||This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2008)|
|Fate||acquired by DaimlerChrysler (1999)|
|Predecessor(s)||AMG Motorenbau und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH|
|Founded||Burgstall a. d. Murr, Germany (1967 )|
|Products||Template:Ubl C 63 AMG|
|Services||Research and development|
|Total equity||€21 million (2011)|
Mercedes-AMG GmbH, commonly known as AMG, engineers, manufactures and customises Mercedes-Benz-branded vehicles. Mercedes-AMG is headquartered in Affalterbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Originally an independent engineering firm specialising in performance improvements for Mercedes vehicles, DaimlerChrysler took a controlling interest in 1990, then became sole owner of AMG in 2005. Mercedes-AMG GmbH is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Daimler AG.
AMG models typically have more aggressive looks, a higher level of performance, better handling, better stability and more extensive use of carbon fibre than their regular Mercedes counterparts. AMG models are typically the most expensive and highest-performance of each Mercedes class, with the exception of non-AMG V12 models found in the most expensive nameplates of the lineup.
AMG variants are usually badged with two numerals, as opposed to regular Mercedes-Benz vehicles which have three.
AMG was founded as a racing engine forge in 1967 under the name AMG Motorenbau und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH (AMG Engine Production and Development, Ltd.), by former Mercedes engineers Hans Werner Aufrecht and Erhard Melcher in Burgstall an der Murr, near Stuttgart. The letters "AMG" stand for Aufrecht, Melcher, and Großaspach, Aufrecht's birthplace (but at no time an AMG location). In 1976 most of AMG moved to Affalterbach, with the racing-engine development remaining at the old location in Burgstall. At this time Erhard Melcher ceased to be a partner, but continued to be an employee at the Burgstall location.
In 1990, with AMG having become a high-profile purveyor of modified Mercedes cars, Daimler-Benz AG and AMG signed a contract of cooperation, allowing AMG to leverage Daimler-Benz's extensive dealer network and leading to commonly developed vehicles (the first one being the Mercedes-Benz C36 AMG, in 1993). On 1 January 1999 DaimlerChrysler, as it was called between 1998 and 2007, acquired 51 percent of AMG shares, and AMG was renamed to Mercedes-AMG GmbH. Racing engine development was divested and continues to exist in Burgstall under the name HWA (Aufrecht's initials). On 1 January 2005 Aufrecht sold his remaining shares to DaimlerChrysler, and since then Mercedes-AMG GmbH has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Daimler AG.
Development of the product range
AMG started off by designing and testing racing engines. It expanded its business into building custom road cars based upon standard Mercedes cars.
AMG initially produced a range of unofficial upgrade and accessories packages mainly for the Mercedes-Benz R107 and C107, Mercedes-Benz W116, Mercedes-Benz W123, Mercedes-Benz W124, Mercedes-Benz W126 Mercedes-Benz R129 and Mercedes-Benz W201 models.
During the early 1980s and up until 1985, AMG offered a variety of engine performance packages, alloy wheels and styling products.
Typical AMG performance enhancements, which could all be custom ordered by the buyer, included increased engine displacements (5.2 litre, 5.4 litre), performance top ends which included port and polished heads/intake, lightened valvetrain and more aggressive cams. The DOHC 32V engine had also just been developed and was the pinnacle of AMG performance. A Getrag five-speed manual transmission could be ordered from AMG, and Mercedes had not offered a manual transmission V8 since the early 1970s.
The performance wheels offered during the same period were 15-inch or 16-inch ATS AMG Five Spoke Road Wheels, commonly referred to as Pentas. Penta was actually a UK based company that supplemented the high demand for the AMG wheel at the time with a replica and only a very slight styling difference, but they were not made or endorsed by AMG. The genuine AMG wheels were often coupled with an AMG performance suspension package which included uprated/lowered springs and revalved shock absorbers.
Another popular cosmetic upgrade were the AMG body kits. These ranged from subtle front spoilers, to an aggressive Wide Body kits for the W126 coupes. Other options included Recaro seats, smaller diameter steering wheels, instrument clusters, chrome delete option (all brightworks colour-coded or painted satin black), refrigerators, shift knobs, hi-fi stereo systems, custom upholstery and enhanced interior wood packages.
