|34th President of Chile|
11 March 2006 – 11 March 2010
|Preceded by||Ricardo Lagos|
|Succeeded by||Sebastián Piñera|
|Leader of New Majority|
30 April 2013
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Executive Director of UN Women|
14 September 2010 – 15 March 2013
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Lakshmi Puri (acting)|
|President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations|
23 May 2008 – 10 August 2009
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Rafael Correa|
|Minister of National Defense|
7 January 2002 – 1 October 2004
|Preceded by||Mario Fernández|
|Succeeded by||Jaime Ravinet|
|Minister of Health|
11 March 2000 – 7 January 2002
|Preceded by||Álex Figueroa|
|Succeeded by||Osvaldo Artaza|
|Born||Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria
29 September 1951
|Political party||Socialist Party|
|Spouse(s)||Jorge Leopoldo Dávalos Cartes|
|Alma mater||University of Chile|
Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (Spanish pronunciation: [βeˈɾonika miˈtʃel βatʃeˈle ˈxeɾja]; born September 29, 1951) is a Chilean Socialist politician who served as President of Chile from 2006 to 2010. She resigned from UN Women in March 2013 to run for a second term as President of Chile.
Bachelet won the 2006 presidential election in a runoff, beating center-right and former senator Sebastián Piñera with 53.5% of the vote. She campaigned on a platform of continuing Chile's free-trade policies.
Bachelet, a physician with studies in military strategy, served as Health Minister and Defense Minister under her predecessor, President Ricardo Lagos. She is a separated mother of three and describes herself as an agnostic. As well as her native Spanish, she speaks English, German, Portuguese and French, with varying levels of fluency.
- 1 Family background
- 2 Early life and career
- 3 Political life
- 4 Presidency
- 4.1 First days
- 4.2 Domestic affairs
- 4.3 Foreign relations
- 4.4 Popularity
- 5 Post-presidential career
- 6 Honours
- 7 Documentaries
- 8 Publications
- 9 Notes and references
- 10 External links
Bachelet is the second child of archaeologist Ángela Jeria Gómez and Air Force Brigadier General Alberto Bachelet Martínez. Bachelet's paternal great-great-grandfather, Louis-Joseph Bachelet Lapierre, was a French wine merchant from Chassagne-Montrachet who emigrated to Chile with his Parisian wife, Françoise Jeanne Beault, in 1860 hired as a wine-making expert by the Subercaseaux vineyards in southern Santiago. Bachelet Lapierre's son, Germán, was born in Santiago, Chile, in 1862, and married in 1891 to Luisa Brandt Cadot, a Chilean of French and Swiss descent, giving birth in 1894 to Alberto Bachelet Brandt. Bachelet's maternal great-grandfather, Máximo Jeria Chacón, of alleged Greek heritage, was the first person to receive a degree in agronomic engineering in Chile and founded several agronomy schools in the country. He married Lely Johnson, the daughter of an English physician working in Chile. Their son, Máximo Jeria Johnson, married Angela Gómez Zamora. Their union produced five children, the fourth of whom became Bachelet's mother.
Early life and career
Bachelet was born in Santiago, and spent many of her childhood years traveling around her native Chile, moving with her family from one military base to another. She lived and attended primary school in Quintero, Cerro Moreno, Antofagasta and San Bernardo. In 1962 she moved with her family to the United States, where her father was assigned to the military mission at the Chilean Embassy in Washington, DC, USA. Her family lived for almost two years in Bethesda, Maryland, where she attended Western Junior High School (now Westland Middle School) and learned to speak English fluently. Returning to Chile in 1964, she graduated from high school in 1969 at Liceo Nº 1 Javiera Carrera, a prestigious girls' public school, finishing near the top of her class. There she was president of her class, a member of the school's choir and volleyball teams, and part of a theater group and a music band called Las Clap Clap which she helped found, that toured around several school festivals. She entered medical school at the University of Chile in 1970, after obtaining one of the highest national scores in the university admission test. She originally wanted to study sociology or economics, but was prevailed upon by her father to study medicine instead. She has said she opted for medicine because it was "a concrete way of helping people cope with pain" and "a way to contribute to improve health in Chile."
