Mor Barsawmo Syriac Orthodox Church. Although now a minority of less than 10% of the population, Christian churches under long term protection of Turks now dominate the skyline of Midyat.
|• Mayor||Şehmus Nasıroğlu (AKP)|
|• Kaymakam||Fatih Akkaya|
|• District||1,054.25 km2 (407.05 sq mi)|
|• District density||100/km2 (260/sq mi)|
Midyat (Kurdish: Midyad, Syriac: ܡܕܝܕ Mëḏyaḏ or Miḏyôyo in the local Turoyo dialect, Arabic: مديات) is a town in Mardin Province of Turkey. The ancient city is the center of a centuries-old Hurrian/Hurrian town in Southeast-Turkey, widely familiar under its Syriac name Tur Abdin. A cognate of the name Midyat is first encountered in an inscription of the Neo-Assyrian king Ashur-nasir-pal II (883-859 B.C.). This royal text depicts how Assyrian forces conquered the city and its surrounding villages. In its long history, the city of Midyat has remained politically subjected by various rulers - from the Assyrian Empire to the modern Turks.
The history of Midyat can be traced back to the Hurrians during the 3rd millennium. Ninth century BC. Assyrian tablets refer to Midyat as Matiate, or city of caves due to the caves at eleth 3 km away from the city where the earliest inhabitants lived. Many different empires had ruled over Midyat including the Mitannians, Assyrians, Armenians, Medes, Persia, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Abbasids, Seljuks and Ottomans.
Due to repeated marauding from invading Mongol and Turkish tribes into Tur Abdin culminating in the end of the 14th, 19th and beginning of the 20th century - the Assyrian population of Tur-'Abdin was severely decimated. The Assyrian Genocide of World War I wiped out large numbers of Assyrians in Turkey.
After the so-called Gastarbeiter ('guest worker') era, though, commencing in the early 1960s, the city was soon to be nearly completely emptied from its native inhabitants who choose to leave for a better life offered in Western Countries. Soon other local Mhallami and Kurdish inhabitants start building houses in the surrounding areas. The churches and houses belonging to Christians have been preserved although many of them are empty. At present some 130 Assyrian Christians families continue to live in Midyat permanently, and they have been joined by at least 300 Syrian refugees fleeing the Syrian Civil War. Some Syrian Jews still remain in Midyat.
From late Ottoman time up to modern time Old Midyat was divided into following quarters (in Syriac: Aš šawṯawoṯo d Mëḏyaḏ):
- Zatte Čalma
- Malke Mire
The Midyat economy similar to that of any small southeastern village in Turkey consisting of carpets, towels and other cloth goods. More specific to the city is its silver crafts called telkari, which are handcrafted filigreed ornaments. Another staple in the Midyat market is its bulgur, which is a cereal food derived from wheat.
Midyat part of the province of Mardin has a semi-arid climate with very hot and dry summers and cold, wet, and occasionally snowy winters. Temperatures in summer usually increase to 40°C - 50°C (104°F - 122°F) due to Mardin being situated right next to the border of Syria. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two. Mardin has over 3000 hours of sun per year. The highest recorded temperature is +48.8°C.
|Climate data for Mardin, Midyat|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.1
|Average low °C (°F)||0.6
|Precipitation mm (inches)||99.8
|Avg. rainy days||10.6||10.6||10.7||9.9||6.6||1.7||0.5||0.2||0.7||5.3||7.4||10.2||74.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||139.5||142.8||189.1||222||310||375||396.8||368.9||315||238.7||174||136.4||3,008.2|
|Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü |
Bargello, Fehmi, I flyktens kölvatten. Jönköping: 1998.
Hollerweger, Hans, Turabdin. Austria: 1999.
- "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
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