred on 2 May 1896; the lowest was observed on 6 February 1884 at 13.9 °C (57.0 °F). The high temperatures in the city have been attributed to the presence of two rivers—Kaveri and Kollidam—[d]and the absence of greenery around the city. As Tiruchirappalli is on the Deccan Plateau the days are extremely warm and dry; evenings are cooler because of cold winds that blow from the south-east. From June to September, the city experiences a moderate climate tempered by heavy rain and thundershowers. Rainfall is heaviest between October and December because of the north-east monsoon winds, and from December to February the climate is cool and moist. The average annual rainfall is 841.9 mm (33.15 in), slightly lower than the state's average of 945 mm (37.2 in). Fog and dew are rare and occur only during the winter season.
|Climate data for Tiruchirappalli|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.1
|Average low °C (°F)||20.3
|Precipitation mm (inches)||14.3
According to the 2011 Indian census, Tiruchirappalli had a population of 847,387,[a] 9.4% of whom were under the age of six, living in 214,529 families within the municipal corporation limits. The recorded population density was 5,768 /km2 (14,940 /sq mi) while the sex ratio was 975 males for every 1,000 females. The Tiruchirappalli urban agglomeration had a population of 1,022,518, and was ranked the fourth largest in Tamil Nadu and the 53rd in India as of 2011. The city had an average literacy rate of 91.37%, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 10.48% and 0.27% of the population respectively. There were 228,518 people, roughly constituting about 26.96% of the total population, who lived in slums in the city. The daily floating population of the city was estimated at around 250,000.
The city's population is predominantly Hindu. Twenty per cent are Muslims and there is also a considerable Christian population. Sikhs and Jains are present in smaller numbers. Roman Catholics in Tiruchirappalli are affiliated to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tiruchirapalli while Protestants are affiliated to the Trichy–Tanjore Diocese of the Church of South India.
The most widely spoken language is Tamil, but there are significant numbers of Telugu, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam and Hindi speakers. The standard dialect of Tamil spoken is the Central Tamil dialect. Saurashtrian is spoken by the Patnūlkarars who migrated from Gujarat in the 16th century. There is also a substantial population of Anglo-Indians,[e] and Sri Lankan Tamil migrants, most of whom are housed in refugee camps on the outskirts of the city.
Administration and politics
|Commissioner||V. P. Thandapani|
|Commissioner of Police||TR. Shailesh Kumar Yadav|
|Members of Legislative Assembly|
|Member of Parliament|
Covering 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi), the municipality of Tiruchirappalli was inaugurated under the Town Improvements Act 1865 on 1 November 1866;  it originally consisted of two ex-officio and nine nominated members. Council elections were introduced in 1877 and the first chairman was elected in 1889. The municipality was upgraded to a municipal corporation as per the Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation Act 1994 by inclusion of the erstwhile Srirangam and Golden Rock municipalities. Covering 167.23 square kilometres (64.57 sq mi),[a] the municipal corporation comprises 65 wards and four administrative zones; these are Srirangam, Ariyamangalam, Golden Rock and Abhishekapuram.
Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation Council, the legislative body, comprises 65 councillors elected from each of the 65 wards and is headed by a mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor. The executive wing has seven departments—general administration, revenue, town planning, engineering, public health, information technology and personnel—and is headed by a City Commissioner. The Commissioner is assisted by two executive engineers for the east and west sections, and Assistant Commissioners for personnel, accounts and revenue departments, a public relations officer, a city engineer, a city health officer and an Assistant Commissioner for each of the four zones. A Local Planning Authority for Tiruchirappalli was created on 5 April 1974 as per the Tamil Nadu Town and Country Planning Act of 1971 with the District Collector of Tiruchirappalli as chairman and the Assistant Director of Town and Country Planning as its member secretary.
The city of Tiruchirappalli is represented in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by four elected members, one each for the Tiruchirappalli East (State Assembly Constituency), Tiruchirappalli West (State Assembly Constituency), Srirangam and Thiruverumbur constituencies. Jayalalithaa, the chief minister of Tamil Nadu as of 2014, represents the Srirangam constituency. Tiruchirappalli is also part of the Tiruchirappalli Lok Sabha constituency and once every five years elects a member to the Lok Sabha—the lower house of the Parliament of India. The Lok Sabha seat has been held by the Indian National Congress for four terms (1957–62, 1984–89, 1989–91 and 1991–96), the Communist Party of India (1962–67, 1971–77 and 1977–80) and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (2001–04, 2009-14 and 2014–present) for three terms each) and Bharatiya Janata Party (1998–99 and 1999–2001) for two terms each. Candidates from the Communist Party of India, Tamil Maanila Congress and the Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam have won once each. Indian politician Rangarajan Kumaramangalam, who served as the Minister of Power in the government of Atal Bihari Vajpayee, was elected to the Lok Sabha from Tiruchirappalli in the 1998 and 1999 elections.
Law and order are enforced by the Tamil Nadu police, which for administrative purposes has constituted Tiruchirappalli city as a separate district, divided into 18 zonal offices and units, with a total of 38 police stations. The Tiruchirappalli city police force is headed by a Commissioner of police assisted by Deputy Commissioners. Law and order in suburban areas is enforced by the Tiruchirappalli district police. As of 2011, Tiruchirappalli had a crime rate of 342.17,[f] making it the second highest among cities in Tamil Nadu, but it also had the lowest proportion of rape and murder cases in the state.
During British rule, Tiruchirappalli was known for its tanneries, cigar-manufacturing units and oil presses. At its peak, more than 12 million cigars were manufactured and exported annually. Tanned hides and skins from Tiruchirappalli were exported to the United Kingdom. The city has a number of retail and wholesale markets, the most prominent among them being the Gandhi Market, which also serves people from other parts of the district. Other notable markets in the city are the flower bazaar in Srirangam and the mango market at Mambazha Salai. The suburb of Manachanallur is known for its rice mills, where polished Ponni rice is produced.
Tiruchirappalli is a major engineering equipment manufacturing and fabrication hub in India. The Golden Rock Railway Workshop, which moved to Tiruchirappalli from Nagapattinam in 1928, is one of the three railway workshop–cum–production unit in Tamil Nadu. The workshops produced 650 conventional and low-container flat wagons during 2007–2008.
A high-pressure boiler manufacturing plant was set up by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), India's largest public sector engineering company, in May 1965. This was followed by a seamless steel plant and a boiler auxiliaries plant. In 2010, the Tiruchirappalli unit of the company contributed to nearly 30 per cent of its total sales, making it the largest of all units. As of 2011, the Tiruchirappalli division employed about 10,000 people, and is supported by a number of ancillary industries producing almost 250,000 tonnes (250,000,000 kg) of fabricated materials. These ancillary units together with BHEL contribute nearly 60 per cent of India's steel fabrication, earning the city the title, "Energy equipment and fabrication capital of India". Other important industries in Tiruchirappalli include Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited (TDCL), which was established at Senthaneerpuram in the former Golden Rock municipality in 1966. and the Trichy Steel Rolling Mills, which was started as a private limited company on 27 June 1961. The Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited manufactures rectified spirit, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetic anhydride and ethyl acetate. It is one of the biggest private sector distilleries in Tamil Nadu and produced 13.5 megalitres (3.0 million imperial gallons) of spirit alcohol between December 2005 and November 2006. The Ordnance Factories Board runs a weapons manufacturing unit and a Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project (HAPP) facility; the latter was set up in the late 1980s and comprises a flexible manufacturing system (FMS)—the first of its kind in India.
From the late 1980s, a synthetic gem industry was developed in the city; the gemstones are cut and polished in Tiruchirappalli district and in Pudukottai district. In 1990, the Indian government launched a scheme to increase employment by boosting the production of American diamonds and training local artisans in semi-automated machinery and technology. The local gem industry was reportedly generating annual revenues of 100 million (equivalent to 300 million or US$4.9 million in 2014) by the mid-1990s. Concerns have been raised over the employment of children aged 9–14 in the gem cutting and polishing industry. As a result, in 1996, Tiruchirappalli district was selected to be involved in the National Child Labour Project and in the running of special schools to educate working children.
As of December 2010, the Tiruchirappalli region annually exports around 262.1 million (equivalent to 350 million or US$5.8 million in 2014) of software. The ELCOT IT Park—the city's first IT park—commissioned at a cost of 600 million (equivalent to 810 million or US$13 million in 2014) was inaugurated in December 2010. Set up by the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu, the park occupies an area of 59.74 hectares (147.6 acres) and constitutes a Special Economic Zone.