Detention and exile
Facing growing food shortages, the government of Salvador Allende placed Bachelet's father in charge of the Food Distribution Office. When General Augusto Pinochet suddenly came to power via the 11 September 1973 coup d'état, Bachelet's father was detained at the Air War Academy under charges of treason. Following months of daily torture at Santiago's Public Prison, he suffered a cardiac arrest that resulted in his death on 12 March 1974. In early January 1975, Bachelet and her mother were detained at their apartment by two DINA agents (one of them being Miguel Krassnoff), who blindfolded and drove them to Villa Grimaldi, a notorious secret detention center in Santiago, where they were separated and subjected to interrogation and torture. In 2013 Bachelet revealed she had been interrogated by DINA chief Manuel Contreras there. Some days later, Bachelet was transferred to Cuatro Álamos ("Four Poplars") detention center, where she was held until the end of January. Thanks to sympathetic connections in the military, Bachelet was forced into exile to Australia, where her older brother, Alberto, had moved in 1969. Of her torture, Bachelet said in 2004 that "it was nothing in comparison to what others suffered". She was "yelled at using abusive language, shaken," and both she and her mother where "threatened with the killing of the other." She was "never tortured with electricity," but she did see it being done to other prisoners.
In May 1975, Bachelet left Australia and later moved to East Germany, to an apartment assigned to her by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) government in Am Stern, Potsdam; her mother joined her a month later, living separately in Leipzig. In October 1976, she began working at a communal clinic in the Babelsberg neighborhood, as a preparation step to continue her medical studies at an East German university. During this period, she met architect Jorge Leopoldo Dávalos Cartes, another Chilean exile, whom she married in 1977. In January 1978 she went to Leipzig to learn German at the Karl Marx University's Herder Institute (now the University of Leipzig). Her first child with Dávalos, Jorge Alberto Sebastián, was born there in June 1978. She returned to Potsdam in September 1978 to continue her medical studies at the Humboldt University of Berlin for two years. Five months after enrolling as a student, however, she obtained authorization to return to her country.
Return to Chile
Bachelet finally returned to Chile in 1979 after four years in exile. Her medical school credits from the GDR were not transferred, forcing her to resume her studies from where she had left off before fleeing the country. She graduated as M.D. on January 7, 1983. She wished to work in the public sector wherever attention was most needed, applying for a position as general practitioner; her petition was, however, rejected by the military government on "political grounds." Instead, because of her academic performance and published papers, she earned a scholarship from the Chilean Medical Chamber to specialize in pediatrics and public health at the University of Chile's Roberto del Río Children's Hospital (1983–1986). She completed the program with excellent grades but did not obtain her certification because of "financial reasons". During this time she also worked at PIDEE (Protection of Children Injured by States of Emergency Foundation), a non-governmental organization helping children of the tortured and missing in Santiago and Chillán. She was head of the foundation's Medical Department between 1986 and 1990. Some time after her second child with Dávalos, Francisca Valentina, was born in February 1984, she and her husband legally separated. Between 1985 and 1987, Bachelet had a romantic relationship with Alex Vojkovic Trier, an engineer and spokesman for the Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front, an armed group which among other activities attempted to assassinate Pinochet in 1986. This affair turned into a minor issue during her presidential campaign, during which she argued that she never supported any of Vojkovic's activities.
After Chile made a transition to democracy in 1990, Bachelet worked for the Ministry of Health's West Santiago Health Service and was a consultant for the Pan-American Health Organization, the World Health Organization and the German Corporation for Technical Cooperation. While working for the National AIDS Commission (Conasida) she became romantically involved with Aníbal Hernán Henríquez Marich, a fellow physician—and right-wing Pinochet supporter—who fathered her third child, Sofía Catalina, in December 1992; their relationship ended, however, a few years later. Between March 1994 and July 1997, Bachelet worked as Senior Assistant to the Deputy Health Minister. Driven by an interest in civil-military relations, in 1996 Bachelet began studies in military strategy at the National Academy of Political and Strategic Studies (ANEPE) in Chile, obtaining first place in her class. Her student achievement earned her a presidential scholarship, permitting her to continue her studies in the United States at the Inter-American Defense College in Washington, D.C., completing a Continental Defense Course in 1998. That same year she returned to Chile to work for the Defense Ministry as Senior Assistant to the Defense Minister. She subsequently graduated from a Master's program in military science at the Chilean Army's War Academy.
