Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations

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Current Commonwealth members (dark blue), current suspended members (green), former members (orange), and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies (light blue)

The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of 53 independent and sovereign states (one of whose membership is currently suspended). Most are former British colonies or dependencies of these colonies.

No one government in the Commonwealth exercises power over the others as is the case in a political union. Rather, the relationship is one of an international organisation through which countries with diverse social, political, and economic backgrounds are regarded as equal in status and cooperate within a framework of common values and goals as outlined in the Singapore Declaration issued in 1971.[1] Such common values and goals include the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace which are carried out through multilateral projects and meetings which include the Commonwealth Games held once every four years.[2]

The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II who titularly serves as the Head of the Commonwealth. This position, however, does not imbue her with any political or executive power over any Commonwealth member states; the position is purely symbolic, and it is the Commonwealth Secretary-General who is the chief executive of the Commonwealth.[3]

The Commonwealth was first officially formed in 1931 when the Statute of Westminster gave legal recognition to the sovereignty of dominions. Known as the "British Commonwealth", the original members were the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Ireland, and Newfoundland, although Australia and New Zealand did not adopt the statute until 1942 and 1947 respectively.[4] In 1949, the London Declaration was signed and marked the birth of the modern Commonwealth and the renaming to its present name.[5] The newest member is Rwanda, which joined on 29 November 2009.[6] The most recent departure was The Gambia, which severed its connection with the Commonwealth on 3 October 2013.

Presently, of the states that are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, three are in Europe, twelve in North America, one in South America, eighteen in Africa, eight in Asia, and eleven in Oceania. There are seven former members, four of which no longer exist as independent entities (but form part of current member states). The members have a combined population of 2.2 billion people, almost a third of the world population, of which 1.21 billion live in India, and 95% live in Asia and Africa combined.[7]

Currently sixteen of the member states are Commonwealth realms with the Head of the Commonwealth also as their head of state, five others are monarchies with their own separate monarchs (Brunei, Lesotho, Malaysia, Swaziland, Tonga) and the rest are republics.

Current members[edit]

All table information based on figures provided by the Commonwealth of Nations Secretariat members list, most population figures are based on 2007 estimates, unless otherwise noted.[8]

Note: The table can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort both.gif icon.