A resident of Tiruchirappalli is generally referred to as a Tiruchiite. Situated at the edge of the Kaveri Delta, the culture of Tiruchirappalli is predominantly Brahminical, prevalent elsewhere in the delta. With a substantial population of students and migrant industrial workers from different parts of India, Tiruchirappalli has a more cosmopolitan outlook than the surrounding countryside. The main festival celebrated in Tiruchirappalli is Pongal, a regional harvest festival celebrated during January. As part of the Pongal celebrations, Jallikattu, a bull-taming village sport played on the last day of the festival, is occasionally held on the outskirts of the city. Aadi Perukku, Samayapuram flower festival, Vaikunta Ekadasi, Srirangam car festival, and the Teppakulam float festival are some of the prominent festivals that are held locally. Bakrid and Eid al-Fitr are also widely celebrated, owing to the substantial number of Muslims in the city. Nationwide festivals such as the Gregorian New Year, Christmas, Deepavali and Holi are also celebrated in Tiruchirappalli.
The 12th century Tamil epic Kambaramayanam was first recited at the Ranganathaswamy temple in Srirangam. In 1771, Rama Natakam, a musical drama written Arunachala Kavi and based on the Ramayana, was also performed there. Tiruchirappalli was home to some of the prominent Carnatic musicians—including Lalgudi Jayaraman, Srirangam Kannan and A. K. C. Natarajan—and scholars such as T. S. Murugesan Pillai, Kundalam Rangachariar and K. A. P. Viswanatham. Composers, poets and vocalists such as G. Ramanathan, T. K. Ramamoorthy, Vaali and P. Madhuri, who have made significant contributions to Tamil film music hail from the city.
Textile weaving, leather-work and gem cutting are some of the important crafts practised in Tiruchirappalli. Wooden idols of Hindu gods and goddesses are sold at Poompuhar, the crafts emporium run by the Government of Tamil Nadu. The Trichy Travel Federation (TTF) was formed on 5 May 2009 to promote Tiruchirappalli as a favourable tourist destination. The federation organises an annual food festival called Suvai. Lack of infrastructure has been a major deterrent to the city's tourism industry.
Once a part of the Chola kingdom, Tiruchirappalli has a number of exquisitely sculpted temples and fortresses. Most of the temples, including the Rockfort temples, the Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, the Jambukeswarar Temple at Thiruvanaikkaval, the Samayapuram Mariamman Temple, the Erumbeeswarar Temple and the temples in Urayur, are built in the Dravidian style of architecture; the Ranganathaswamy Temple and Jambukeswarar Temple are often counted among the best examples of this style. The rock-cut cave temples of the Rockfort, along with the gateway and the Erumbeeswarar Temple, are listed as monuments of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India.
Considered one of the symbols of Tiruchirappalli, the Rockfort is a fortress which stands atop a 273-foot-high rock. It consists of a set of monolithic rocks accommodating many rock-cut cave temples. Originally built by the Pallavas, it was later reconstructed by the Madurai Nayaks and Vijayanagara rulers. The temple complex has three shrines, two of which are dedicated to Lord Ganesha, one at the foot and the Ucchi Pillayar Temple at the top, and the Thayumanavar Temple between them. The Thayumanavar temple, the largest of the three, houses a shrine for Pārvatī as well as the main deity. The Rockfort is visible from almost every part of the city's north. The Teppakulam at the foot of the Rockfort is surrounded by bazaars. It has a mandapa at its centre and has facilities for boat riding.
The Ranganathaswamy Temple, dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, is located on the island of Srirangam. Often cited as the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world, it has a perimeter of 4,116 metres (13,504 ft) and occupies 156 acres (630,000 m2). Considered to be among the 108 Divya Desams (Holy shrines of Lord Vishnu), the temple is believed to house the mortal remains of the Vaishnavite saint and philosopher Ramanujacharya. Originally built by the Cholas, the temple was later renovated by the Pandyas, the Hoysalas, the Madurai Nayaks and the Vijayanagar empire between the 9th and 16th centuries AD. There are 21 gopurams (towers), of which the Rajagopuram is 236 feet (72 m). According to the Limca Book of Records, it was the tallest temple tower in the world until 1999.
The Jambukeswarar Temple at Thiruvanaikkaval and the Erumbeeswarar Temple at Thiruverumbur were built in the rule of the Medieval Cholas.  The Jambukeswarar Temple is one of the Pancha Bhoota Stalams dedicated to Lord Shiva; it is the fifth largest temple complex in Tamil Nadu. The city's main mosque is the Nadir Shah Mosque or Nathar Shah mosque, which encloses the tomb of the 10th century Muslim saint Nadir Shah. The Christ Church constructed by the German Protestant missionary Christian Friedrich Schwarz in 1766 and the Our Lady of Lourdes Church are noted examples of Gothic Revival architecture in the city.
The Chokkanatha Nayak Palace, which houses the Rani Mangammal Mahal, was built by the Madurai Nayaks in the 17th century; it has now been converted into a museum. The Nawab's palace, the Upper Anaicut constructed by Sir Arthur Cotton, and the world's oldest functional dam, the Grand Anaicut, are some of the other important structures in Tiruchirappalli.
Tiruchirappalli has been recognised in India as an important educational centre since the time of British rule. St. Joseph's College, which opened in Nagapattinam in 1846 and transferred to Tiruchirappalli in 1883, is one of the oldest educational institutions in South India. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) college, established in 1883, is a premium missionary institution in the city.
As of 2013, Tiruchirappalli has 45 arts and science colleges, 40 polytechnic colleges and 13 colleges that offer management education. The St. Joseph's College, National College, Bishop Heber College, Jamal Mohamed College and the Government Law College are prominent colleges providing higher education in the arts and sciences. There are approximately 35 engineering colleges in and around the city. The National Institutes of Technology, established by the government in 1964 as the Regional Engineering College, has a campus at Thuvakudi on the outskirts of Tiruchirappalli.
The Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute was established as a constituent college of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in 1989, and the National Research Centre for Banana offer higher education and research in agriculture. The Tiruchirappalli branch of Anna University was established after the bifurcation of Anna University in 2007. 64 self-financing colleges which offer courses in engineering, architecture, management and computer applications in the districts of Ariyalur, Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur and Tiruvarur are affiliated to Anna University. The SRM Group of Colleges established the SRM Institute of Science and Technology at Irungalur near Tiruchirappalli; this was followed by Chennai Medical College and Hospital in 2007. A proposal by the group to include the institutions in SRM University is under review by the Ministry of Human Resources Development of the Government of India.
The Bharathidasan University was established in Tiruchirappalli in 1982 and controls 104 colleges in Tiruchirappalli district and seven neighbouring districts. The university also runs a management school, the Bharathidasan Institute of Management in the city in collaboration with BHEL. The Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli was set up during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, along with five other IIMs opened during the 2011–12 academic season. In 2013, the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) approved Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT), and the Tamil Nadu National Law School, modelled on the National Law School of India University, both started their operations in the city.
There are 200 higher secondary schools in Tiruchirappalli; notable ones are the Campion Anglo-Indian Higher Secondary School, St Joseph's Anglo Indian Girls Higher Secondary School, St. Johns Vestry Anglo Indian Higher Secondary School, Railway Mixed Higher Secondary School and RSK Higher Secondary School.
Notable people who were either born or educated at Tiruchirappalli include scientists C. V. Raman, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, G. N. Ramachandran, and former President of India R. Venkataraman.
Sports and recreation
Hockey and cricket are the most popular sports in Tiruchirappalli. Former Indian hockey goalkeepers Charles Cornelius and Leslie Fernandez, and Rajagopal Sathish, who represent the Mumbai Indians in the Indian Premier League hail from the city. The Anna Stadium complex is the main venue for sports in the city; it hosts an indoor stadium and an astro turf hockey ground. The stadium complex also includes a football ground, an athletic track, a swimming pool, a gymnasium, a badminton court and a hostel for the athletes. The Tiruchirappalli District Cricket Association (TDCA) is one of the constituents of the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association, and regulates school, college and club cricket in the district. First class cricket matches were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium—formerly the Khajamalai Stadium. At the association's golden jubilee celebrations in 2008–09, plans for the establishment of another cricket stadium and an academy in the outskirts of Tiruchirappalli city were mooted. The Mannarpuram Cricket Academy is one of the noted cricket coaching academies in Tiruchirappalli. Domestic association football, tennis and volleyball tournaments are held in and around the city. Tiruchirappalli hosted the Federation Cup, a knockout-style club football tournament in 1984 and an open chess tournament organised by FIDE in 2006.