The release of the AMG Hammer sedan in 1986, based on the W124 E-Class, took AMG's performance modifications for a fast midsized sedan to a new level. AMG made the world's fastest passenger sedan at the time, nicknamed the Hammer, by squeezing Mercedes 5.6-litre V8 tuned by AMG to 360 hp into a midsized sedan. It was very aggressive for the era, with 32-valve cylinder heads and twin camshafts, and said to be faster than the Lamborghini Countach from 60 to 120 mph. Later models were even more powerful and introduced the 17-inch AMG Aero 1 Hammer wheels. 1986 was also the year Mercedes introduced the 560 M117 engine. This provided yet another opportunity for customers to order the largest AMG displacement available at the time, the 6L 100 mm bore SOHC or DOHC engines available for both the W126 coupe and sedans.
Through the early 2000s, AMG focused principally on supercharged V8 and V6 engines, but the company officially abandoned this technology in 2006 with the introduction of the naturally aspirated 6.2 L M156 V8. On 16 January 2006, Mercedes-AMG Chairman Volker Mornhinweg told AutoWeek that the company would use turbocharging for higher output rather than supercharging. For 2011, AMG released the M157 5.5L biturbo V8 which has supplanted the M156 in its full-sized cars such as the S-Class and CL-Class (and is trickling down to the CLS, E-Class and ML-class). In 2012, Mercedes-AMG Chairman Olla Kallenius said that Mercedes-AMG will not produce diesel engines to compete with BMW's tri-turbo diesels (BMW M Performance range).
Although there were some AMG models in the 1980s with manual transmissions, almost all recent models have used automatics (5G-Tronic and later 7G-Tronic with Speedshift), in contrast to BMW M which used manuals and recently semi-automatic transmissions (the current type being a dual clutch transmission). Starting in 2009, however, AMG began adopting the seven-speed AMG SpeedShift MCT automatic transmission.
Although these are considered the most well known in-house tuning divisions, Mercedes-AMG has a considerably different philosophy than BMW M. Mercedes-AMG has created high-performance versions of many of its nameplates, including flagship sedans and SUVs, while BMW M has emphasized tuning only vehicles with "Lateral agility" (which has long been only their 3 Series, 5 Series, and roadsters). Compared to BMW M, Mercedes-AMG is "less narrow in its sporting focus, yet still combining sledgehammer performance with relaxed handling, cultured comfort, and practicality".
While founders Hans Werner Aufrecht and Erhard Melcher had emphasized proper racing cars, Mercedes-AMG had diverged considerably from this philosophy in recent years, with their offerings being well known for straight-line acceleration but poor handling dynamics. However, current Mercedes-AMG chairman Volker Mornhinweg has urged the division to return to its roots of building sports cars.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, AMG entered the big Mercedes-Benz 300SEL 6.3 V8 saloon, affectionately named the "Red Sow", in the 1971 Spa 24 Hours, and the European Touring Car Championship. AMG and Mercedes worked together on Mercedes-Benz W201 cars for the 1988 Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft (DTM, German Touring Car Championship). AMG was made the official partner.
When DaimlerChrysler acquired a majority share of AMG in 1999, the motor racing department was divested into HWA AG. Their first car was the ill-fated Mercedes-Benz CLR. Since 2000, HWA builds and runs the cars for Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (DTM), as well as the M271 engine tuned for use in Formula 3.
In late 2011, after the close of the Formula 1 season, Mercedes GP Petronas announced that it would be using the AMG branding for its Formula 1 efforts, changing its name to Mercedes AMG Petronas for the 2012 season onwards.
Three AMG E Class V8 Supercars will compete in the Australian V8 Supercars Championship from 2013, with the newly formed partnership of Erebus Motorsport and Stone Brothers Racing Teams operating under a Customer Sports Program of AMG.