Country Joined Continent Population Notes[A]
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda[F] 1981-11-011 November 1981 N America 88,000
Australia Australia[F] 1931-12-1111 December 1931 Australia 22,073,000 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status) on 1 January 1901. Australia was one of the original Dominions at the time of the Statute of Westminster 1931, although the statute was not adopted in Australia until 1942 (with retroactive effect from 1939).[9] Removed final links with the British Parliament in 1986.
The Bahamas Bahamas[F] 1973-07-1010 July 1973 N America 342,000
Bangladesh Bangladesh[B] 1972-04-1818 April 1972[10] Asia 162,221,000 Declared independence from Pakistan in 1971.[11]
Barbados Barbados[F] 1966-11-3030 November 1966 N America 279,000
Belize Belize[F] 1981-09-2121 September 1981 N America 322,130
Botswana Botswana 1966-09-3030 September 1966 Africa 1,950,000
Brunei Brunei 1984-01-011 January 1984 Asia 400,000
Cameroon Cameroon 1995-11-1313 November 1995[12] Africa 19,522,000 Most of the country was the formerly French mandate territory (later UN trust territory) of Cameroun and gained independence from France on 1 January 1960, uniting with the much smaller former British mandate/trust territory of Southern Cameroons on its gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 1 October 1961.
Canada Canada[F] 1931-12-1111 December 1931 N America 34,053,000 [13] Granted nominal independence (Dominion status) on 1 July 1867. Canada was the first among the several original Dominions at the time of the Statute of Westminster 1931.[14] Incorporated another original Dominion, Newfoundland, on 31 March 1949.[15] Removed final links with the British Parliament in 1982.
Cyprus Cyprus 1961-03-1313 March 1961[16] Europe 803,200 [17] Gained independence from the United Kingdom on 16 August 1960.
Dominica Dominica 1978-11-033 November 1978 N America [C]79,000
Fiji Fiji[B] 1970-10-1010 October 1970 Oceania 858,038 [18] Left in 1987; rejoined in 1997; suspended on 6 June 2000;[19] suspension lifted on 20 December 2001;[20] again suspended on 8 December 2006 because of the 2006 Fijian coup d'état.[21][22]
Ghana Ghana 1957-03-066 March 1957 Africa 23,837,000
Grenada Grenada[F] 1974-02-077 February 1974 N America 103,000
Guyana Guyana 1966-05-2626 May 1966 South America 761,000
India India 1947-08-1515 August 1947 Asia 1,210,193,422 Incorporated former French India (Chandannagar from 2 May 1950 and Puducherry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé from 1 November 1954), former Portuguese India (Goa, Daman and Diu from 19 December 1961 and Dadra and Nagar Haveli formally from 1961) and Sikkim (from 16 May 1975).
Jamaica Jamaica[F] 1962-08-066 August 1962 N America 2,721,000
Kenya Kenya 1963-12-1212 December 1963 Africa 39,856,000
Kiribati Kiribati 1979-07-1212 July 1979 Oceania [D]99,000
Lesotho Lesotho 1966-10-044 October 1966 Africa 2,000,000
Malawi Malawi 1964-07-066 July 1964 Africa 15,884,000
Malaysia Malaysia 1957-08-3131 August 1957[23][24] Asia 28,356,000 Joined as the Federation of Malaya in 1957; reformed as Malaysia on 16 September 1963 with its federation with Singapore (which became a separate state on 9 August 1965), North Borneo, and Sarawak.[25]
Maldives Maldives 1982-07-099 July 1982 Asia 329,000 Gained independence from the United Kingdom on 26 July 1965.[26] A special member from 9 July 1982 until 20 July 1985.[27]
Malta Malta 1964-09-2121 September 1964 Europe 412,668
Mauritius Mauritius 1968-03-1212 March 1968 Africa 1,285,000
Mozambique Mozambique 1995-11-1313 November 1995[28] Africa 22,892,000 Gained independence from Portugal on 26 June 1975. The first country to be admitted to the Commonwealth without any former colonial or constitutional links with the United Kingdom.[29] However, British troops were present in the country during the World War II East Africa Campaign.
Namibia Namibia 1990-03-2121 March 1990 Africa 2,131,000 Gained independence from South Africa.[30] Includes Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands transferred by South Africa at midnight 28 February 1994.
Nauru Nauru[B] 1968-11-01†1 November 1968 Oceania 14,000 Gained independence on 31 January 1968 from joint trusteeship of Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom. A special member from 1 November 1968 until 1 May 1999, when it became a full member,[31] before reverting to special status in January 2006.[32] A full member again since June 2011.[33]
New Zealand New Zealand[F] 1931-12-1111 December 1931 Oceania 4,317,972 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status) on 26 September 1907. One of the original Dominions at the time of the Statute of Westminster 1931, although the Statute was not adopted in New Zealand until 1947.[34] Removed final links with the British Parliament in 1986.
Nigeria Nigeria 1960-10-011 October 1960 Africa 154,796,000 Incorporated the former British mandate/trust territory of Northern Cameroons on 31 May 1961. Suspended in 1995, suspension lifted in 1999.[35]
Pakistan Pakistan 1947-08-1414 August 1947[E] Asia 168,052,000 Includes the city of Gwadar, transferred from Muscat and Oman on 8 September 1958. Included Bangladesh (then known as East Pakistan) until 1971.[11] Left Commonwealth in 1972, rejoined 1989; suspended in 1999, suspension lifted in 2004; again suspended in 2007,[36] suspension lifted in 2008.[37]
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea[F] 1975-09-1616 September 1975 Oceania 6,737,000 Gained independence from Australia.
Rwanda Rwanda[B] 2009-11-2929 November 2009[6] Africa 9,998,000 Gained independence from Belgium on 1 July 1962. The second country (after Mozambique) to be admitted to the Commonwealth without any former colonial or constitutional links with the United Kingdom.[29]
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis[B][F] 1983-09-1919 September 1983 N America 52,000
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia[F] 1979-02-2222 February 1979 N America 171,000
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[F] 1979-10-2727 October 1979 N America [C]119,000 A special member from 27 October 1979 until 1 June 1985.
Samoa Samoa 1970-08-2828 August 1970 Oceania 185,000 Gained independence from New Zealand on 1 January 1962. Joined as Western Samoa, subsequently changing its name to Samoa on 4 July 1997.[38]
Seychelles Seychelles 1976-06-2929 June 1976 Africa 84,000
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 1961-04-2727 April 1961 Africa 5,695,000
Singapore Singapore 1965-10-15†9 August 1966 (effective from 9 August 1965)[39] Asia 4,986,000 Gained independence from the United Kingdom and joined federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Became independent on 9 August 1965.[40]
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands[F] 1978-07-077 July 1978 Oceania 913,000
South Africa South Africa 1931-12-1111 December 1931 Africa 49,423,000 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status) on 31 May 1910. One of the original Dominions at the time of the Statute of Westminster 1931. Left on 31 May 1961; rejoined 1 June 1994.[41]
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 1948-02-044 February 1948 Asia 20,743,000 Joined as the Dominion of Ceylon, subsequently changing its name in 1972.
Swaziland Swaziland 1968-09-066 September 1968 Africa 1,182,000
Tanzania Tanzania 1961-12-099 December 1961 Africa 43,729,000 Joined as Tanganyika and later Zanzibar, which subsequently merged to form Tanzania on 26 April 1964.[42]
Tonga Tonga 1970-06-044 June 1970 Oceania 102,000
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 1962-08-3131 August 1962 N America 1,335,000
Tuvalu Tuvalu[B][F] 1978-10-011 October 1978 Oceania 12,000 A special member from 1 October 1978 until 1 September 2000.[43]
Uganda Uganda 1962-10-099 October 1962 Africa 32,816,000
United Kingdom United Kingdom 1931-12-1111 December 1931 Europe 61,609,500 The Parliament of the United Kingdom enacted the Statute of Westminster 1931.
Vanuatu Vanuatu[B] 1980-07-3030 July 1980 Oceania 241,000 Gained independence from joint rule of France and United Kingdom.
Zambia Zambia 1964-10-2424 October 1964 Africa 12,935,000