The city has a few sources of entertainment. Parks that are monitored by the corporation suffer from maintenance issues. The Trichinopoly Club or Trichy Club was established in Tiruchirappalli Cantonment in 1869. The club was disbanded in 1972 and its assets were taken over by the Madras Club. The P. T. Rajan Park, Chinnaswamy Park, Lourdusamy Park, Raja Park, Parangiri Velusamy Park and Ibrahim Park are some of the important government-run parks in the city. Of these, the Raja Park and Ibrahim Park are frequented by children. There have been plans to set up a zoological park at M. R. Palaiyam on the outskirts of the city. Once completed, the zoo is expected to house about 500 animals belonging to 50 different species. The Anna Science Centre in Tiruchirappalli has one of the two planetaria in the state.
The Rasika Ranjana Sabha, founded in 1914, is the only popular venue for arts and cultural events in the city. According to the Limca Book of Records, the Maris theatre complex in Tiruchirappalli runs the highest number of regular film shows in the world as of 2001. The Urvasi theatre is another notable cinema in Tiruchirappalli. There are a few shopping malls in the city, the Femina Shopping Mall and the Spencer's Shopping Mall being the most prominent.
According to the Registrar of Newspapers in India, more than 100 newspapers have been registered in Tiruchirappalli as of November 2013. The weekly newspaper Wednesday Review, founded in 1905, is the first prominent journal to be published in Tiruchirappalli. Among the major English-language newspapers being published in Tiruchirappalli are The Hindu which launched a Tiruchirappalli edition in 2004, and The New Indian Express, which was publishing in Tiruchirappalli before The Hindu. Some of the important Tamil-language newspapers that publish a Tiruchirappalli edition are Dina Thanthi Dina Mani, Dina Malar, Malai Malar, Dinakaran, Tamil Murasu and Tamil Sudar. The popular Tamil weekly Ananda Vikatan launched a local supplement for Tiruchirappalli in 2011.
The first radio transmission station in Tiruchirappalli was opened by All India Radio (AIR) on 16 May 1939. AIR started providing direct-to-home enabled radio broadcasting service from 2006. In 2007, the AIR launched Ragam, a separate Carnatic music station, from the city. Apart from the government-owned AIR, private FM radio stations such as Hello FM and Suryan FM broadcast from Tiruchirappalli. Indira Gandhi National Open University's Gyan Vani started broadcasting from the city in 2008. Tiruchirappalli's first campus community radio station was started by Holy Cross College on 22 December 2006.
Television broadcasting from Chennai was started on 15 August 1975. Satellite television channels have been available since 1991. Direct-to-home cable television services are provided by DD Direct Plus and Sun Direct DTH.
Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB). Tiruchirappalli is the headquarters of the Trichy region of TNEB. The city and its suburbs form the Trichy Metro Electricity Distribution Circle, which is subdivided into six divisions. A chief distribution engineer is stationed at the regional headquarters at Tennur. Water supply is provided by the Tiruchirappalli City Corporation. The city gets its drinking water supply from the Kaveri River and 1,470 bore wells linked to 60 service reservoirs in and around the city. Four of the six head works from which the city gets its water supply are maintained by the municipal corporation and the rest by other agencies.
Pollution has been a major concern in Tiruchirappalli. The Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board has set up five stations in the city to check the quality of air. As of 2012, about 432 tonnes (432,000 kg) of solid waste are produced in the city every day. Solid waste management in the city is handled by the corporation; places such as the Gandhi Market, Central Bus terminus and the Chathram bus terminus are being monitored by other agencies. The principal landfill is at Ariyamangalam. Waste water management in the Trichy-Srirangam underground drainage (UGD) areas is handled by the Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board (TWAD) and in other areas by the Tiruchirappalli Municipal Corporation. As of 2013, there were a total of 40,580 UGD connections maintained by the municipal corporation. The high toxicity of the waste water released by the Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited (TDCL) is a major cause of concern for the corporation. The corporation's annual expenditure for the year 2010–11 was estimated to be 1559.4 million (equivalent to 1.9 billion or US$31 million in 2014). In 2013, researchers from Bharathidasan University assessed water quality in the Tiruchirappalli area and concluded that although the quality of the groundwater was suitable for human consumption, the quality of the pond water in the city was "not fit for human usage, agricultural or industrial purposes".
Under the National Urban Sanitation Policy, Tiruchirappalli was ranked sixth in India and first in Tamil Nadu on the basis of sanitation for the year 2009–10. In January 2010, Tiruchirappalli became the first city in India where open defecation was prevented in all its slums.
Tiruchirappalli comes under the Tiruchi Telecom District of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider. There are about 20,000 business telephone subscribers in the city. Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are available. BSNL also provides broadband internet services. BSNL began offering wireless internet services with the commencement of Evolution-Data Optimized (EVDO) transmission in 2008. Tiruchirappalli is one of the few cities in India where BSNL's Caller Line Identification (CLI)-based internet service Netone is available. Softnet (STPI), Tata VSNL, Bharti and Reliance are other major broadband internet service providers in the city.
Tiruchirappalli has a passport office, the second in Tamil Nadu, which commenced its operations on 23 March 1983. The office also caters to the needs of seven adjacent districts namely, Karur, Nagappattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Ariyalur and Tiruvarur.
Healthcare in Tiruchirappalli is mainly provided by government-run and private hospitals. The CSI Mission General Hospital at Uraiyur is one of the oldest in the city. The Divisional Railway Hospital at Golden Rock, which was established by the then South Indian Railway in 1927, caters exclusively to railway staff of the entire Tiruchirappalli Railway Division, which spreads over 10 districts. The Mahatma Gandhi Government Hospital—attached to the K.A.P.Viswanatham Government Medical College—and Srirangam Government Hospital offer low-cost facilities. Major private hospitals that serve Tiruchirappalli include Kavery Medical Centre and Hospital (KMCH), the 750-bed Chennai Medical College Hospital and Research Centre and Apollo Specialty Hospital.
Vasan Healthcare, a rapidly growing healthcare chain, is based in Tiruchirappalli. Tiruchirappalli has 29 nursing homes approved by the Department of Health and Family Welfare. As of 2011, there are 133 hospitals in the city, including 10 maternity homes and two urban family welfare centres maintained by the municipal corporation. Tiruchirappalli is a hub for low-cost medical tourism in central Tamil Nadu.
DR.M.ABDUL ALEEM (Dr.M.A.Aleem) is the Vice Principal, HOD & Professor of Neurology Dept. of Neurology KAPV Govt. Medical College & MGM Govt. Hospital, Trichy Tamil Nadu, India.
The most commonly used modes of local transport in Tiruchirappalli are the state government-owned Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (TNSTC) buses, and auto rickshaws. Tiruchirappalli forms a part of the Kumbakonam division of the TNSTC. The city has two major bus termini; Chatram Bus Stand and Central Bus Stand, both of which operate intercity services and local transport to suburban areas.
Tiruchirappalli sits at the confluence of two major National Highways—NH 45 and NH 67. NH 45 is one of the most congested highways in south India and carries almost 10,000 lorries on the Tiruchirappalli–Chennai stretch every night. Other National Highways originating in the city are NH 45B, NH 210 and NH 227. State highways that start from the city include SH 25 and SH 62. Tiruchirappalli has 715.85 km (444.81 mi) of road maintained by the municipal corporation. A semi-ring road connecting all the National Highways is being constructed to ease traffic congestion in the city. As of 2013, approximately 328,000 two-wheelers, 93,500 cars and 10,000 public transport vehicles operate with in the city limits, apart from the 1,500 inter-city buses that pass through Tiruchirappalli daily. Tiruchirappalli suffers from traffic congestion mainly because of its narrow roads and absence of an integrated bus station.
Passenger trains also carry a significant number of passengers from nearby towns. The Great Southern of India Railway Company was established in 1853 with its headquarters at England. In 1859, the company constructed its first railway line connecting Tiruchirappalli and Nagapattinam. The company merged with the Carnatic Railway Company in 1874 to form the South Indian Railway Company with Tiruchirappalli as its headquarters. The city retained the position until 1908 when the company's headquarters was transferred to Madras. Tiruchirappalli Junction is the second biggest railway station in Tamil Nadu and one of the busiest in India. It constitutes a separate division of the Southern Railway. Tiruchirappalli has rail connectivity with most important cities and towns in India. Other railway stations in the city include Tiruchirappalli Fort, Tiruchirappalli Town, Srirangam, Palakkarai and Golden Rock.