Involvement in politics
In her first year as a university student (1970), Bachelet became a member of the Socialist Youth (then presided by future deputy and later disappeared physician Carlos Lorca, who has been cited as her political mentor), and was an active supporter of the Popular Unity. In the immediate aftermath of the coup, she and her mother worked as couriers for the underground Socialist Party directorate that was trying to organize a resistance movement; eventually almost all of them were captured and disappeared. Following her return from exile she became politically active during the second half of the 1980s, fighting—though not on the front line—for the re-establishment of democracy in Chile. In 1995 she became part of the party's Central Committee, and from 1998 until 2000 she was an active member of the Political Commission.
In 1996 Bachelet ran against future presidential adversary Joaquín Lavín for the mayorship of Las Condes, a wealthy Santiago suburb and a right-wing stronghold. Lavín won the 22-candidate election with nearly 78% of the vote, while she finished fourth with 2.35%. At the 1999 presidential primary of the Concert of Parties for Democracy (CPD), Chile's governing coalition from 1990 to 2010, she worked for Ricardo Lagos's nomination, heading the Santiago electoral zone.
Work as minister
On March 11, 2000 Bachelet—virtually unknown at the time—was appointed Minister of Health by President Ricardo Lagos. She began an in-depth study of the public health-care system that led to the AUGE plan a few years later. She was also given the task of eliminating waiting lists in the saturated public hospital system within the first 100 days of Lagos's government. She reduced waiting lists by 90%, but was unable to eliminate them completely and offered her resignation, which was promptly rejected by the President. Controversially, she allowed free distribution of the morning-after pill for victims of sexual abuse.
On January 7, 2002 Bachelet was appointed Defense Minister, becoming the first woman to hold this post in a Latin American country and one of the few in the world. While Minister of Defense she promoted reconciliatory gestures between the military and victims of the dictatorship, culminating in the historic 2003 declaration by General Juan Emilio Cheyre, head of the army, that "never again" would the military subvert democracy in Chile. She also oversaw a reform of the military pension system and continued with the process of modernization of the Chilean armed forces with the purchasing of new military equipment, while engaging in international peace operations.
A moment which has been cited as key to Bachelet's chances to the presidency came in mid-2002 during a flood in northern Santiago where she, as Defense Minister, led a rescue operation on top of an amphibious tank, wearing a cloak and military cap.
In late 2004, following a surge of her popularity in opinion polls, Bachelet was established as the only CPD figure able to defeat Joaquín Lavín, and she was asked to become the Socialists' candidate for the presidency. She was at first hesitant to accept the nomination as it was never one of her goals, but finally agreed because she felt she could not disappoint her supporters. On October 1 of that year she was freed from her government post in order to begin her campaign and to help the CPD at the municipal elections held later that month. On January 28, 2005 she was named the Socialist Party's candidate for president.
An open primary scheduled for July 2005 to define the sole presidential candidate of the CPD was canceled after Bachelet's only rival, Christian Democrat Soledad Alvear, a cabinet member in the first three CPD administrations, pulled out early due to a lack of support within her own party and in opinion polls.
At the December 2005 election, Bachelet faced the center-right candidate Sebastián Piñera (RN), the right-wing candidate Joaquín Lavín (UDI) and the leftist candidate Tomás Hirsch (JPM). As predicted by opinion polls, she failed to obtain the absolute majority needed to win the election outright, winning 46% of the vote. In the runoff election on January 15, 2006, Bachelet faced Piñera, and won the presidency with 53.5% of the vote, thus becoming her country's first female elected president and the first woman who was not the wife of a previous head of state or political leader to reach the presidency of a Latin American nation in a direct election.