^ A. Unless otherwise noted, independence was gained from the United Kingdom on the date (shown in column 2) of joining the Commonwealth.
^ B. Not a member of the Commonwealth Foundation.
^ C. The population figure is based on 2004 estimates.
^ D. The population figure is based on 2005 estimates.
^ E. Though Pakistan celebrates 14 August 1947 as its independence day, independence was officially granted at midnight, 15 August 1947. Therefore, its date of joining the Commonwealth would be 15 August 1947.
^ F. Commonwealth realms, recognising Elizabeth II as their head of state since the day of their independence, distinctly from her being the sovereign of United Kingdom.

Former members[edit]

Country Joined Continent Left Notes
The Gambia The Gambia 1965-02-1818 February 1965 Africa 2013-10-33 October 2013 Withdrew on 3 October 2013 citing "neo-colonialism".[44][45]
Republic of Ireland Ireland 1931-12-1111 December 1931 Europe 1949-04-1818 April 1949 One of the original Dominions at the time of the Statute of Westminster 1931.[15] Withdrew after passing the Republic of Ireland Act in 1949.[11]
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 1980-10-011 October 1980 Africa 2003-12-077 December 2003 Suspended on 19 March 2002.[20] Withdrew voluntarily on 7 December 2003.[46]

Dissolved members[edit]