Tiruchirappalli is served by Tiruchirappalli International Airport (IATA: TRZ, ICAO: VOTR), 5 km (3.1 mi) from the city centre. It is the 10th busiest airport in the country in terms of international traffic. The airport handles fivefold more international air traffic than domestic services, making it the only airport in India with this huge variation. It serves as a gateway to immigrants from South-east Asian countries. There are regular flights to Abu Dhabi, Chennai, Colombo, Dubai, Kuala Lumpur, Mumbai and Singapore. The airport handled more than 1 million passengers and 2012 tonnes of cargo during the fiscal year 2013–14.
- The area of the city was expanded from 146.9 square kilometres (56.7 sq mi) to 167.23 square kilometres (64.57 sq mi) in 2010, as a result of which the population increased from 847,387 to 916,674 according to the 2011 census.
- The official spelling, as per the municipal corporation website is "Tiruchirappalli". However, the spellings Tiruchirapalli, Tiruchchirapalli and Tiruchchirappalli are also widely used.
- Madras was renamed as Chennai in 1996.
- As the river beds contain a large amount of silica in the form of sand, heat gets reflected.
- The Anglo-Indians are present in significant numbers in and around all Southern Railway divisional headquarters where they are employed.
- The crime rate was calculated on the basis of the number of cases per 100,000 of the population.
- Ganesan, S (13 October 2010). "Merger of local bodies with Corporation gets approval". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Thomas Brinkhoff. "India: Major Agglomerations". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "Welcome to Tiruchirappalli ... The RockFort City!". Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "Sanitary works in 18 Tiruchi wards to be outsourced". The Hindu. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "Search PCA Data by District/SubDistrict/Town/Village Name: Tiruchirappalli (M Corp.)". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Hemingway 1907, p. 2.
- Yule & Burnell 1903, p. 938.
- Jaques 2007, p. 1025.
- Brayley-Hodgetts 2008, p. 216.
- Ludden 2004, p. 178.
- Thani Nayagam 1957, p. 324.
- Sastri 1935, p. 22.
- Sastri 1935, p. 19.
- Beck 2006, p. 40.
- Caldwell 1881, p. 25.
- Google Inc. "Tiruchirappalli". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. https://maps.google.co.uk/maps?q=Uraiyur,%20tiruchirappalli&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-a&ie=UTF-8&ei=SauEUoHnA4Sihged24C4DA&ved=0CAoQ_AUoAg. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Pujari, Kolhe & Kumar 2006, p. 102.
- Kuppuram 1988, p. 105.
- Sastri 1935, p. 105.
- Beck 2006, pp. 42–92.
- Sastri 1935, p. 438.
- Aiyangar 1921, p. 45.
- Aiyangar 1921, p. 99.
- Lal 1967, pp. 251–252.
- Aiyangar 1921, pp. 112–116.
- Sastri 1935, p. 213.
- Aiyangar 1921, p. 185-188.
- Sastri 1935, p. 241.
- Yunus & Parmar 2003, p. 116.
- Aiyangar 1921, p. 169.
- Sewell 1900, p. 49.
- Sathianathaier 1924, p. 234.
- Hemingway 1907, p. 51.
- Illustrated Guide to the South Indian Railway 1926, pp. 73–74.
- Sathianathaier 1924, pp. 103–160.
- Amaladass 1988, p. 122.
- Subrahmanian 1977, pp. 12–61.
- Ramaswami 1984, pp. 43–79.
- Jaques 2007, pp. 1034–1035.
- Subramanian 1928, p. 52–53.
- Chhabra 2005, p. 103.
- Rose & Newton 1929, pp. 126–127.
- Markovits 2004, p. 222.
- Ramaswami 1984, p. 115.
- Ramaswami 1984, p. 148.
- Bayly 2004, p. 233.
- Muthiah 2008, p. 137.
- Brayley-Hodgetts 2008, p. 217.
- Burn & Cotton 1908, p. 29.
- Fortescue 1902, pp. 558–559.
- Ingram 1995, pp. 5–27.
- Ramachandran 2008, p. 74.
- Moore 1878, p. 178.
- Burn & Cotton 1908, p. 43.
- Ramakrishnan, Deepa H. (23 September 2006). "Destination Puducherry". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- Muthiah, S. (9 May 2010). "The railway of the Deep South". The Hindu. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Zaidi 1973, p. 101.
- South Indian Railway Strike 1928.
- Rengarajan, La. Su. (10 April 2005). "Marathon march". The Hindu. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "First anti-Hindi agitation remembered". The Hindu. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Baliga 1999, p. 244.
- Rasam 1997, p. 98.
- Rao 1974, p. 193.
- Bala 1986, p. 148.
- Rajendran, Arumugam & Chandrasekaran 2002, p. 3.
- Iyer, Aruna V.; Sridhar, Asha V. (9 April 2011). "City of choice". The Hindu Property Plus: Coimbatore. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Rana 2006, p. 399.
- Ahmed 1980, p. 52.
- "Tiruchi: Key centre for fabrication". Business Line. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- Mayilvaganan, V. (11 May 2009). "Residents see development, price rise as major election issues". The Times of India. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Muthiah, S. (22 May 2011). "Madras Miscellany". The Hindu. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Dash, Jatindra (3 February 2009). "Karunanidhi sets up a forum for Sri Lankan Tamil's Welface". The Hindustan Times, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- "Forum for Sri Lankan Tamils' welfare". The New Indian Express. 3 February 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Vasudevan, R. (5 September 2012). "Attacks on Lankan pilgrims in Tamil Nadu: India assures security". Asian Tribune. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- "On way to airport, Sri Lankan pilgrims attacked by mob in Tamil Nadu". The Indian Express. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- "Our Pilgrimage to Tamil Nadu Ended in Sadness". Sunday Observer, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). 10 September 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- "Terror threat to temples in Tamil Nadu". The Hindustan Times, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). 25 September 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Sharma 2000, p. 117.
- Moore 1878, p. 61.
- Google Inc. "Tiruchirappalli". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. https://maps.google.co.uk/maps?q=tiruchirappalli&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-a&ie=UTF-8&ei=SauEUoHnA4Sihged24C4DA&ved=0CAoQ_AUoAg. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- "Weather data for Tiruchchirappalli, India". Canty and Associates LLC. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Burn & Cotton 1908, p. 26.
- Rajendran, Arumugam & Chandrasekaran 2002, p. 1.
- Rajendran, Nuvena (14 November 2013). "Trichy, rich in heritage and history". The Times of India. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- de Bruyn, Bain & Venkatraman 2008, p. 251.
- Saqaf, Syed Muthahar (18 July 2011). "Height of faith: Golden Rock, Rock Fort and Khajamalai". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "Encroachments around Sri Erumbeeswarar Temple removed". The Hindu. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Menon 2013, p. 120.
- Ganesan, S. (26 December 2007). "Water hyacinth hinders free flow in rivers and channels". The Hindu. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- Burn & Cotton 1908, p. 32.
- Burn & Cotton 1908, p. 33.
- GSI 1865, p. 104.
- "Mild tremor jolts Thuraiyur". The Times of India. 28 March 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Abram 2003, p. 489.
- Superintendent Census Operations 1966, p. 215.
- Ayyar 1920, p. 453.
- "City Weather & Demography". Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "Tiruchchirappalli, India – Climate Summary". Canty and Associates LLC. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- Census of India 1991, p. 14.
- Gokul, R. (5 May 2012). "Trichy gears up for a blistering month". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- Annesley 1841, pp. 62–64.
- Ganesan, S. (11 May 2013). "At 43 degrees, people of Tiruchi virtually get baked". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- Baliga 1999, p. 43.
- Suresh, S. "District Groundwater Brochure Tiruchchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu" (PDF). Central Ground Water Board, SECR. p. 1. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Ramakrishnan, T. (27 October 2009). "Northeast monsoon rain is set to arrive in Tamil Nadu". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- Census of India 1941.
- Report 1966, p. 226.
- Malayala Manorama 2007, p. 707.
- "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy Rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "Primary Census Abstract Data (Final Population)". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 25 January 2014.Click the link "Primary Census Abstract Data for Slum (India & States/UTs - Town Level) (Excel Format)" to download the file in excel format
- "Waterless loos soon in major places in Trichy". The Times of India. 2 February 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Brill 1989, p. 144.
- "Hoping to add star power, BJP woos Rajinikanth ahead of Lok Sabha polls". The Times of India. 14 September 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Lt. Governor felicitated". The Hindu. 29 December 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Jain Sangh celebrates Mahaveer Jayanthi". The Hindu. 17 April 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Tiruchirapalli Diocese – History". Catholic Bishops Conference of India. Archived from the original on 15 May 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Provincial Directory: Trichy-Tanjore". Anglican Consultative Council. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Sen 1991, p. 606.
- Ramappa & Singh 1984, p. 116.