Relationship with Pagani
AMG also provides engines for the Zonda and Huayra cars. The engines used are variants of the M120 7,291 cc displacement V12 engine originally used in the SL73 AMG. The M120 is the largest displacement naturally aspirated engine provided by AMG and is now exclusively used by Pagani.
Current AMG models
All AMG engines are hand built, using a "one man, one engine" philosophy at the current AMG plant in Affalterbach, Germany. To signify this, each AMG engine builder stamps the engines they produce with an engraved plaque depicting their signature.
As part of the official Mercedes product line, the AMG models are sold side-by-side with regular production models, unlike those offered by other Mercedes tuning firms such as Brabus.
"45" 2.0 L Inline-4 Turbo
"55" M152 5.5 L V8
The M152 is a naturally aspirated, detuned version of the M157 Biturbo V8. This V8 will be used for the new 2012 SLK55 AMG and it produces 415 hp (398 lb-ft).
- Mercedes-Benz M152 engine L 5.5 V8 models
"63" M156 6.2 L V8
AMG developed its own V8 engine (dubbed M156 in development) for the DTM series. This naturally aspirated V8 will also be used to replace most of the "55" models. The published output according to Mercedes varies from 457 PS (336 kW; 451 hp) on the C63AMG, to 525 PS (386 kW; 518 hp) on the C/CLK/R/ML/GL/S/SL/CL/E 63 AMG.
- M156 L 6.2 V8 models
- 2007 S63 AMG (introduced at the 2006 Paris Motor Show) (facelifted for 2010 model year)
- 2007 ML63 AMG (introduced at the 2006 North American International Auto Show)
- 2007 R63 AMG (introduced at the 2006 North American International Auto Show)
- 2007 CLK63 AMG (introduced at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show) (used as Safety Car for the 2006 and 2007 F1 World Championship)
- 2007 CLS63 AMG (introduced at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show)
- 2008 C63 AMG (Sedan and Wagon) (facelifted for the 2012 model year)
- 2007 E63 AMG (Sedan and Wagon)
- 2008 CL63 AMG
- 2009 SL63 AMG
- 2010 E63 AMG (Sedan and Wagon)
- 2010 SLS AMG
The S63/CL63/SL63 at 518 horsepower edges out that of the S600/CL600/SL600, the latter powered by the 510 horsepower 5.5-litre twin-turbo V12, while also having a higher redline. However, the S600/CL600/SL600 are more expensive and have more torque at 612 pound-feet (830 N·m). The S63/CL63/SL63 however do have quicker acceleration times than their S600/CL600/SL600 counterparts and are the second-fastest in the lineup, after the S65/CL65/SL65 AMG.
Compared to the "55" supercharged 5.4 L V8 engine which was restricted to the Speedshift 5G-Tronic five-speed automatic transmission as it had a torque capacity of 796 lb·ft (1,079 N·m), the reduced torque of the "63" M156 6.2L V8 enables it to be mated with the more efficient [7G-Tronic which can withstand a limit of 542 lb·ft (735 N·m). Despite the reduction in torque, the increased horsepower and more efficient transmission enables the "63" models to match or surpass the acceleration of the "55" models. Most of the M156-engined models used the 7G-Tronic automatic transmission, however the more recent 2009 SL63, 2010 E63, and 2012 C63 use the 7-speed MCT transmission.
In 2009, AMG developed the M159 engine which is based on the M156 engine, to be used in SLS AMG.
Although to be superseded by the M157 5.5 L V8 BiTurbo (see below) for full-sized models such as the S-Class, the M156 will remain in production as its more precise throttle response is still well suited to smaller sportier models such as the C-Class.
"63" M157 5.5 L V8 BiTurbo
Rumored in 2009 and confirmed in 2010, AMG developed the M157, a 5.5-litre V8 with direct fuel injection and twin turbochargers. Power is rated at 400 kW (544 PS / 536 bhp) at 5,500rpm with a peak torque of 800Nm (590 lb-ft) made between 2,000rpm and 4,500rpm. An even more powerful version with the AMG Performance Package will produce 420 kW (571 PS / 563 bhp) and 900Nm (664 lb-ft) of torque. Both engines will be mated to Mercedes-Benz's 7-speed MCT transmission. The 2011 CL 63 AMG accelerates from zero to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 4.4 seconds, and has a top speed of 250 km/h (155 mph) (electronically limited), while cars with the AMG Performance package can make the 100 km/h (62 mph) mark in 4.3 seconds and reaches a top speed of 300 km/h (186 mph) (also electronically limited).