Former country Joined Continent Dissolved Rejoined as part of Notes
Federation of Malaya Malaya 1957-08-3131 August 1957 Asia 1963-07-3131 July 1963[24] Malaysia Malaysia Reformed as the Federation of Malaysia with Singapore (became a separate member in 1965), Sabah, and Sarawak.
Dominion of Newfoundland Newfoundland 1931-12-1111 December 1931 North America 1934-02-1616 February 1934 Canada Canada One of the original Dominions at the time of the Statute of Westminster 1931. Government suspended on 16 February 1934, joined Canada on 31 March 1949.[15]
Tanganyika Tanganyika 1961-12-099 December 1961 Africa 1964-04-2626 April 1964 Tanzania Tanzania The two countries merged to form Tanzania on 26 April 1964.[42]
Zanzibar 1963-12-1010 December 1963

Applicants for membership[edit]

Country Applied Continent Population Notes
Algeria Algeria[47] Africa 36,423,000 No former colonial connection with Britain, but British troops invaded along with United States and Free French forces during Operation Torch in World War II.
Madagascar Madagascar[47] Africa 20,714,000 No former colonial connection with Britain, but Madagascar was jointly occupied by British forces alongside the Free French during World War II.
Somaliland Somaliland 2009[48] Africa 3,500,000 Somaliland is an unrecognised self-declared sovereign state internationally recognised as part of Somalia. It has applied to join the Commonwealth under observer status.[48] Its borders approximate to that of British Somaliland, which was a colony from 1884 to 1960.
South Sudan South Sudan 2011[49] Africa 8,260,490 Gained independence from Britain as part of Sudan in 1956.
Sudan Sudan[47] Africa 30,894,000 Gained independence from Britain in 1956.
Suriname Suriname[50] South America 560,157 English colony of Willoughbyland from 1650 to 1667 and controlled by the British from 1799 to 1816. In 2012 Suriname expressed plans to join the Commonwealth[51] and the British government has made it a priority to provide guidance to Suriname in applying for Commonwealth membership[52]
Yemen Yemen[47] Asia 22,230,531 South Yemen and Aden were British possessions, gaining independence in 1967.

Former protectorates of the UK and other Commonwealth countries[edit]

A protectorate, in the British Empire, is a territory which is not formally annexed but in which, by treaty, grant or other lawful means, the Crown has power and jurisdiction.[53]

A protectorate differs from a "protected state". A protected state is a territory under a ruler which enjoys Her Britannic Majesty's protection, over whose foreign affairs she exercises control, but in respect of whose internal affairs she does not exercise jurisdiction.[53]

When the British took over Cephalonia in 1809, they proclaimed, "We present ourselves to you, Inhabitants of Cephalonia, not as invaders, with views of conquest, but as allies who hold forth to you the advantages of British protection." When the British continued to occupy the Ionian Islands after the Napoleonic wars, they did not formally annex the islands, but described them as a protectorate. The islands were constituted by the Treaty of Paris in 1815 as the independent United States of the Ionian Islands under British protection. Similarly, Malta was a British protectorate between the capitulation of the French in 1800 and the Treaty of Paris of 1814.

Other British protectorates followed. In 1894, Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone's government officially announced that Uganda was to become a British Protectorate, where Muslim and Christian strife had attracted international attention. The British administration installed carefully selected local kings under a programme of indirect rule through the local oligarchy, creating a network of British-controlled civil service. Most British protectorates were overseen by a Commissioner or a High Commissioner, rather than a Governor.

British law makes a distinction between a protectorate and protected state. Constitutionally the two are of similar status where Britain provides controlled defence and external relations. However, a protectorate has an internal government established, while a protected state establishes a form of local internal self-government based on the already existing one.

Persons connected with former British protectorates, protected states, mandated or trust territories may remain British Protected Persons if they did not acquire the nationality of the country at independence.

The last British protectorate proper was the Solomon Islands, which gained independence in 1978; the last British protected state was Brunei, which gained full independence in 1984.

Other cases include the following:

Americas[edit]

Arab World[edit]

South and South East Asia[edit]

Sub-Saharan Africa[edit]

Asterisks denote protectorates which were governed from a colony of the same name.

Oceania[edit]

Former British Mandates[edit]

Class A mandates[edit]

Palestine and Transjordan
Syria and Lebanon
Mesopotamia (draft)
Iraq treaty
Pictured are the three Class A mandates of Palestine and Transjordan, Syria, and Lebanon and Mesopotamia. The Mesopotamia mandate was not enacted and was replaced by a treaty with the Kingdom of Iraq.