- Sriram, V. (23 May 2012). "Gujaratis gave us this temple". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- Muthanna 1962, p. iii.
- "Trichy defers Onam to Oct". The Times of India. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Paranjape 2009, p. 87.
- Steever 2003, p. 101.
- "Language Variation in Tamil". Language Information Service. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Thurston 1913, p. 123.
- Deefholts & Acharya 2006, p. 205.
- Rajendran, Nuvena (16 December 2012). "Let them have cake!". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "Narendra Modi to kick off PM campaign with Haryana rally today". Daily News and Analysis. 15 September 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- "Sri Lankan Tamil refugees wish for Indian citizenship". The Hindu. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- Ganesan, S. (22 October 2011). "AIADMK bags Tiruchi Mayor post". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Corporation Commissioner Profile". Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "Corporation Deputy Mayor Profile". Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "Trichy city". Tamil Nadu police. Retrieved 12 February 2014. Click on the "Commissioner Office" tab to get the name and contact details of police commissioner of Tiruchirappalli city district.
- "List of Members of Legislative Assembly of Tamil Nadu". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Members of Lok Sabha from Tamil Nadu". Government of Tamil Nadu. 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- Ranking 1867, p. 13.
- Hemingway 1907, p. 263.
- Palanithurai 2007, p. 80.
- Baliga 1999, p. 1297.
- Selvan, Dennis (3 February 2013). "Trichy stakeholders brainstorm on development plans". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "Five more wards to come under Tiruchi Corporation". The Hindu. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "About city municipal corporation". Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "AIADMK supporters stone MLA's vehicle". The Times of India. 1 October 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- "Organizational chart". Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Tiruchirappalli Local Planning Authority – An organisation" (PDF). Tiruchirappalli Local Planning Authority. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
- "Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly Constituency map". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Map showing the new assembly constituencies" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Selvi J Jayalalithaa (AIADMK) 139. Srirangam Tiruchirappalli District". Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "List of Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Archived from the original on 4 May 2006. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Notification No. 308/2009/EPS" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth Lok Sabha" (PDF). Election Commission of India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- Sathiya Moorthy, N. (30 March 1998). "Cabinet berth for Kumaramangalam upsets TN BJP". Rediff. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Commissioner of Police, Trichirapalli City" (PDF). Tamil Nadu police. p. 1. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- "Trichy city district". Tamil Nadu police. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "Chapter 2 – Crimes in cities of Tamil Nadu" (PDF). Tamil Nadu police. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- Burn & Cotton 1908, p. 36.
- Saqaf, Syed Muthathar (28 December 2010). "Arrival of onions from Maharashtra stabilizes price". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Market to be shifted". The Hindu. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Trichy a land of tradition". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Balaganessin, M. (4 May 2005). "Bitter fall in mango prices, thanks to huge arrivals". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Ganesan, S. (17 October 2008). "Power holiday stifles output of rice mills". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- Caplan 2003, p. 126.
- Rajaram, P. (11 April 2008). "Golden Rock railway workshop rolls out stainless steel wagon prototype". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Srinivasan 2009, p. 71.
- Ahmad 2003, p. 122.
- Maheshwari & Chaturvedi 1997, p. 19.
- "Bhel Trichy turnover crosses Rs 10,000 crore". The Economic Times. 2 April 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- "Energy Excellence Exhibition to roll out in September". The Hindu. 20 June 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- Madras District Gazetteers 1998, p. 553.
- Madras District Gazetteers 1998, p. 539.
- United Nations Publications 2010, p. 56.
- "Demand No. 37: Prohibition and Excise" (PDF). Home, Prohibition and Excise Department. 2007–08. p. 12. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Indian Ordnance Factories: Ordnance Factory Tiruchirapalli". Ordnance Factory Board, Defence Ministry, Government of India. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Radhakrishnan 2008, p. 656.
- "Indian Ordnance Factories: Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project". Ordnance Factory Board, Defence Ministry, Government of India. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Ramakrishnan 2007, p. 50.
- The Small Hands of Slavery 1996, p. 69.
- The Small Hands of Slavery 1996, pp. 69–70.
- Stanley 2004, p. 63.
- The Administrator 1996, pp. 63–64.
- Krishnamoorthy, R. (10 December 2010). "Software exports from Tiruchi set to rise". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Trichy: IT infrastructure to pep up property prices". The Economic Times. 10 January 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Tiruchi IT Park commissioned". The Hindu. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Tiruchi gets IT park". The Hindu. 10 December 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Tamil Nadu / Tiruchi News : ELCOT to build 50,000 sq.ft. of office space in Tier II cities". The Hindu. 19 July 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Isha yoga classes give breather to Tiruchiites". The Hindu. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Subramaniam 1974, p. 27.
- Dutta, Madhumita (9 March 2012). "Come south, young man, but here be dragons". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- Rajendran, Nuvena (10 August 2012). "Trichy, a hub of educational institutions". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- Karthikeyan, D. (10 January 2012). "Raging bulls train ahead of jallikattu". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- "19 injured in jallikattu held near Tiruchi". The Hindu. 8 May 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- "'Adi Perukku' celebrated with gaiety, enthusiasm". The Hindu. 4 August 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- Selvan, Dennis (12 March 2012). "Samayapuram fest begins in all earnest". The Times of India. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Vaikuntha Ekadasi celebrations in Trichy". Sify. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Car festival at Srirangam". The Hindu. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- Bradnock 1994, p. 720.
- "Bakrid celebrated in Trichy with gaiety". The Hindu. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Rajendran, Nuvena (29 July 2012). "Iftar treat for the city". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- "City rings in New Year with glitz". The Hindu. 2 January 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Pramaeshwaran, Prathibha (6 November 2004). "Sweet delicacies". The Hindu. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- "Explosion of colours ushers in spring early home". The Hindu. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Datta 1987, p. 232.
- Rajagopalan 1992, p. 307.
- "Music composer Ramamoorthy passes away". Deccan Herald. 17 April 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "Tributes continue to pour in for Vaali". The Indian Express. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Ajith Kumar, P. K. (4 November 2010). "Sound track record". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- Playne 1914, p. 468.
- Nicholson 1985, p. 215.
- "Trichy Travel Federation". The Hindu. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Second edition of food fest in Tiruchi in September". The Hindu. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
- Ganesan, S. (15 May 2011). "High expectation in Srirangam constituency after Jayalalithaa victory". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- "Travel federation to organise rally tomorrow". The Hindu. 14 August 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
- Narasimhan, T. A. (4 January 2012). "The legend of Vellayi". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Poetry in stone". The Hindu. 22 April 2001. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- Untracht 1997, p. 389.
- The Indian year book 1939, p. 27.
- Brown 1968, p. 99.
- Urwick 1881, p. 61.
- "Alphabetical List of Monuments – Tamil Nadu". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Sundararaj 1981, p. 119.
- de Bruyn, Venkatraman & Bain 2006, p. 243.
- Ganesan, S. (10 March 2005). "Crocodile in Rockfort temple tank keeps visitors away". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Mittal & Thursby 2012, p. 456.
- "Voluntary body cleans up Srirangam temple". The Hindu. 6 December 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Ayyangar 1908, p. 229.
- Sajnani 2001, p. 312.
- Ayyar 1991, p. 462.
- "Sri Ranganatha Swami Temple, Srirangam". Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Chand 1987, p. 36.
- Limca Book of Records 1999, chpt. Tallest temple tower.
- Nagaswamy 1982, p. 161.
- Gangoly 1978, p. 23.
- Sivakumar, B. (18 July 2013). "Beggars run over heritage temple". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- "Tanjore and Trichinopoly". The journal of the Numismatic Society of India. 24–25. Numismatic Society of India. 1962. pp. 74–75.
- Asher 2003, p. 471.
- Santhanam, Kausalya (19 October 2007). "Testimony to a rich past". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- Illustrated Guide to the South Indian Railway 1900, p. 242.
- Hope & Digby 1900, p. 231.
- Hill 2008, p. 257.
- Burn & Cotton 1908, p. 48.
- John Murray 1920, p. 586.
- Selvan, Dennis (10 May 2013). "First rank still eludes education hub". The Times of India. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- Herbermann et al. 1913, p. 41.
- Karthikeyan, Hemalatha (28 May 2013). "Trichy, not Chennai, preferred for education". The Times of India. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "Campus Connect: Tiruchirapalli". The Hindu. 27 September 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Commonwealth universities yearbook 2003, p. 737.
- Qādirī & Siddiqui 1998, p. 13.
- Lok Sabha debates 2007, p. 350.
- Handbook of Universities 2006, p. 636.