On January 30, 2006, after being declared President-elect by the Elections Qualifying Court (Tricel), Bachelet announced her cabinet of ministers, which was unprecedentedly composed of an equal number of men and women, as was promised during her campaign. In keeping with the coalition's internal balance of power she named seven ministers from the Christian Democrat Party (PDC), five from the Party for Democracy (PPD), four from the Socialist Party (PS), one from the Social Democrat Radical Party (PRSD) and three without party affiliation. In the days that followed, she named the group of deputy ministers and regional intendants, following the same rule of "gender parity."
|The Bachelet Cabinet|
|President||Michelle Bachelet||PS||Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Interior||Andrés Zaldívar||DC||Mar. 11, 2006–Jul. 14, 2006|
|Belisario Velasco||DC||Jul. 14, 2006–Jan. 4, 2008|
|Edmundo Pérez Yoma||DC||Jan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Foreign Affairs||Alejandro Foxley||DC||Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 13, 2009|
|Mariano Fernández||DC||Mar. 13, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Defense||Vivianne Blanlot||PPD||Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007|
|José Goñi||PPD||Mar. 27, 2007–Mar. 12, 2009|
|Francisco Vidal||PPD||Mar. 12, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Finance||Andrés Velasco||Ind.||Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Gen. Sec. of the
|Paulina Veloso||PS||Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007|
|José Antonio Viera-Gallo||PS||Mar. 27, 2007–Mar. 10, 2010|
|Gen. Sec. of
|Ricardo Lagos Weber||PPD||Mar. 11, 2006–Dec. 6, 2007|
|Francisco Vidal||PPD||Dec. 6, 2007–Mar. 12, 2009|
|Carolina Tohá||PPD||Mar. 12, 2009–Dec. 14, 2009|
|Pilar Armanet||PPD||Dec. 18, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Economy||Ingrid Antonijevic||PPD||Mar. 11, 2006–Jul. 14, 2006|
|Alejandro Ferreiro||DC||Jul. 14, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008|
|Hugo Lavados||DC||Jan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Clarisa Hardy||PS||Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008|
|Paula Quintana||PS||Jan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Education||Martín Zilic||DC||Mar. 11, 2006–Jul. 14, 2006|
|Yasna Provoste (impeached)||DC||Jul. 14, 2006–Apr. 3, 2008|
|René Cortázar (interim)||DC||Apr. 3, 2008–Apr. 18, 2008|
|Mónica Jiménez||DC||Apr. 18, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Justice||Isidro Solís||PRSD||Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007|
|Carlos Maldonado||PRSD||Mar. 27, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Labor||Osvaldo Andrade||PS||Mar. 11, 2006–Dec. 10, 2008|
|Claudia Serrano||PS||Dec. 15, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Public Works||Eduardo Bitrán||PPD||Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 11, 2008|
|Sergio Bitar||PPD||Jan. 11, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Health||María Soledad Barría||PS||Mar. 11, 2006–Oct. 28, 2008|
|Álvaro Erazo||PS||Nov. 6, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Patricia Poblete||DC||Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Agriculture||Álvaro Rojas||DC||Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008|
|Marigen Hornkohl||DC||Jan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Mining||Karen Poniachik||Ind.||Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008|
|Santiago González||PRSD||Jan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Sergio Espejo||DC||Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007|
|René Cortázar||DC||Mar. 27, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010|
|National Assets||Romy Schmidt||PPD||Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 6, 2010|
|Jacqueline Weinstein||PPD||Jan. 6, 2010–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Energy||Karen Poniachik||Ind.||Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 29, 2007|
|Marcelo Tokman||PPD||Mar. 29, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Women||Laura Albornoz||DC||Mar. 11, 2006–Oct. 20, 2009|
|Carmen Andrade||PS||Oct. 20, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Culture & the
|Paulina Urrutia||Ind.||Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010|
|Environment||Ana Lya Uriarte||PS||Mar. 27, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010|
Bachelet was sworn in as President of the Republic of Chile on March 11, 2006 in a ceremony held in a plenary session of the National Congress in Valparaíso which was attended by many foreign heads of states and delegates.
Most of Bachelet's first three months as president were spent working on 36 measures she had promised during her campaign to implement during her first 100 days in office. They ranged from simple presidential decrees, such as providing free health care for older patients, to complex bills to reform the social security system and the electoral system.
For her first state visit, Bachelet chose Argentina, arriving in Buenos Aires on 21 March. There she met with president Néstor Kirchner, with whom she signed strategic agreements in energy and infrastructure, including the possibility of launching a bidding process to operate the Transandine Railway.