Unlike the M156 naturally aspirated 6.2 L V8 which was developed entirely within AMG, the M157 is based upon the M278 that will be found in the regular Mercedes-Benz S-Class and CL-Class. The M157 boasts 25% better fuel economy (10.5 litres per 100 kilometres versus 14.4 L/100 km in the European driving cycle) over the M156, meaning it will avoid the US Gas Guzzler Tax for the first time ever, despite having up to 47 horsepower more. The M157's increased torque from both the regular version and performance package means the engine can be shifted into a taller gear sooner, keeping engine revs and fuel consumption to a minimum. The new M157 will have an engine start/stop mode and is lightweight at 204 kg.  The M157 is said to be ideal for powering full-size sedans such as the S-Class, but the older M156 will continue to be produced as its more precise throttle response is still well suited to smaller sportier models such as the C-Class.
5.5 L V8 BiTurbo models will carry the "63" model designation, shared with the 6.2L V8 models. Visually, the 2011 S63 AMG is differentiated from the 2010 model (itself facelifted over the 2009 S63) by the more angular design of the chromed dual exhaust tips, which also sport embossed AMG logos, as well as new forged wheels. For the CL63 AMG, the new M157 engine coincides with the facelift of the CL-Class for the 2011 model year.
- M157 L 5.5 V8 models (Twin-turbo)
"65" M275 6.0 L V12 BiTurbo
These are powered by a variant of the Mercedes-Benz M275 engine. The AMG powerplant has an all-new design of the bi-turbo system, which features larger turbochargers and a new, more powerful charge-air cooling system, and the increase in the engine displacement (to 5980 cc) as well as many other engine design measures.
"65" models used a 5-speed automatic transmission for a long time, as the newer 7G-Tronic wasn't able to handle the torque from the V12 engines. This was changed with the introduction of 2012 SL65 AMG which uses the same AMG SpeedShift MCT transmission as the rest of the AMG line-up.
Coinciding with the facelift of the CL-Class for the 2011 model year, the 2011 CL65 AMG will have an enhanced engine, with AMG redesigning the exhaust gas turbochargers and adding new engine electronics. It will now make 621 horsepower, and go from 0 to 60 mph in 4.2 seconds (0.2 seconds faster than the 2011 CL63), with an electronically limited top speed of 186 mph. The update will also improve fuel economy and reduce carbon emissions by 3.5% over the outgoing model. The 2011 S65 AMG will also receive an upgraded engine making 463 kW (630 hp) and 737 lb·ft (999 N·m) of torque.
- 6.0L 612 PS (604 hp/450 kW) BiTurbo V12
The AMG Performance Studio located in Affalterbach is responsible for the upgrades which make an AMG into an AMG Black Series model. The Black Series treatment is only available on 2 door vehicles, which includes weight reduction, bucket seats and exterior alterations.
- SLK 55 AMG Black Series
- CLK 63 AMG Black Series
- SL 65 AMG Black Series
- C 63 AMG Black Series
- SLS AMG Black Series
Previous AMG models
In addition to the models listed below, there were also predecessors to the current AMG models.