- "Top 75: Engineering Colleges". Outlook India. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Handbook of Universities 2006, p. 812.
- "About University". Anna University, Coimbatore. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Anna university of Technology, Tiruchirappalli – University Campuses". Anna university of Technology Tiruchirappalli. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "SRM varsity a step closer to off-campus centre in Tiruchi". The Times of India. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Krishnamoorthy, R. (16 July 2011). "Higher education scenario in central region promising". The Hindu. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Gupta & Kumar 2006, p. 121.
- "Shifting of Centre of Distance Education begins". The Hindu. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Now, IIM-Kashipur, IIM-Trichy". The Indian Express. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "IIM-Trichy to commence operations from June". The Times of India. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Krishnamoorthy, R. (19 March 2013). "IIIT-Tiruchi to function from BIT campus in 2013–14". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "National Law School set up in Tamil Nadu". Deccan Herald. 13 February 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- Lok Sabha debates 1998, p. 28.
- "Tiruchi's Anglo-Indian HSS bags top ranks". The Hindu. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- "St. John's Vestry Anglo-Indian Higher Secondary School". The Hindu. 26 August 2005. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Amarnath & Ghosh 2005, p. 18.
- Westrip & Holroyde 2010, p. 380.
- Ramaswamy 2007, p. 202.
- Ramaswamy 2007, p. 1.
- Prasad, G. (17 May 2008). "Bustling with activity". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
- "Reporter's Diary". The Hindu. 26 November 2005. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- Prasad, G. (25 January 2011). "Veteran hockey players delighted with synthetic turf in Tiruchi". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "Rajagopal Sathish". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- Prasad, G. (16 June 2008). "Anna Stadium to get astro turf". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "District Umpires". Tamil Nadu Cricket Association District Cricket Umpires. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- "District Cricket". Tamil Nadu Cricket Association. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- "Jawaharlal Nehru stadium". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "First-class matches played on Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Tiruchirapalli". CricketArchive. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- Prasad, G. (21 July 2008). "A golden year for Tiruchi District Cricket Association". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "Cricket is all about confidence and self-belief, says Srikkanth". The Hindu. 26 January 2009. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "Coaching Academies in Trichy". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "Kennedy FC posts win". The Hindu. 13 January 2005. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- "Tennis time in rock city". The Hindu. 7 February 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- Prasad, G. (7 January 2011). "Boosting success off the net". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- Illustrated Weekly of India 1986, p. 13.
- "1st Trichy International (FIDE) Rating Open Chess Tournament 15th June – 20th June 2006". All India Chess Federation. Archived from the original on 2 May 2006. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- Balaganessin, M. (16 May 2006). "The paradise of leisure lovers in Tiruchi". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Ganesan, S. (27 April 2011). "Once blooming parks, now shrivelled for maintenance". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- The Times of India directory 1954, p. 309.
- Muthiah, S. (15 November 2004). "Back to the hills". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- Rajaram, R. (18 January 2011). "Experts suggest modifications to Tiruchi zoological park". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 May 2011.
- Kannadasan, Akila (26 December 2011). "The sky is the limit". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "Anna Science Centre - Planetarium, Tiruchirappalli". Tamil Nadu Science and Technology Centre – Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- "Tributes to R. R. Sabha founder". The Hindu. 12 November 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- "Music sabhas nurture talents". The Hindu. 18 August 2008. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Limca Book of Records 2001, chpt. Largest cinema theatre.
- Prasad, G. (10 December 2007). "Fans thrilled as Tamil movie is shown free". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "Femina Shopping Mall". The Hindu. 27 April 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "Retail shopping clicks in Tier II towns". Business Line. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "Publication Place Wise-Registration – Tamil Nadu". Registrar of Newspapers for India. Retrieved 22 November 2013. On this page, enter "Trichy", "Tiruchirapalli", "Tiruchirappalli" and "Tiruchi" in the tab to get the name and other details of the newspapers.
- The Feudatory and zemindari India 1933, p. 50.
- "About us". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Agricultural mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America 2004, p. 75.
- "Dhina Thanthi Tiruchi edition Home page". Daily Thanthi (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 27 August 1999. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Dina Mani e-newspaper Trichy edition". Dina Mani. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- Benn's press directory 1978, p. 95.
- "Vikatan celebrates 85th anniversary". The Hindu. 3 March 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- Luthra 1986.
- Wireless world 1947, p. 297.
- "Three AIR stations to go DTH by mid-year". The Hindu. 12 January 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Ravikumar, R. (27 July 2007). "AIR launches Ragam for DTH audience". Business Line. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "FM stations in trichy". Asiawaves. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Krishnamoorthy, R. (7 September 2008). "Gyan Vani to be on air from Tiruchi in 3 months". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "Community radio is best suited for fulfilling information needs of villages". The Hindu. 22 December 2006. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- "Celebrating a milestone". The Hindu. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- Bhatt 1994.
- "Demonstration of DTH technology". The Hindu. 19 December 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "List of Dealers in Tamil Nadu". DD News. Archived from the original on 7 May 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "Doordarshan". Doordarshan. Archived from the original on 22 April 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- "Strike hits cable TV services". The Hindu. 24 September 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "Important Address" (PDF). Indian Wind Power Association. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- "Water supply-Trichy Corporation". Tiruchirappalli Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- "Tiruchirappalli shows the way" (PDF). Wateraid India. 2008. p. 4. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- SLB 2009, p. 4.
- Gokul, R. (9 October 2013). "Blame your vehicle for air pollution". The Times of India. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- Swaminathan, Preeti (21 March 2012). "Trichy City Corporation Tackling waste & sanitation issues". Clean India Journal. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Ganesan, S. (12 March 2010). "Corporation to go in for scientific closure of garbage dump". The Hindu. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "Trichy corporation to impose fine on buildings without drainage link". The Times of India. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Environmental health 1991, p. 92.
- "AIADMK, MDMK councillors stage walk-out; allege neglect of wards". The Hindu. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "Findings from Bharathidasan University in Environmental Biology Reported". Life Science Weekly, accessed via HighBeam Research (subscription required). 9 July 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- "Rank of cities on sanitation 2009–10" (PDF). National Urban Sanitation Policy. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "The first city in India where open defecation prevented in all slums". Gramalaya. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Tiruchi BSNL wins award". The Hindu. 12 April 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- "Commercial telephone directory released". The Hindu. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "Tamil Nadu / Tiruchi News : In-plant training offered". The Hindu. 9 March 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- "List of Cities where BSNL Broadband Service is available (as on 01.01.2007)" (PDF). 1 January 2007. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- "List of cities where Calling Line Identification (CLI) Based Internet Service is available". Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- "Destination: Trichy". Electronics Corporation of India. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
- George, Daniel P (12 June 2012). "Passport office to move to swanky premises next week". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "Regional passport office". Trichy passport office. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- "Services of CSI Hospital earn praise". The Hindu. 12 February 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "New orthopaedic block opened at railway hospital". The Hindu. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- "Hic! Here’s the secret of patients in high spirits". The New Indian Express. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- Rajaram, R. (6 June 2012). "130 unmanned gates identified for closure in Tiruchi Division". The Hindu. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- "Jurisdiction map of the Division" (PDF). Southern Railways. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- "Four government facilities receive Rs. 5 crore claim reimbursements". The Hindu. 19 January 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Minister pays surprise visit to Srirangam Government Hospital". The Hindu. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- Kurian, Boby (5 December 2008). "Piramal fund may buy Trichy hospital stake for Rs 100 cr". The Economic Times. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "MCI asks college to discharge 150 MBBS students". The Hindu. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Apollo super-speciality hospital inaugurated". The Hindu. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Vasan Health Care group to expand its services". The Hindu. 5 October 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Directorate of Medical Education, Chennai – 600 010 Telephone Numbers of the Heads of the Institutions under the control of this Directorate". Department of Health and Family Welfare. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- Selvan, Dennis (14 December 2011). "Several hospitals in Trichy new to fire safety norms". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Public Health Department". Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Tiruchi emerges medical hub of central Tamil Nadu". The Hindu. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Tiruchirapalli Master Plan – Review" (PDF). Directorate of Town and Country Planning. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- Gokul, R. (17 May 2013). "Trichy Corporation issue ultimatum for removal of auto-rickshaw signboards". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- "Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (Kumbakonam) Limited – RTI Manual" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. 2005. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- Gokul, R. (12 July 2013). "Chatram bus stand vendors up in arms against midnight closure of shops". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "Karaikal Port – Road Connectivity". MARG. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "Four-lane highway cuts cost, improves profit". The Hindu. 10 April 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "National Highways passing through Trichy" (PDF). National Highways Authority of India. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
- Bhandari 2009, p. 19.