In March 2006 Bachelet created an advisory committee to reform the pension system, which was headed by former budget director Mario Marcel. The commission issued its final report in July 2006, and in March 2008 Bachelet signed the bill into law. The new legislation established a Basic Solidarity Pension (PBS) and a Solidarity Pension Contribution (APS), guaranteeing a minimum pension for the 60% poorest segment of the population, regardless of their contribution history. The reform also grants a bonus to female pensioners for every child born alive.
In October 2006 Bachelet enacted legislation to protect subcontracted employees, which would benefit an estimated 1.2 million workers. In June 2009 she introduced pay equality legislation, guaranteeing equal pay for equal work in the private sector, regardless of gender.
In September 2009 Bachelet signed the "Chile Grows with You" plan into law, providing comprehensive social services to vulnerable children from ages zero to six. That law also established a social welfare management framework called the "Intersectoral Social Protection System", made up of subsystems, such as "Chile Solidario" and "Chile Grows with You".
Between 2008 and 2010 the Bachelet administration delivered a so-called "literary briefcase" (a box of books including encyclopedias, dictionaries, poetry works and books for both children and adults) to the 400 thousand poorest families with children attending primary school from first to fourth grade. In March 2009, Bachelet launched the "I Choose my PC" program, awarding free computers to poor seventh graders with excellent academic performance attending government-subsidized schools. During 2009 and 2010 Bachelet delivered layettes to all babies born in public hospitals, which are about 80% of total births.
In January 2010, Bachelet promulgated a law allowing the distribution of emergency contraception pills in public and private health centers, including to persons under 14, without parental consent. The law also requires high schools to add a sexual education program to their curriculum.
Bachelet's first political crisis came in late April 2006, when massive high school student demonstrations—unseen in three decades—broke out throughout the country, demanding a rise of quality levels in public education. In June Bachelet sought to dampen the student protests by setting up an 81-member advisor committee, including education experts from all political backgrounds, representatives of ethnic groups, parents, teachers, students, school owners, university rectors, people from diverse religious denominations, etc. Its purpose was to propose changes to the country's educational system and serve as a forum to share ideas and views. The committee issued its final report in December 2006.
In August 2009 Bachelet signed the education reform bill into law, which created two new regulatory bodies: a Superintendency on Education and a Quality Agency.
During her presidency Bachelet opened 18 new subway stations in Santiago, nine in 2006, one in 2009 and eight in 2010. In December 2009 Bachelet announced the construction of a new subway line in Santiago, to be operational in 2014 (the date was later changed to mid-2016).
In February 2007 Santiago's transport system was radically altered with the introduction of Transantiago, designed under the previous administration. The system was nearly unanimously condemned by the media, the users and the opposition, significantly damaging her popularity, and leading to the sacking of her Transport minister. On her decision not to abort the plan's start, she said in April 2007 she was given erroneous information which caused her to act against her "instincts."
In September 2008 Chile's Constitutional Court declared a US$400 million loan by the Inter-American Development Bank to fund the transport system unconstitutional. Bachelet —who had been forced to ask for the loan after Congress had refused to approve funds for the beleaguered program in November 2007— made use of an emergency clause in the Constitution that grants funds equivalent to 2% of the fiscal budget. In November 2008 she invoked the emergency clause again after Congress once again denied funds for the system for 2009.
On 27 February 2010, on the last week of summer vacations and less than two weeks before Bachelet's term expired, Chile was ravaged by an 8.8-magnitude earthquake that killed more than 500 people, toppled apartment buildings and bridges and triggered tsunamis that wiped away entire fishing villages. Bachelet and the government were criticized for a "slow response" to the disaster, which hit on a Saturday at 3:34 in the morning and left most of the country without electricity, phone or Internet access. Bachelet declared a "state of catastrophe" and on Sunday afternoon sent military troops to the most affected areas in an effort to quell scenes of looting and arson. She also imposed night curfews in the most affected cities. She was criticized for not deploying the troops fast enough.
In January 2009 Bachelet opened the Museum of Memory in Santiago, documenting the horrors of Pinochet's 16-and-a-half year dictatorship. In November she promulgated a law (submitted to Congress during the previous administration) creating the National Institute for Human Rights, with the goal of protecting and promoting human rights in the country. The law also allowed for the reopening of the Rettig and Valech commissions for 18 months.