There are also other AMG models no longer in production:
- 1992 190E 3.2 AMG
- 1993–1994 E60 AMG
- 1994–1995 E36 AMG
- 1997 SL70 AMG
- 1995, 1997 S70 AMG
- 1995, 1998–2001 SL73 AMG
- 1996–1998 SL60 AMG
- 1995–1997 C36 AMG — powertrain consists of M104 3.6L I6 engine
- 1998–2000 C43 AMG — saloon and estate body styles, powertrain consists of M113 4.3L V8 engine and 5-speed manumatic transmission
- 1996–1997 E50 AMG
- 1999–2002 E55 AMG
- 1998–2002 CLK-GTR AMG
- 2001–2004 SLK32 AMG
- 2005–2006 C55 AMG
- 2005–2006 CLK DTM AMG
- 2007 R63 AMG
"30" 3.0 L I5 diesel
"32" 3.2 L V6 Kompressor
Powertrain consists of AMG Speedshift 5-speed automatic transmission mated to an AMG 3.2-litre V6 Kompressor engine with an output of 260 kW/349 hp and 332 lb·ft (450 N·m) @ 4,400 rpm. The engine is a special version of the 3.2 L (3199 cc) M112 E32, fitted with a helical twin-screw supercharger and water-to-air intercooler. The supercharger was developed in conjunction with IHI and features Teflon-coated rotors producing overall boost of 14.5 psi (1 bar). Compared to the standard M112 engine, the AMG version also has a new crankshaft, new con rods and pistons, an oil pump with a 70-percent increased capacity, lightweight camshafts, and harder valve springs for a redline of 6200 rpm, an increase of 200 rpm.
While rival BMW M developed the SMG II semi-automatic for the BMW M3, the C32 and SLK32 have a 5-speed automatic transmission’s “Speedshift” system which now has quicker response (up to 35 percent) to accelerator and shift selector movements.
Interestingly, the C32 had a smaller engine than its predecessors, the C36 AMG with the M104 3.6L I6 engine, and the C43 AMG powered by the M113 4.3L V8 engine. The C32 AMG can do 0–60mph in 5.2sec 0–100 in 12.6 with a 1/4 mile of 13.6@106mph (C&D comparison test May 2003)
- 3.2 L Supercharged M112 V6 AMG
"55" 5.4 L V8
This model was nicknamed the "Hammer" after the original 1986 AMG Hammer (a W124 E-Class sedan with an AMG-tuned 360 hp 5.6-litre V8). The 2000 E55 AMG could do 0–60 mph in 4.9 seconds and took 13.3 seconds to run the standing quarter mile.
The main engine is a 5.4 L V8 engine This engine comes in two configurations.
- The first configuration is a naturally aspirated V8 with 360 PS (260 kW; 360 hp) that is used in the C55 AMG, CLK55 AMG, SLK55 AMG, and ML55 AMG. The C43 AMG (model years 1998–2000) was powered by a naturally aspirated V8 engine from the M113 family, but at a reduced displacement of 4.3L, hence the '43' designation.
- The other configuration is a similar unit but with a highly efficient Lysholm type twin screw supercharger. manufactured by Eaton, is found in the rest of the AMG 55 models which are typically midsized or larger vehicles. The published output according to Mercedes varies from 476 PS (350 kW; 469 hp) to 517 PS (380 kW; 510 hp) and 700 N·m (520 lb·ft) to 720 N·m (530 lb·ft), depending on various methods of power measurements and different ECU programming for national legislations. For instance, the E55 AMG's engine was at the low end, nonetheless it was still Mercedes-Benz's fastest sedan at the time, while the SL55 AMG's engine had the top output. Mercedes has claimed that a more restrictive exhaust system was responsible for cutting output on the E55 AMG, however some enthusiasts have managed to bump up horsepower to 505 on the E55 by incorporating some parts from the SL55.
The supercharged 5.4 L 32 valve V8 engine was mated to the Speedshift 5-speed automatic transmission, which has a torque capacity of 796 lb·ft (1,079 N·m), as the newer 7G-Tronic introduced in 2003 is limited to 542 lb·ft (735 N·m), not enough to handle the torque from the supercharged V8.
The V8 S55 AMG had comparable output to the V12-powered S600 throughout their production. The S55 AMG (2001–02) was outfitted with a 5.4 L 354 hp (264 kW) V8 motor while the later versions (2003–06) sported the same motor, but supercharged to a rated 493 hp (386 kW). The S600 (2001–02) was outfitted with a 5.8L 362 hp (270 kW) V12 engine while the later versions (2003–06) sported a twin-turbocharged (or Bi-Turbo) 493 hp (368 kW) 5.5L V12. The justification for having two models with the same power is that the S55 AMG is sportier and more responsive, while the costlier S600 is more luxurious with a smoother ride.