- de Bruyn, Bain & Allardice 2010, p. 351.
- "State Highways" (PDF). Highways Department, Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "Corporation Roads Location". Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- Ganesan, S. (17 March 2010). "New bypass sanctioned for Tiruchi". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
- Ganesan, S. (10 September 2012). "Encroachments constrict Tiruchi's Vayalur Road from both sides". The Hindu. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- Muthiah 2004, p. 321.
- "Southern Railway—Tiruchchirappalli Division" (PDF). Southern Railway. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- Report on the Administration of the Madras Presidency 1877, p. 260.
- Muthiah, S. (6 May 2012). "Integrating transport". The Hindu. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "India's best railway stations". Rediff.com. 14 March 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "Tiruchchirappalli division". Southern Railway. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Computerised ticketing at Palakkarai railway station". The Times of India. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Illustrated Guide to the South Indian Railway 1926, p. 71.
- "Tiruchi Rail museum to receive visitors from April". The Hindu (Tiruchi). 19 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- "Location Indicators by State" (PDF). International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "Tiruchirappalli: Technical Information (Archived)". Airports Authority of India. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- "Traffic Statistics – Passengers" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "Proposed Draft Note- Marketing of International airport" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "JET Airways starts Tiruchi-Chennai service". The Hindu. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
- "Sri Lanka carrier plans Nepal, Bangladesh flights, Indian frequencies up". Lanka Business Online. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
- "Air Asia begins service to Tiruchi". The Hindu. 2 December 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
- "Declaration of Chaudhary Charan Singh Airport Lucknow, Lal Bhadur Shastri Airport Varanasi and Airports at Tiruchirapalli, Mangalore and Coimbatore as International Airports". Press Information Bureau. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- "Traffic Statistics – Freight" (PDF). Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- Abram, David (2003). South India: Rough Guide Travel Guides. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-103-6.
- The Administrator. Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration. 1996.
- Ahmad, Mohd Rizwan (1 January 2003). Inflation Accounting Practices in India's Corporate Sector. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 978-81-269-0216-3.
- Ahmed, Abad (1980). Developing effective organizations: a National Seminar on Human Futures and Organizational Change. Shri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and Human Resources.
- Aiyangar, S. Krishnaswami (1921). South India and Her Muhammadan Invaders. Asian Educational Services, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-81-206-0536-7.
- Amaladass, Anand (1988). Jesuit Presence in Indian History. Gujarat Sahitya Prakash.
- Amarnath, Nischinta; Ghosh, Debashish (2005). The Voyage to Excellence: The Ascent of 21 Women Leaders of India Inc. Pustak Mahal. ISBN 978-81-223-0904-1.
- Annesley, James (1841). "Climate of Trichinopoly". Researches into the causes, nature, and treatment of the more prevalent diseases of India. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.
- Asher, Frederick M. (2003). Art of India: Prehistory to the Present. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
- Ayyangar, C. R. Sreenivasa (1908). "18". Life and teachings of Sri Ramanujacharya. R. Venkateshwar.
- Ayyar, P. V. Jagadisa (1920). South Indian Shrines. Madras Times Printing and Pub. Co.
- Ayyar, P. V. Jagadisa (1991). South Indian shrines: illustrated. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0151-3.
- Bala, Raj (1 January 1986). Trends in Urbanisation in India, 1901–1981. Rawat Publications. ISBN 978-81-7033-012-7.
- Baliga, B. S. (1999). Madras District Gazetteers: Tiruchirappalli (pts. 1–2). Superintendent, Govt. Press.
- Bayly, Susan (2004). Saints, Goddesses and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society, 1700–1900. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89103-5.
- Beck, Elisabeth (2006). Pallava Rock Architecture And Sculpture. Sri Aurobindo Institute of Research in Social Sciences, East West Books (India) Limited. ISBN 978-81-88661-46-6.
- Benn's press directory 2. Benn's Publications Limited. 1978.
- Bhandari, Laveesh (2009). Indian states at a glance, 2008–09: Tamil Nadu : performance, facts and figures. Pearson Education. ISBN 978-81-317-2347-0.
- Bhatt, S. C. (1994). Satellite invasion of India. Gyan Books. ISBN 978-81-212-0483-5.
- Bradnock, Robert W. (1994). South Asian Handbook. Trade & Travel Publications. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Brayley-Hodgetts, Jim (2008). Madras Matters. ISBN 978-1-4357-0887-7.
- Brown, Percy (1968). Indian Architecture 1. D. B. Taraporevala.
- Burn, R.; Cotton, J. S. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India 24. Clarendon Press.
- Caldwell, Robert (1881). A Political and General History of the District of Tinnevelly, in the Presidency of Madras: From the Earliest Period to Its Cession to the English Government in in A.D. 1801. E. Keys, at the Government Press.
- Caplan, Lionel (2003). Children of Colonialism: Anglo-Indians in a Postcolonial World. Berg Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85973-632-6.
- Census Commissioner (1941). Census of India, 1941: Vol 2. Government of India.
- Chand, Attar (1987). The Great Humanist Ramaswami Venkataraman. Gyan Books. ISBN 978-81-212-0106-3.
- Chhabra, G. S. (2005). Advance Study in the History of Modern India (Volume-1: 1707–1803). Lotus Press. ISBN 978-81-89093-06-8.
- Commonwealth universities yearbook 1. Association of Commonwealth Universities. 2003.
- Datta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.
- de Bruyn, Pippa de; Venkatraman, Niloufer; Bain, Keith (2006). Frommer's India. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-79434-9.
- de Bruyn, Pippa; Bain, Keith; Venkatraman, Niloufer; Shonar Joshi (2008). Frommer's India. John Wiley & Sons.
- de Bruyn, Pippa de; Bain, Keith; Allardice, David (2010). Frommer's India. Frommer's. ISBN 978-0-470-55610-8.
- Deefholts, Glenn; Acharya, Quentine (2006). The way we were: Anglo-Indian chronicles. Calcutta Tiljallah Relief Inc. ISBN 978-0-9754639-3-2.
- Environmental health 13. Central Public Health Engineering Research Institute. 1991.
- The Feudatory and zemindari India. 13–14. 1933.
- Fortescue, Sir John William (1902). A History of the British Army. Macmillan. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Gangoly, Ordhendra Cooman (1978). South Indian bronzes. Nababharat Publishers.
- Gupta, Ameeta; Kumar, Ashish (2006). Handbook of universities. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 978-81-269-0607-9.
- Handbook of Universities. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. 2006. ISBN 978-81-269-0608-6.
- Hemingway, Frederick Ricketts (1907). Madras District Gazetteers: Trichinopoly 1. Government Press.
- Herbermann, Charles George; Pace, Edward Aloysius; Pallen, Condé Bénoist; Shahan, Thomas Joseph; Wynn, John Joseph (1913). The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church 15. Encyclopedia Press.
- Hill, Christopher V. (2008). South Asia: An Environmental History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-925-2.
- Hope, Elizabeth; Digby, William (1900). General Sir Arthur Cotton, his life and work. Hodder & Stoughton.
- Illustrated Guide to the South Indian Railway. Higginbotham's. 1900.
- Illustrated Guide to the South Indian Railway (Incorporated in England): Including the Tanjore District Board, Pondicherry, Peralam-Karaikkal, Travancore State, Cochin State, Coimbatore District Board, Tinnevelly-Tiruchendur, and the Nilgiri Railways. Asian Educational Services. 1926. ISBN 978-81-206-1889-3.
- The Illustrated Weekly of India. 1986.
- India. Director of Census Operations, Tamil Nadu. Census of India, 1991: Tamil Nadu. Controller of Publications.
- India and Indonesia During the Ancient Regime: Essays. Brill Publishers. 1989. ISBN 978-90-04-08363-9.
- The Indian year book 26. Bennett, Coleman & Co. 1939.
- Ingram, Edward (1995). Empire-building and Empire-builders: Twelve Studies. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7146-4612-1.
- Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges 3. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33536-5.
- Handbook for India, Burma, and Ceylon. John Murray. 1920.
- Kenkyūjo, Nōki Sangyō Chōsa (2004). Agricultural mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America: AMA. 35–37. Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp.
- Kuppuram, G. (1988). India through the Ages 1. Sundeep Prakashan.
- Lal, Kishori Saran (1967). History of the Khaljis A. D. 1290–1320. Asia Publishing House.
- Limca Book of Records. Bisleri Beverages Limited. 1999.
- Limca Book of Records. Bisleri Beverages Limited. 2001.