The first group, or Class A mandates, were territories formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire that were deemed to "... have reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory."

The Class A mandates were as follows:

Class B mandates[edit]

The second group of mandates, or Class B mandates, were all former Schutzgebiete (German territories) in West and Central Africa which were deemed to require a greater level of control by the mandatory power: "...the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion." The mandatory power was forbidden to construct military or naval bases within the mandates.

The Class B mandates were as follows:

  • Tanganyika (United Kingdom), from 20 July 1922 to 11 December 1946. It became a United Nations Trust Territory on 11 December 1946, and was granted internal self-rule on 1 May 1961. On 9 December 1961, it became an independent Commonwealth realm, transforming into a republic on the same day the next year. On 26 April 1964, Tanganyika merged with the neighbouring island of Zanzibar to become the modern nation of Tanzania.
  • Kamerun was split on 20 July 1922 into British Cameroons (under a Resident) and French Cameroun (under a Commissioner until 27 August 1940, then under a Governor), on 13 December 1946 transformed into United Nations Trust Territories, again a British (successively under senior district officers officiating as Resident, a Special Resident and Commissioners) and a French Trust (under a Haut Commissaire)
  • Togoland was split into British Togoland (under an Administrator, a post filled by the colonial Governor of the British Gold Coast (present Ghana) except 30 September 1920–11 October 1923 Francis Walter Fillon Jackson) and French Togoland (under a Commissioner) (United Kingdom and France), 20 July 1922 separate Mandates, transformed on 13 December 1946 into United Nations trust territories, French Togo Associated Territory (under a Commissioner till 30 August 1956, then under a High Commissioner as Autonomous Republic of Togo) and British Togoland (as before; on 13 December 1956 it ceased to exist as it became part of Ghana)

Class C mandates[edit]

A final group, the Class C mandates, including South-West Africa and certain of the South Pacific Islands, were considered to be "best administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory"