Other legislation passed
In August 2008 Bachelet signed a freedom of information bill into law, which became effective in April 2009.
In January 2010 Bachelet enacted a law creating the Ministry for the Environment. The new legislation also created the Environmental Evaluation Service and the Superintendency for the Environment.
Bachelet was widely credited for resisting calls from politicians from her own coalition to spend the huge copper revenues to close the country's income gap. Instead in 2007 she created the Economic and Social Stabilization Fund, a sovereign wealth fund which accumulates fiscal surpluses which are above 1% of GDP. This strategy allowed her to finance new social policies and provide economic stimulus packages when the 2008 financial crisis hit the country.
During Bachelet's four years in office the economy grew at an average of 3.3% (2.1% in per capita terms), with a high of 5.8% in 2006 and a negative growth of 0.9% in 2009, due to the global financial crisis. The minimum wage was increased at an average of 2% per year in real terms (the lowest of any president since 1990), while unemployment hovered between seven and eight percent during her first three years and rose to nearly 11% during 2009. Inflation averaged 4.5% during her term, reaching close to 9% during 2008, due to an increase in food prices. Absolute poverty fell from 13.7% in November 2006 to 11.5% in November 2009.
Bachelet began her term with an unprecedented absolute majority in both chambers of Congress—before appointed senators were eliminated in the 2005 constitutional reforms the CPD never had a majority in the Senate—but she was soon faced with internal opposition coming from a number of dissatisfied lawmakers from both chambers of Congress, the so-called díscolos ("disobedient," "ungovernable"), which jeopardized the coalition's narrow—and historic—Congress majority on a number of key executive-sponsored bills during much of her first half in office, and forced her to negotiate with a right-wing opposition she saw as being obstructionist. During the course of 2007 the CPD lost its absolute majority in both chambers of Congress, as several senators and deputies from that coalition became independent.
In December 2006, former dictator Augusto Pinochet died. Bachelet decided not to grant him a state funeral, an honour bestowed upon constitutionally elected Chilean presidents, but a military funeral as former commander-in-chief of the Army appointed by President Salvador Allende. She also refused to declare an official national day of mourning, but did authorize flags at military barracks to fly at half staff. Pinochet's coffin was also allowed to be draped in a Chilean flag. Bachelet did not attend his funeral saying it would be "a violation of [her] conscience" and sent Defense Minister, Vivianne Blanlot.
In April 2008, her Education Minister Yasna Provoste was impeached by Congress for her handling of a scandal involving mismanagement of school subsidies. Her conviction —the first for a minister in 36 years— was controversial and highly politicized.
During her first year in office Bachelet faced continuing problems from neighbors Argentina and Peru. In July 2006 she sent a letter of protest to Argentine president Néstor Kirchner after his government issued a decree increasing export tariffs on natural gas to Chile, which was considered by Bachelet to be a violation of a tacit bilateral agreement. A month later a long-standing border dispute resurfaced after Argentina published some tourist maps showing contested territory in the south—the Southern Patagonian Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Patagónico Sur)—as Argentine, violating an agreement not to define a border over the area.
In early 2007 Peru accused Chile of unilaterally redefining their shared sea boundary in a law, passed by Congress, which detailed the borders of the new administrative region of Arica and Parinacota. The impasse was resolved by the Chilean Constitutional Tribunal, which declared the particular section of the law unconstitutional. In March 2007, the Chilean state-owned—but editorially independent—television channel TVN cancelled the broadcast of a documentary about the War of the Pacific after a cautionary call was made to the stations' board of directors by Chilean Foreign Relations Minister Alejandro Foxley, apparently acting on demands made by the Peruvian ambassador to Chile; the show was finally broadcast in late May of that year. In August 2007 the Chilean government filed a formal diplomatic protest with Peru and summoned home its ambassador, after Peru published an official map claiming a part of the Pacific Ocean that Chile considers its sovereign territory. Peru said this was just another step in its plans to bring the dispute to the International Court of Justice in The Hague. In January 2008 Peru asked the court to consider the dispute, prompting Bachelet to summon home the Chilean ambassador in Lima for consultations.