- Lok Sabha debates. Lok Sabha Secretariat. 1998.
- Lok Sabha debates. Lok Sabha Secretariat. 2007.
- Ludden, David E. (2004). Capitalism in Asia. Association for Asian Studies. ISBN 978-0-924304-45-3.
- Luthra, H. R. (1986). Indian broadcasting. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
- Madras District Gazetteers: Tiruchirappalli (pt. 1–2). Superintendent, Government Press. 1998.
- Maheshwari, R. C.; Chaturvedi, Pradeep (1997). Bio-energy for rural energisation: proceedings of the National Bio-Energy Convention-95 on Bio-Energy for Rural engergisation, organised by Bio-Energy Society of India, during December 4–15, 1995 at I.I.T. New Delhi. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7022-670-3.
- Manorama Yearbook 2007. Malayala Manorama. 2007.
- Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs, Psychotropic Substances and Their Precursors. United Nations Publications. 2010. ISBN 978-92-1-048082-6.
- Markovits, Claude (2004). A History of Modern India, 1480–1950. Anthem Press. ISBN 978-1-84331-152-2.
- Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India 4. Geological Survey of India. 1865.
- Menon, Indira (2013). Rhythms in stone, The Temples of South India. Ambi Knowledge Resource. ISBN 978-81-903591-3-9.
- Mittal, Sushil; Thursby, Gene (2012). Hindu World. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-60875-1.
- Moore, Lewis (1878). A Manual of the Trichinopoly District in the Presidency of Madras. Government Press.
- Muthanna, I. M. (1962). History of Karnataka: History, Administration & Culture. Usha Press.
- Muthiah, S. (2004). Madras Rediscovered. East West Books (Madras) Pvt Ltd. ISBN 81-88661-24-4.
- Muthiah, S. (2008). Madras, Chennai: A 400-year Record of the First City of Modern India. Palaniappa Brothers. ISBN 978-81-8379-468-8.
- Nagaswamy, R. (1982). Tantric cult of South India. Agam Kala Prakashan.
- Nicholson, Louis (1985). India in luxury. Century. ISBN 978-0-7126-0857-2.
- Palanithurai, Ganapathy (2007). A handbook for panchayati raj administration (Tamil Nadu). Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-8069-340-3.
- Paranjape, Makarand R. (2009). Altered Destinations: Self, Society, and Nation in India. Anthem Press. ISBN 978-1-84331-797-5.
- Playne, Somerset; Bond, J. W.; Wright, Arnold (1914). Southern India: Its History, People, Commerce, and Industrial Resources.
- Pujari, R. M.; Kolhe, Pradeep; Kumar, N. R. (2006). Pride of India: A Glimpse into India's scientific heritage. Samskrita Bharathi. ISBN 978-81-87276-27-2.
- Qādirī, Abdullāh Valī Bak̲h̲sh; Siddiqui, Mohd. Akhtar (1998). Education and Muslims in India since Independence. Institute of Objective Studies. ISBN 978-81-85220-52-9.
- Radhakrishnan, P. (2008). Cad/cam/cim. New Age International. ISBN 978-81-224-1248-2.
- Rajagopalan, N. (1992). Another Garland: Biographical Dictionary of Carnatic Composers & Musicians, Book II. Carnatic Classicals.
- Rajendran, S.; Arumugam, M.; Chandrasekaran, V. A. (2002). Potential Use of High Resolution IRS 1-C Satellite Data and Deletion of Urban Growth in and around of Tiruchirapalli city (PDF). Federation Internationale des Geometres.
- Ramachandran, D. P. (2008). Empire's First Soldiers. Lancer Publishers. ISBN 978-0-9796174-7-8.
- Ramakrishnan, P. (2007). Powder metallurgy: processing for automotive, electrical/electronic and engineering industry; [International Conference on Powder Metallurgy for Automotive and Engineering Industry ... at the Renaissance Mumbai Hotel and Convention Center during Feb. 3 – 6, 2005]. New Age International. ISBN 978-81-224-2030-2.
- Ramappa, M.; Singh, Sudershan (1984). Directory of Telugu associations outside Andhra Pradesh. International Telugu Institute.
- Ramaswami, N. S. (1984). Political history of Carnatic under the Nawabs. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-0-8364-1262-8.
- Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6445-0.
- Rana, Mahendra Singh (1 January 2006). India Votes: Lok Sabha & Vidhan Sabha Elections 2001–2005. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-647-6. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Ranking, J. L. (1867). Report upon the military and civil station of Trichinopoly. Nabu Press. ISBN 978-1-148-17268-2.
- Rao, M. S. A. (1974). Urban Sociology in India. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-0-86125-296-1.
- Rasam, Vasanti Pratapchandra (1997). Swatantra Party: a political biography. Dattsons. ISBN 978-81-7192-033-4.
- Rural Urban Relationship Committee, India (1966). Report 3. Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Planning.
- Government Press (1877). Report on the Administration of the Madras Presidency During the Year 1875–76.
- Rose, John Holland; Newton, Arthur Percival; Dodwell, Henry H. (1929). The Cambridge History of the British Empire. CUP Archive. GGKEY:55QQ9L73P70.
- Sajnani, Dr. Manohar (2001). Encyclopedia of tourism resources in India, Volume 2. Kalpaz Publications. ISBN 81-7835-014-9.
- Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta (1935). The Cōlas. University of Madras.
- Sathianathaier, R. (1924). History of the Nāyaks of Madura. Oxford University Press.
- Sen, Ajoy Kumar (1991). Tourism in India. Modern Book Agency.
- Sewell, Robert (1900). A Forgotten Empire (Vijayanagar). London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co.
- Sharma, Pradeep (2000). Human Geography: The Land. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-8356-290-4.
- "SLB Results Workshop" (PDF). Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. 14–15 December 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- The Small Hands of Slavery: Bonded Child Labor in India. Human Rights Watch. 1996. ISBN 978-1-56432-172-5.
- "South Indian Railway Strike". Labour Monthly (Communist Party of Great Britain) 10 (6). October 1928.
- Srinivasan (2009). "Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited". Case Studies in Marketing: The Indian Context 4Th Ed. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-203-3543-1.
- Stanley, Selwyn (2004). Social Problems in India. Allied Publishers. ISBN 978-81-7764-708-2.
- Steever, Sanford B. (2003). The Dravidian Languages. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-10023-6.
- Subrahmanian, N. (1977). History of Tamilnad 2. Koodal Publishers.
- Subramaniam, Kuppu (1974). Brahmin priest of Tamil Nadu. Wiley Eastern. ISBN 978-0-85226-848-3.
- Subramanian, K. R. (1928). The Maratha Rajas of Tanjore. Madras: K. R. Subramanian.
- Sundararaj, T. (1981). "A Historical Sketch of Trichinopoly Rock Fort". Journal of Indian History 59. Dept. of Modern Indian History.
- Superintendent Census Operations (1966). Census of India, 1961: Madras 9 (1). Government of India.
- Thani Nayagam, Xavier S. (1957). Tamil Culture 6. Academy of Tamil culture.
- Thurston, Edgar (1913). Provincial Geographies of India Vol 4: The Madras Presidency with Mysore, Coorg and Associated States. Cambridge University.
- The Times of India directory and year book including who's who. Bennett, Coleman & Co. 1954.
- Untracht, Oppi (1997). Traditional Jewelry of India. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8109-3886-1.
- Urwick, William (1881). Indian Pictures. The Religious Tract Society.
- Westrip, Joyce; Holroyde, Peggy (2010). Colonial Cousins: A Surprising History of Connections Between India and Australia. Wakefield Press. ISBN 978-1-86254-841-1.
- Wireless world 53. 1947.
- Yule, Sir Henry; Burnell, Arthur Coke (1903). "Trichinopoly". Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases. J. Murray.
- Yunus, Mohammad; Parmar, Aradhana (2003). South Asia: a historical narrative. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-579711-4.
- Zaidi, A. Moin (1973). The way out to freedom: an inquiry into the Quit India Movement conducted by participants. Orientalia (India). Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Kempthorne, T. V. (5 April 1905). "A visit to Ceylon and India". Otago Witness (2664). p. 80.
- Molony, J. Chartres (1926). "Trichinopoly and Ootacamund". Book of South India. Methuen. pp. 33–50.
- Newell, H. A. (1920). Trichinopoly: (The three great temples) : An Illustrated Guide. Higginbotham's.
- Rao, V. N. Hari (1948). A history of Trichinopoly and Srirangam. University of Madras.
- Viji, Chitra (13 February 2000). "Jewel on the Cauvery". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
|Find more about Tiruchirappalli at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Media from Commons|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|