The Class C mandates were former German possessions as follows:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "FAQs". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 16 June 2008. 
  2. ^ "Singapore Declaration of Commonwealth Principles 1971". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 12 June 2008. 
  3. ^ "Head of the Commonwealth". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 16 June 2008. 
  4. ^ "The Commonwealth–History–Dominion Status". Commonwealth of Nations. Retrieved 16 June 2008. 
  5. ^ "The Commonwealth–History–Modern Commonwealth". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 16 June 2008. 
  6. ^ a b Josh Kron (29 November 2009). "Rwanda Joins British Commonwealth". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  7. ^ "Country Comparisons - Population". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 19 March 2009. Retrieved 22 March 2009. 
  8. ^ "Members". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  9. ^ "Australia". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  10. ^ Kohen, Marcelo G. (2006). Secession. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-521-84928-9. 
  11. ^ a b c "Wind of Change". Commonwealth of Nations. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  12. ^ Pondi, Jean-Emmanuel (October 1997). "Cameroon and the Commonwealth of Nations". The Round Table 86 (344): 563–570. doi:10.1080/00358539708454389. 
  13. ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories – 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. 4 January 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2009. 
  14. ^ "Canada - History". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  15. ^ a b c "Dominion Status". Commonwealth of Nations. Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  16. ^ McIntyre, W. David (January 2000). "Britain and the creation of the Commonwealth Secretariat". Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 28 (1): 135–158. doi:10.1080/03086530008583082. 
  17. ^ "Statistical Service Republic of Cyprus". Ministry of Finance. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  18. ^ Annual official estimate (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 
  19. ^ Ingram, Derek (20 December 2008). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 89 (355): 311–55. doi:10.1080/00358530050083406. 
  20. ^ a b Ingram, Derek (20 December 2008). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 91 (364): 131–59. doi:10.1080/00358530220144148. 
  21. ^ Ingram, Derek; Soal, Judith (20 December 2008). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 96 (388): 2–28. doi:10.1080/00358530701189734. 
  22. ^ Fiji suspended from the Commonwealth. Commonwealth Secretariat, 1 September 2009; retrieved 11 April 2011.
  23. ^ Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957
  24. ^ a b Malaysia Act 1963
  25. ^ "Malaysia - History". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  26. ^ "Maldives - History". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  27. ^ "The Maldives and the Commonwealth". Republic of Maldives. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  28. ^ Ingram, Derek (April 1996). "Commonwealth Update". The Round Table 85 (338): 153–165. doi:10.1080/00358539608454302. 
  29. ^ a b "Rwanda becomes a member of the Commonwealth". BBC News. 29 November 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2009. 
  30. ^ Chronology of Namibian Independence
  31. ^ "Nauru Accedes to Full Membership of the Commonwealth". Commonwealth Secretariat. 12 April 1999. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  32. ^ "Nauru–History". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  33. ^ "Nauru back as full Commonwealth member". Radio New Zealand International. 26 June 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  34. ^ "New Zealand - History". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  35. ^ "Nigeria". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  36. ^ "Pakistan suspended from the Commonwealth". Commonwealth Secretariat. 22 November 2007. Retrieved 15 June 2008. 
  37. ^ "Commonwealth lifts Pakistan suspension". Commonwealth Secretariat. 12 May 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2008. 
  38. ^ "Constitution Amendment Act (No 2) 1997". Retrieved 27 November 2007. 
  39. ^ Singapore Act 1966
  40. ^ "Road to Independence". AsiaOne. Retrieved 28 June 2006. 
  41. ^ "South Africa". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  42. ^ a b "Tanzania - History". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  43. ^ "Tuvalu Accedes to Full Membership of the Commonwealth". Commonwealth Secretariat. 14 August 2000. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  44. ^ "Statement by Commonwealth Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma on The Gambia". The Commonwealth. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  45. ^ "Gambia quits the Commonwealth". The Guardian. 2 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013. 
  46. ^ "Editorial: CHOGM 2003, Abuja, Nigeria". The Round Table 93 (373): 3–6. 20 December 2008. doi:10.1080/0035853042000188139. 
  47. ^ a b c d Howden, Daniel (26 November 2009). "The Big Question: What is the Commonwealth's role, and is it relevant to global politics?". The Independent (London). 
  48. ^ a b Somaliland on verge of observer status in the Commonwealth. Qaran News, 16 November 2009
  49. ^ South Sudan Launches Bid to Join Commonwealth
  50. ^ Suriname plans to join the Commonwealth
  51. ^ "Suriname eyeing membership of Commonwealth"
  52. ^ Worldwide Priority: Strengthening Guyana's participation in the Commonwealth and providing guidance to Suriname as it considers applying for membership
  53. ^ a b The Statesman's Yearbook 1967-1968
  54. ^ "Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, The Paris Peace Conference, 1919 Volume XIII, Annotations to the treaty of peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany, signed at Versailles, June 28, 1919:". Foreign Relations of the United States. United States State Department. June 28, 1919. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  55. ^ "Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory". Advisory Opinions. The International Court of Justice (ICJ). 2004. p. 165. Retrieved 13 March 2011. "70. Palestine was part of the Ottoman Empire. At the end of the First World War, a class "A" Mandate for Palestine was entrusted to Great Britain by the League of Nations, pursuant to paragraph 4 of Article 22 of the Covenant" 
  56. ^ "ITALY HOLDS UP CLASS A MANDATES". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. July 20, 1922. Retrieved 13 March 2011. "LONDON, July 19.--The A mandates, which govern the British occupation of Palestine and the French occupation of Syria, came today before the Council of the League of Nations." 
  57. ^ The Making of Jordan: Tribes, Colonialism and the Modern State, By Yoav Alon, Published by I.B.Tauris, 2007, ISBN 1-84511-138-9, page 21
  58. ^ Determining Boundaries in a Conflicted World: The Role of Uti Possidetis, By Suzanne Lalonde, Published by McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 2002, ISBN 0-7735-2424-X, page 89-100
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External links[edit]