UN voting deadlock
Chile's October 16, 2006 vote in the United Nations Security Council election—with Venezuela and Guatemala deadlocked in a bid for the two-year, non-permanent Latin American and Caribbean seat on the Security Council—developed into a major ideological issue in the country and was seen as a test for Bachelet. The governing coalition was divided between the Socialists, who supported a vote for Venezuela, and the Christian Democrats, who strongly opposed it. The day before the vote the president announced (through her spokesman) that Chile would abstain, citing as reason a lack of regional consensus over a single candidate, ending months of speculation. In March 2007 Chile's ambassador to Venezuela, Claudio Huepe, revealed in an interview with teleSUR that Bachelet personally told him that she initially wanted to vote for Venezuela, but then "there were a series of circumstances that forced me to abstain." The government quickly recalled Huepe and accepted his resignation.
In May 2008 Bachelet became the first President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations (Unasur) and in September she called for an urgent summit, after Bolivian President Evo Morales warned of a possible coup attempt against him. The presidents of Bolivia, Ecuador, Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Colombia, and the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, met with Bachelet at the La Moneda Palace in Santiago, where they agreed to send two commissions to Bolivia: one to mediate between the executive and the opposition, and another to investigate the killings in Pando Department.
In February 2009 Bachelet visited Cuba and met with Fidel Castro. There she urged the United States to put an end to the embargo. No Chilean head of state had visited the country in 37 years. The meeting with Castro backfired after the Cuban leader wrote, a day later, that the "fascist and vengeful Chilean oligarchy is the same which more than 100 years ago robbed Bolivia of its access to the Pacific and of copper-rich lands in a humiliating war."
Progressive Leaders summit
In March 2009, Bachelet hosted in Viña del Mar, the "Progressive Leaders Summit", meeting with U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, Spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and Presidents Tabaré Vázquez of Uruguay, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of Brazil and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina. The reunion garnered some media interest because it took place six days before the highly anticipated G-20 Summit in London.
Continuing the coalition's free-trade strategy, in August 2006 Bachelet promulgated a free trade agreement with the People's Republic of China (signed under the previous administration of Ricardo Lagos), the first Chinese free-trade agreement with a Latin American nation; similar deals with Japan and India were promulgated in August 2007. In October 2006, Bachelet promulgated a multilateral trade deal with New Zealand, Singapore and Brunei, the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership (P4), also signed under Lagos' presidency. She also held free-trade talks with other countries, including Australia, Vietnam, Turkey and Malaysia. Regionally, she signed bilateral free trade agreements with Panama, Peru and Colombia.
In October 2007 Bachelet granted an amnesty to undocumented migrants from other Latin American countries. The measure was expected to benefit around 15,000 Peruvians and 2,000 Bolivians. In December 2007 Bachelet signed in Bolivia a trilateral agreement with the presidents of Brazil and Bolivia to complete and improve a 4,700 km road to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, via Arica and Iquique in Chile and Santos in Brazil. In May 2008, following months of intense lobbying, Chile was elected as member of the United Nations Human Rights Council, obtaining the largest vote among Latin American countries. In December 2009 Chile became the first country in South America and second in Latin America after Mexico to receive an invitation to join the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Bachelet signed the accession agreement in January 2010, but it formally became a member in May 2010, after she had left office.
Bachelet enjoyed an approval rating above 50% for her first three months in office, during the so-called "honeymoon period." Her popularity fell during the students protests that year, hovering in the mid 40s. In July she had a disastrous public relations incident when a group of residents she was visiting in the southern city of Chiguayante who were affected by a landslide berated her publicly on television, accusing her of using their tragedy to boost her falling popularity. One woman demanded that she leave the scene so rescue efforts could continue. In July, after only four months in office, Bachelet was forced to reshuffle her cabinet, in what was the fastest ministerial adjustment since 1990.
Bachelet's popularity dipped further in her second year, reaching a low of 35% approval, 46% disapproval in September 2007. This fall was mainly attributed to the Transantiago fiasco. That same month she had a second negative incident when a group of earthquake and tsunami victims she was visiting in the southern region of Aisén received her bearing black flags, and accused her of showing up late. The city mayor, who told Bachelet to "go to hell", later apologized. During the next 12 months her approval ratings did not improve.