AMG phased out both the naturally aspirated and supercharged 5.4 L engines in favor of the new M156 V8 beginning in 2006, which was paired with 7G-Tronic. However, some enthusiasts were disappointed because the M156 produces less torque than the supercharged M155.
For the Model Year 2009:
- M113 5.4 L "55" V8 models (naturally aspirated)
- M113 5.4 L "55" V8 models (supercharged)
Previous 55 AMG models
- 1999–2002 E55 AMG
- 2003–2006 E55 AMG
- 2000–2003 ML55 AMG
- 2003–2005 C55 AMG
- 2001–2002 CLK55 AMG
- 2003–2006 CLK55 AMG
- 2004–2007 CLS55 AMG
- 2001–2008 SL55 AMG
- 2001–2006 S55 AMG
- 2001–2006 CL55 AMG
- 2005–2006 C55 AMG
- 2001–2009 G55 AMG
"63" M137 6.3 L V12
The "63" badging was used on the short-lived 2001 S63 AMG and 2001 CL63 AMG. These were produced in limited quantities for one month and only offered through AMG to select customers in Europe and Asia, purportedly state leaders. The CL63 AMG was the rarest W215 CL of all, and just 26 examples were built in November 2001 (51 plate), with some UK being registered in March 2002. These had a base price of £110,000 (~US$200,000).
These are powered by a naturally aspirated 6.3L V12 producing 444 PS (438 hp/327 kW). This engine is based on the M137 5.8L V12 used in the S600 and CL600, but the AMG variants have a larger displacement, a new management system, a new crank case and cooling system, weight-optimized pistons, and a new camshaft with greater valve lift and modified valves. 390 lb·ft (530 N·m) of torque are available between 2500–5800rpm with a peak of 457 at 4400 rpm while horsepower grows by almost 80 over the 5.8L V12. It is mated to a 5-speed automatic transmission. The 2001 S63 AMG V12 had 100 hp more than the 2001 S55 AMG, and was a few tenths faster.
"60", "73", "70", "55"
The Mercedes-Benz SL-Class (R129) had several AMG variants during its production run from 1989 to 2001.
The SL 60 AMG was the most numerous of these rare cars. Sold from 1993 to 1998, it used a 6.0 litre V8 engine producing 381 PS (280 kW; 376 hp) at 5500 rpm. AMG claimed a 0–62 mph (100 km/h) speed of 5.6 seconds. Its top speed was limited to 250 km/h (155 mph), but with the limiter removed, it was capable of approximately 185 mph (298 km/h). AMG later unofficially conceded that 0–60 mph was more like 5.0 seconds and the engine produced between 405–410 bhp.
Extremely rare was the SL 73 AMG, sold through Mercedes-AMG in 1995, and offering the most powerful V12 engine ever put into an SL up to that time. After a brief hiatus, the SL73 was offered again from 1998 to 2001. The same 7.3 L V12 was later used by Pagani in the Zonda.
Even rarer is the SL 70 AMG (7.0 L (7055 cc) V12 engine).
The SL 55 AMG was sold in the R129 bodystyle from 1998 to 2001 in limited numbers (5.4L V8, 354 PS (260 kW; 349 hp) at 5500 rpm). It was the predecessor of the production R230 SL55 AMG sold later, albeit was normally aspirated in the R129 and not supercharged as in its R230 successor.
- List of German cars
- BMW M
- Opel Performance Center
- quattro GmbH
- Street and Racing Technology
- Special Vehicle Team
- Super Sport
- Gran Turismo
- "Statement of Investments pursuant to Sections 285 and 313 of the German Commercial Code (HGB) for the Company and Consolidated Financial Statements of Daimler AG as of December 31, 2011" (PDF). daimler.com. Daimler AG. 2012-02-09. Archived from the original on 2012-08-07. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
- Posted by **TIME AGO**. "2008 Mercedes-Benz CL63 AMG and S63 AMG - First Drive Review - Auto Reviews". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
- Newhardt, David. "Behind the Scenes: Mercedez-Benz AMG". MotorTrend.com. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
- Hall, Jim. "Rhapsody in Red: 500SL AMG" Motor Trend Magazine, October, 1983.
- "AMG's Hammer" Auto Week, June 23, 1986.
- Setright, LJK. "Firebrand: AMG Hammer Sedan" Car Magazine, December, 1986. Pp.149-155
- "AMG's new chief has big plans for 2006 - AutoWeek Magazine". Autoweek.com. 2006-01-20. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "2005 BMW M5 vs. 2005 Mercedes-Benz e55 AMG - Full Metal Rockets - Luxury Road Test". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- June 2001 BY PETER ROBINSON. "2002 Mercedes-Benz C32 AMG and SLK32 AMG - First Drive Review - Page 2". Caranddriver.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "2009 Mercedes-Benz SL-Class Reviews, Expert Car Reviews on AOL Autos". Autos.aol.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Mercedes adds AMG moniker to Formula 1 team name". Autosport. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- "Erebus Motorsport on the V8 Supercar Grid in 2013 name". Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- "Mercedes-Benz details new variable-displacement V8 for SLK55 AMG". Autoblog. 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
- "2010 Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG / S65 AMG Revealed - Car News". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "2008 Mercedes-Benz CL63 AMG and S63 AMG - First Drive Review - Auto Reviews". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- You must be logged in to post. "Luxury Sport Sedan Comparison - Slowest of the Trio - 2010 Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG - Automobile Magazine". Automobilemag.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Mercedes-Benz AMG 6.3-liter V8". Insideline.com. 2005-07-19. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "2011 Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG". Canada.com. 2010-07-05. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "Engines: 5.5L-V8". Mercedes-AMG. 2009-10-14. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "Mercedes AMG New Twin-Turbo 5.5 Litre V8 Engine Revealed". Worldcarfans.com. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "AMG Replacing 6.3 V8 with 5.5L Twin Turbo V8". Carthrottle.com. 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "Official: 2011 Mercedes-Benz CL 65 AMG & CL 63 AMG". Gtspirit.Com. 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "2011 Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG - 2010 Geneva Auto Show Coverage, New Car Reviews, Concept Cars - Automobile Magazine". Automobilemag.com. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "2012 Mercedes-Benz E63 AMG First Drive". Motor Trend. 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "First Drive: 2011 Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG". Nationalpost.com. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- Posted by PeterH (2009-12-04). "Mercedes-Benz CL 65 AMG and S 65 AMG | Mercedes". 500sec.com. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "Mercedes' new CL65 AMG will now pack 621 horses - Drive On: A conversation about the cars and trucks we drive - USATODAY.com". Content.usatoday.com. 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "2011 Mercedes CL63 & CL65 AMG revealed". Worldcarfans.com. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "2011 Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG To Get 5.5L Twin-Turbo V8 | AutoGuide.com News". Autoguide.com. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- June 2001 BY PETER ROBINSON. "2002 Mercedes-Benz C32 AMG and SLK32 AMG - First Drive Review - Car Reviews". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Mercedes-Benz C32 AMG First Drive – Full Review of the New Mercedes-Benz C32 AMG at". Roadandtrack.com. 2001-07-01. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "2000 Mercedes Benz E55 AMG". Derekspratt.com. 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- December 2002 BY PETER ROBINSON. "Mercedes-Benz E55 AMG - First Drive Review - Car Reviews". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "Test Drive: 2004 Mercedes-Benz E55 AMG - Autos.ca". Canadiandriver.com. 2003-10-26. Retrieved 2011-12-06.
- "http://www.roadandtrack.com/article.asp?section_id=9&article_id" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "Mercedes-Bland E63". Asiaone.com. 2010-02-19. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG (W220) - World's Fastest Sedans". Fantasycars.com. 2006-12-14. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- "MERCEDES BENZ S 63 AMG (W220) 2001 - 2001". autoevolution. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- [dead link]
- Automobil Revue, catalogue edition 1995, p. 380.