At the onset of the global financial crisis in September 2008 Bachelet's popularity was at a low 42%, but gradually her job approval ratings began to rise. When she left office in March 2010 her popular support was at a record 84%, according to conservative polling institute Adimark GfK. The Chilean Constitution does not allow a president to serve two consecutive terms and Bachelet endorsed CPD candidate Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle for the December 2009 election.
On 14 September 2010, Bachelet was appointed as head of the newly created United Nations body UN Women by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. She took office on 19 September 2010. On 15 March 2013 she announced her resignation.
On 27 March 2013, Bachelet announced that she will seek a second term as President of Chile during the 2013 elections. The well-respected CEP poll, released in May 2012, suggested 51% of voters want her to become the next president, head and shoulders above any other would-be candidate.
On 30 June 2013, Bachelet became's the New Majority's candidate for president after she won a four-way primary election with the support of 5 center and left parties (PS, PPD, PC, IC, MAS) and 73% of the vote.
Awards and media recognition
- Ranked 17th most powerful women in the world by Forbes magazine in 2006 (she was #22 in 2009, #25 in 2008, and #27 in 2007.)
- Defense of Freedom and Democracy Award by Ramón Rubial Foundation (January 2007).
- Ranked world's 15th most influential person by TIME magazine in 2008.
- Shalom Award by the World Jewish Congress (June 2008).
- Maximum Leadership Award (Argentina, October 2008).
- Global Trailblazer Award by Vital Voices (October 2008).
- South American Football Honorary Order of Merit in the Extraordinary Great Collar degree by CONMEBOL in July 2009. She is the first woman to receive such recognition.
- Woman of the Bicentenary at the 2010 Energy of Woman Awards by Chilectra (April 2010).
- Federation of Progressive Women's International Prize (Spain, November 2010).
- Keys to the City of Miami (November 2010).
- The Association of Bi-National Chambers of Commerce in Florida's 2010 Award for Leadership in Global Trade (November 2010).
- Washington Office on Latin America's Human Rights Award (November 2010).
- Women’s eNews’ Newsmaker of the Decade Award (May 2011).
- Ministry of Defense of Argentina's first Generala Juana Azurduy Award (April 2012).
- Eisenhower Fellowships's Eisenhower Medal for Leadership and Service (May 2012).
- 2012 – "10 Most Influential Ibero American Intellectuals" of the year – Foreign Policy magazine 
- University of Brasilia (April 2006).
- Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala (May 2007).
- University of Essex (April 2008).
- Pompeu Fabra University (May 2010).
- National University of Córdoba (June 2010).
- Catholic University of Córdoba (June 2010).
- Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo (September 2010).
- Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (November 2010).
- University of Paris III: Sorbonne Nouvelle (November 2010).
- Columbia University (May 2012).
- Italy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (October 2007).
- Lithuania: Order of Vytautas the Great with Golden Chain (July 2008).
- Australia: Companion of the Order of Australia (Honorary) (5 October 2012).
- Michelle Bachelet - Symbol des neuen Chile (Ebbo Demant / SWR, 2004)
- La hija del General ["The General's Daughter"] (María Elena Wood / 2006)
- Bachelet, Michelle. 2002. "Los estudios comparados y la relación civil-militar. Reflexiones tras una década de consolidación democrática en Chile", Revista Fuerzas Armadas y Sociedad, 17(4): 29-35.
Notes and references
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- "Los años de Alvear y Bachelet en el Liceo 1". La Tercera (in Spanish). October 10, 2004. Retrieved 2008-01-25.[dead link]
- "Biografía de Michelle Bachelet". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 2006-01-15.
- "Bachelet confirma que Krassnoff participó en su detención". Emol.com. Retrieved 2013-10-09.
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- PBS Newshour - Interview transcript with video
- "The woman taking Chile's top job" (BBC News)
- "The unexpected travails of the woman who would be president" (The Economist - December 8, 2005)
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- "With a New Leader, Chile Seems to Shuck Its Strait Laces" (The New York Times - March 8, 2006)
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